Objective: To study knowledge and attitude towards emergency contraception in undergraduate medical students and to evaluate factors affecting it. Method: Pre-validated questionnaire was given to the undergraduate medical students. 1 hr seminar was conducted on emergency contraception for those who did not learn about it. After 7 days, same questionnaire was provided to them. Descriptive statistics and appropriate statistical comparisons were used. Results: Total 316 undergraduate medical students participated in the study.154 students were included in group A (not learnt emergency contraception) whereas 162 students (learnt emergency contraception) in group B. 2 of 154 (1.3%) students of group A showed the adequate knowledge (>75% correct answer) before seminar. After conducting seminar for these students, 20 of 146 (13.7%) students achieved adequate knowledge. Average knowledge of these students was significantly increased after seminar [41±16.88% vs. 59.32±14.46%; P<0.05]. However, it was not achieved up to the level of participants of Group B. Attitude score of group A students significantly improved after attending 1 hour seminar [36.24±10.93 vs. 41.5±10.87; P<0.05]. 36 of 162 (22.2%) students from group B showed adequate knowledge. Average knowledge of group B students was 64.73±12.15% whereas average attitude score was 42.9±9.79. 86.4%, 87% and 89.3% students were not able to describe about emergency contraception, different methods of emergency contraception and advantages of intra-uterine devices over emergency contraception pills, respectively. 82.1% students showed positive interest in learning more about emergency contraception and 70.1% students agreed to recommend use of emergency contraception in future. Students having good knowledge showed more positive attitude towards emergency contraception [r=0.41, P<0.05]. Conclusion: The present study suggests that basic knowledge like indications, correct time limit for administration of emergency contraception, its effectiveness and side effects is proper among undergraduate medical students of our institute. They have difficulties in listing different methods of emergency contraception. They have poor knowledge for special issues arise with emergency contraception during clinical practice and for instructions provided during prescription of emergency contraception. Proper attention should be given to these aspects while teaching them about emergency contraception. Overall attitude of students for emergency contraception is positive and they have shown their positive interest to learn more about emergency contraception.
Golnaz Yadollahikhales is studying medicine at Shiraz University School of Medicine and is going to be graduated by August 2014. He has been granted many awards during his ducation including the best medical student in the country. As his major research interest is elderly disorders, he has conducted research on pathophysiology of memory and Alzheimer’s disease. He has published about 6 papers in ISI journals. His thesis is also about the degenerative deformity of lumbar spine among elderly. He/has also participated in more than 10 international conferences in order to become familiar with the new topics in this field.
Osteoporosis is estimated to affect about 20 million women worldwide. In fact, about one in two women over the age of 50 will break a bone due to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and its consequences can be regarded as a major source of mortality, morbidity, and medical expenditure around the world. It can affect people mental and social health. This study is aimed at investigating the relationship between the anthropometric and lifestyle factors and osteoporosis in post menopausal women. A sample of 503 postmenopausal women participated in the study. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements to calculate body mass index (BMI), and filled out a two-part questionnaire. The first part was about subjects' demographic data; and the second part contained questions relating to subjects’ lifestyle. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and neck region of femur. Then the participants were categorized according to their BMD values of femur or lumbar spine as normal, osteopenic or osteoporotic. Lumbar spine and Femur BMD correlated significantly with age, BMI, and number of pregnancies. Exposure to sunlight showed significant difference among three groups based on lumbar spine site. However, at femur site, diet of fish and poultry, soda consumption and exercise was different among three groups. Aging, low BMI, and numbers of pregnancies were the risk factors associated with osteoporosis in participants. Diet of fish and poultry, restricted amount of soda intake, exercise and exposure to sunlight can prevent osteoporosis.