Day 3 :
- Track 8: Sources, Ecological Problems and Management of Petrochemistry
Track 9: Chemical Applications in Producing Oil and Gas
Location: Texas E
The Petroleum Institute, UAE
Kalliat T Valsaraj
Louisiana State University, USA
The Petroleum Institute, UAE
Time : 09:00-09:20
Hadi Belhaj is a faculty member with the Petroleum Institute teaching varieties of petroleum engineering courses; from Reservoir Engineering to Reservoir Characterization & Modeling to Flow Assurance and Production Chemistry. He has over 30 years of combined petroleum industrial and academic experience with key qualifications in reservoir engineering, reservoir simulation & modeling, sand production control technology, and production technologies. Geographically, his experience is spread over five of the six contents. During the past ten years, he has contributed a number of consortium research proposals dealt with petroleum engineering and energy exploitation challenging issues. This effort generated over $17 Millions of research grants. He has presented over 70 guest speaker lectures, seminars and workshops for both industry and academia. He has authored two books on reservoir simulation technologies and has published over 100 articles.
Asphaltene instability may take place in the reservoir leading to permeability damage and contributing to flow restriction issues. It may also occur in production strings and surface facilities causing conduit clogging. Variation of oil composition, temperature and pressure during production leads to instability of crude oil and asphaltene precipitation. In this study, the stability of target crude oil/diluted crude oil and asphaltene suspensions under the influence of a direct current (DC) are investigated. The amount of the asphaltene deposit and its electrical charge at various operating conditions are investigated. Moreover, the impact of addition of resins into crude oil mixtures is studied. The method consists of applying a DC voltage between two metal electrodes immersed in the crude oil sample. The amounts of deposits buildup on the surfaces of the electrodes are recorded during experiment time utilizing a miniature two load cells connected to the electrodes. Electric field strength up to 250 V/cm is applied. This study confirms that asphaltene colloids are electrically charged. The fact that deposits form on the anode surface proves that asphaltene particles possess a negative charge. Microscopic studies are presented to relate the deposits structure with the operating parameters. The experiment shows that time is a sensitive parameter. At the first 12 hours, more than 70% of the deposition occurs. The rest takes up to four days to deposit. This phenomenon reflects either limited amount of asphaltene exists in the sample, or that the resin content plays a major role in asphaltene colloids charge switch.
Louisiana State University, USA
Time : 09:20-09:40
Kalliat Valsaraj received his M.Sc. in Chemistry from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras in 1980 and his Ph.D. in Chemistry (with Chemical Engineering as Minor) from Vanderbilt University in 1983. He is a Professor in the Cain Department of Chemical Engineering and served as the Department Chair from 2005 to 2011. He holds the titles of Charles and Hilda Roddey Distinguished Professor in Chemical Engineering and Ike East Professorship in Chemical Engineering. Currently he serves as an Associate Vice Chancellor within the Office of Research and Economic Development at LSU. He is the author of 1 textbook (with three editions), 175 peer-reviewed journal articles, 27 book chapters and 2 U.S. patents. His research has been supported by the NSF, EPA, DOE, DOD, USGS and private industries. He is a Fellow of both the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). He recently received the Charles E Coates memorial award from the Baton Rouge sections of AIChE and ACS. He is also the recipient of the Distinguished Research Master award, the highest research award, from LSU.
The use of dispersants is a remediation technique for oil spills in water bodies. It has most recently been used for the remediation of the largest deep sea spill off the coast of Louisiana which involved the BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The use of soil spills for surface applications has been well-known for decades. However, its application for a deep sea spill at the source of the leak at high pressure and low temperature conditions is new. A number of factors regarding the efficacy and design of dispersants for such applications are still not known precisely. A summary of the technology, the areas of applicability and the gaps in the knowledge will be provided. Future research directions will be explored with respect to the fate and transport of oil and dispersants in the deep sea environment.
Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Russia
Time : 09:40-10:00
Guram N. Gordadze is a Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences and Candidate (Ph.D.) of Chemical Sciences, Professor, member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, a laureate of numerous awards, such as the Academician Gubkin Prize (2011), Vernadsky Prize (2010), etc. He is the Head of the Laboratory of Chemistry of petroleum hydrocarbons (Department of Organic Chemistry and Petroleum Chemistry of the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas). Member of Scientific Councils of the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas and VNIIgeosystem. He is a member of editorial board of the journal "Petroleum Chemistry". He is an author of over 300 scientific publications. The areas of my research interests are the origin of petroleum, oil and gas exploration and reservoir geochemistry, the study of biomarkers and cage hydrocarbons (diamondoids), modeling of oil formation.
Processes of petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) formation in literature have been discussing for 200 years. At present time there are two main theories of oil formation: organic (sedimentary-migration) and inorganic (abiotic). It is believed that n-alkanes formed from n-saturated fatty acids by decarboxylation. It is known that in the original organic matter (OM) fatty acids with an even number of carbon atoms in the molecule are prevail. In case sapropelic OM, low molecular weight acids (n-C16, n-C18 and n-C20) are mainly produced and if OM is humus higher molecular (n-C26, n-C28 and n-C30) are produced. It is important to note there are high molecular n-alkanes C23, C25, C27, C29, C31 and C33 in soil OM. Bacterial synthesis of n-alkanes could be accounted by decarboxylation with relatively high temperatures. However, this phenomenon doesn’t support by experiment. In this work we studied, if n-alkanes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the molecule formed by bacteria. The objects of study were the hydrocarbon aerobic bacteria Arthrobacter sp. RV and the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa RM, that are able to both aerobic and anaerobic growth in the process of denitrification. Both strains were grown in a mineral medium with glucose. As a result of vital activity of Arthrobacter sp. RV and P. aeruginosa RM n-alkanes with an odd number of atoms of "C" in the molecule formed. Both strains synthesized n-C7, n-C9, n-C11, n-C13, n-C15 and n-C17. At the same time unsaturated n-fatty acids with an even number of atoms, n-C8, n-C10, n-C12, n-C14, n-C16 and n-C18 are generated in both species of bacteria. Arthrobacter sp. RV and P.aeruginosa RM synthesized unsaturated irregular izoprenan-squalene (2,6,10,15,19,23-geksametiltetrakoza-2,6,10,14,18,22-hexaen). Thus, n-alkanes with an odd number of carbon atoms are dominated not only by decarboxylation process, but during bacterial synthesis.
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Title: Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-vinyl acetate) and its evaluation as filtrate reducer
Time : 10:00-10:20
Elizabete F. Lucas is Chemical Engineer and obtained her D.Sc. degree in Polymer Science and Technology from Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) in 1994. She is Associate Professor at UFRJ since 1994 and has been accumulating a great experience in Polymer Science Applied to Petroleum Production for about 25 years. She is the director of the Laboratory of Macromolecules Applied to Petroleum Production (LMCP), has published 107 scientific papers, presented more than 250 talk/poster at conferences and written 3 books, 1 polymer dictionary, 1 vocabulary of oil chemistry and refining (in 4 languages), 1 book translation and 3 chapters of books. Since she has a strong interaction with petroleum industry, about 90 research reports and 36 technical reports have been prepared. The main studies involve polymer synthesis/characterization/properties, physical-chemistry of polymer solution, rheology of polymers and methods to evaluate the performance of polymers applied to different operations in oil production, from drilling to oil and water treatment. In such field, she has directed 30 master dissertations and 14 doctor thesis, and has 7 master dissertations and 11 doctor thesis under direction.
The drilling fluids of petroleum wells must present different functions, such as filtration controlling. In this work, microparticles of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-vinyl acetate) (MMA/VAc) were synthesized by suspension polymerization and their performance as filtrate controller in aqueous fluids were evaluated. The polymers were characterized by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), particle size analyses, optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA). The poly(methyl methacrylate-co-vinyl acetate) particles were obtained with slight different proportions of MMA/VAc. As expected, all particles presented spherical shape. The glass transition temperatures decreased as the VAc content increased, confirming the rubbery character of the spheres containing higher vinyl acetate content. TGA results showed that the copolymer has the thermal resistance required for the application under study: they lose mass only at temperatures above 146°C. The results of the filtrate reducing test, using ceramic discs with different pore sizes as filter element, showed that the performance of the polymer samples in related to: (1) the average particle size of the polymer samples in relation to the average sizes of the pores of the rock; and (2) the elastomeric characteristic of the polymer, which facilitates the polymer compression in the pores of the rock forming a more efficient grout. On the other hand, the more efficient is the polymer in block the pore rock, the more difficulty is removing the polymer seal to restore the oil production.
Luciana Spinelli Ferreira has completed her Ph.D. at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro 8 years ago. She has been working as a graduate degree professor of Science and Technology of Polymers Program at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Macromolecules Institute. She also works as researcher and project coordinator at Laboratory of Macromolecules and Colloids in Petroleum Industry. She has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals.
The development of nanotechnology has been intensively in recent years and consequently innovative methods have been used. Nanoscale magnetic particles brings a high performance in separation processes due to its high specific surface area and the absence of internal diffusion resistance, moreover they also can be easily recovered with an external magnetic field. Surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles is a challenged key for different applications and can be accomplished by physical/ chemical adsorption of organic compounds. Dyes, pigments and others contaminants present in wastewaters from various industrial branches, such as petroleum industry, represent one of these problematic groups. Palygorskite nanoparticles Fe(III) adsorbed samples were covered by magnetite by a co-precipitation technique using FeCl3.6H2O and FeCl2.4H2O in basic medium magnetizing them. FTIR, TGA, X-ray diffraction and SQUID magnetometer analysis were used to characterize these particles. The results showed strongly support this phase transformation.
Sinopec Exploration Southern Company, China
Title: Key controls on accumulation and high production of large non-marine gas fields in northern Sichuan Basin
Time : 10:55-11:15
Based on the data from multiple sample analysis and tests and exploration practice, key factors controlling gas accumulation,enrichment and high production in the continental Xujiahe-Ziliujing formations in Yuanba, Tongnanba and other areas, northern Sichuan Basin, were discussed. Natural gas in continental strata in this part of the basin are derived from the source rocks in the same strata,which are good - very good source rocks with high abundance of organic matter (mostly type III) and generally high mature - overmature to generate gas. Depending on provenance, multi-period (fan) delta systems are developed in the research area, where the main fluvial channel sands are superimposed in multi periods and distributed extensively, and reservoirs and source rocks form the "lower generation and upper storage" and "inter-bedded" assemblages. Five typical high-yield wells in the Jiulongshan, Malubei and Yuanba areas are investigated and an overall concept for exploration and research in the area is proposed: sedimentary source controls rock types,cementation types and sedimentary microfacies; source rocks control the size and location of gas accumulation; structural types control the magnitude and location of fractures; the combination of fracture and reservoir determines the level and retention duration of gas production. According to this model, the following areas have enriched gas and high production: Xu-3 and Xu-4 members of Xujiahe Formation in the western Yuanba and Jiange, Xu-4 member and Ziliujing Formation in the mid-eastern Yuanba, Zhenzhuchong and Xu-2 members in Malubei and Shabachang in the Tongnanba structure.
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia
Time : 11:15-11:35
Khaled A. Elraies has obtained his Ph.D. degree in record time at the age of 29 years from Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia. He has been appointed as a faculty member in the Petroleum Engineering Department of UTP since January 2011. He supervised five Msc students and acted as the postgraduate studies coordinator of the petroleum engineering department. He is a prolific writer and has authored and co authored over 25 research papers. He has also jointly authored a book chapter on "The Application of a New Polymeric Surfactant for Chemical EOR". His research interests are water injection, chemical EOR, ASP flooding and CO2 flooding.
Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding has shown an incredible interest for enhancing oil recovery for both sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. However, the main constraint of ASP flooding in carbonate reservoirs is the presence of undesired minerals either within the reservoir rock or reservoir brine. These minerals could react with the added chemicals to form their insoluble salts as precipitations. In this paper, the performance of the acrylic acid was evaluated in the presence of sodium metaborate as an alkaline, alpha olefin sulfonate as a surfactant and AN-125 SH as a polymer. The effect of various acrylic acid concentrations on alkalinity, interfacial tension reduction and polymer viscosity were investigated using hard brine with a total salinity of 59,000 ppm. Fluid-fluid compatibility test indicates that acrylic acid has the potential to prevent any precipitation when hard brine is used. The acrylic acid to alkali ratio of 0.6:1 was found to be the optimum ratio for keeping the solution without precipitations for 30 days at 80°C. It was also observed that the combination of ASP with acrylic acid has a positive effect on interfacial tension and solution viscosity. This makes the new system more flexible for offshore application in which hard brine or sea water can be used to prepare ASP slug without any negative effects.
Federal University of Pernambuco-UFPE, Brazil
Title: Catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) using the Al62,2Cu25,3Fe12,5 Quasicrystalline alloy
Time : 11:35-11:55
Lourdes Cristina Lucena Agostinho Jamshidi doing her M.Sc. in Materials Science in UFPB with the theme: Study of Applicability of Catalytic Reactions in quasicrystals AlCuFe in Oxidation of Methanol. She is an expert in Mathematics Teaching by IMPA/UFPB. She has completed her BS in Physics from UFCG with the title search: Photoacoustic Spectroscopy System for Minerals in the Visible and Ultraviolet and Bachelor of Industrial Chemistry by UEPB has with the research: Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in the Visible and Minerals in Ultraviolet. She is currently a Ph.D. student at the Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering from the Federal University of Pernambuco at Ph.D. level with 15 complete articles published in national and international journals.
Dimethyl ether (DME) has been considered a potential and promising energy alternative for petroleum subproducts due to its good burning characteristics, and to its high cetana content which is superior to that of diesel. Furthermore, DME can be considered a cleaner fuel than diesel. DME can be produced by dehydration reaction of methanol by using solid catalysts in catalytic reactions. This study shows an analysis of the performance of Al62,2Cu25,3Fe12,5 quasicrystalline alloy as catalyst for dehydrating methanol to produce DME. These quasicrystalline alloys are stable at high temperatures, show a low thermal conductivity and exhibit a fragile nature, which turn them to be easily crushed. Also, their activity is not affected by water. In this research it were used the following special measurements: (i) X-Ray Diffratometry (XRD) for analyzing the phases evolution of the alloys; (ii) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to study the surface microstructure and (iii) Transmission Electron Microscopy-TEM for studying internal phases; quasicrystal nuclei morphologies, initial defects and for testing methanol catalytic conversion and selectivity. The latter characteristics were also analyzed for DME and for other subproducts formed in the catalyst. The study showed a good performance of the Al62,2Cu25,3Fe12,5 quasicrystalline alloy used as catalyst for DME production.
Texas A&M University, USA
Time : 11:55-12:15
Jia He is a Ph.D. candidate at Texas A&M University in petroleum engineering. His research interests include oil filed scale prediction and chemical treatments, CO2 sequestration, cost effective acidizing treatments, and innovative acid fracturing fluids studies. He has published several SPE papers and journal papers. He holds a BE degree from Eastern China University of Petroleum and MS degree from Texas A&M University, both in petroleum engineering.
Many publications have reported the precipitation of calcium sulfate scale during HCl-based acid treatments. Dissolved calcium ions by acid solution will combine with sulfate ions from seawater (around 3,400 ppm) to precipitate calcium sulfate scale and cause severe damage on the permeability of carbonate reservoirs. The object of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of 6 different types of scale inhibitors on the inhibition of calcium sulfate scale. Scale inhibition efficiency was determined in both batch tests and core flood tests under different temperature conditions (77 to 2500F). Calcium, magnesium, and sulfate ions, and scale inhibitor concentrations were analyzed in the samples from the batch tests and core effluent. In addition, the effect of different factors on the efficiency of each scale inhibitors were discussed, including pH, temperature, sulfate ion concentration and presence of magnesium ions. Results show that application of scale inhibitors can successfully mitigate calcium sulfate scale formation up to 1500F. At higher temperature (up to 2500F), the rate of calcium sulfate precipitation increases and the effectiveness of all types of scale inhibitors decreased greatly. The effectiveness of phosphonate-based scale inhibitors are greatly reduced by high concentration of calcium ions in solution. At 2500F, sulfonated polymer-based scale inhibitor was the most effective ones in various experimental conditions. However, the polyacrylic acid-based scale inhibitor was greatly affected by the concentration of magnesium ions. The findings in this study provide information for better calcium sulfate scale in acid stimulation conditions.
Southwest Petroleum University, China
Title: Numerical simulation on the mechanism of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) process in high water cut reservoirs
Time : 12:15-12:35
In previous laboratory studies, we have shown that Keke Ya light oil reservoir (Tarim Basin, China) has good potential to apply high-pressure air injection (HPAI). However, it should be verified by reservoir simulation approach before pilot test in the oil field. In this paper, we give a comparison study to reveal the performance of HPAI when respectively applied in high water saturation reservoir. The STARS simulator (Computer Modeling Group, CMG) is employed for the HPAI simulations. Keke Ya reservoir petrophysical properties and geological conditions are used as research references for a case study. Simulation targets include the effects of air injection rate and interbedded anisotropic on formation temperature distribution, gas override, gas breakthrough time, and production performance. The obtained results of this study are very promising to broaden the application of HPAI in some complex reservoirs with high water cut and high heterogeneity.