Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering San Antonio, USA.

Day 2 :

  • Track 4: Modeling and Simulation
    Track 5: New Concepts and Innovations
    Track 7: Macro and Nano Science Technology
Location: Texas E
Speaker

Chair

Marko Hakovirta

Auburn University, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Antanas Juostas

Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Lithuania

Session Introduction

Marko Hakovirta

Auburn University, USA

Title: Sensors on paper related products based on self-assembled silica nanostructures

Time : 09:00-09:20

Speaker
Biography:

Marko Hakovirta has a Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Helsinki, Finland and MBA from Emory University, USA. He has worked as a directors funded postdoctoral fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory and as a fellow at CERN. He was also a Research Fellow of the Academy of Finland. He has served as a reviewer for several peer reviewed journals. He has also an extensive industrial background having worked in industry for about 10 years in different leadership positions in corporate strategy, R&D and environmental management. Before joining Auburn University he worked as an Associate Director for IPST at Georgia Tech. He is currently Director of Alabama Center for Paper and Bioresource Engineering and Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Auburn University.

Abstract:

Alabama Center for Paper and Bioresource Engineering has developed a technology that enables diatomites to be used asnanostructured sensor element on the surface of paper and paper related products. The diatomites we use are silica based inorganic material with high surface area and are very low in cost (< $1 per lb). The first application we have developed has been in smart food packaging and is using a novel gas sensor with pH sensitive dies immobilized into the diatomites. In this application the nanosensor elements were applied on paper using a polymer binder. The detection mechanism is based on a distinct color change in the presence of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) emitted in the process of meat and fish spoilage. In our preliminary tests these nanosensors give conclusive correlation between bacteria growth, "sell by" dates, and nanosensor coloration. This technology is considered as a platform technology and several other applications are currently being investigated. One of the most recent applications our research team is looking at is neurotoxin sensor paper that has a detection mechanism based on appearance of distinct color changes on the nanosensor when neurotoxins are not present. We will continue to advance our research also by looking at using ink-jet techniques in scaling up of this technology and by using nano-fibrillated cellulose as a potential binding agent for the sensors.

Speaker
Biography:

Daniela Mainardi is an Associate Professor and Program Chair of Chemical Engineering at Louisiana Tech University; currently holding the Thomas C. & Nelda M. Jeffery Professorship in Chemical Engineering. Mainardi has extensive experience in a large variety of multi-scale molecular simulation tools and has conducted research on different and complementary nano- and bio-technology-related topics with applications to transport and catalysis. Mainardi has received the NSF-CAREER award in 2005 on Modified-Methanol Dehydrogenase Enzymatic Catalysts For Fuel Cell Devices. Mainardi is a senior member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) and the current AIChE Transport and Energy Processes Division Chair.

Abstract:

The high-cost of materials and efficiency limitations chemical fuel cells currently have is a topic of primary concern. Many industries are currently focusing on PEM fuel cells engineering and design for improved performance and durability, and reduced cost. This situation has led to an urgent need for understanding, predicting, and optimizing the various transport and electrochemical processes that occur in PEM fuel cells, where modeling has played a key role. Bioelectrochemical generation of power by enzymes has also been considered. Enzymatic fuel cells have been reported to have power output and stability limitations; which are restricting the use of this kind of fuel cell to small electronic devices. However, understanding how enzymes carry out oxidation processes could lead to the development of new synthetic bio-inspired chemical catalysts that could impact the use of cheap fuels, such as methanol. Challenges associated to a multi-scale modeling approach to model fuel electro-oxidation in PEM and bio fuel cells are discussed here. A combination of tools involving Density Functional Theory, Transition State Theory, Molecular Mechanics and Kinetic Monte Carlo are combined in order to model fuel electro-oxidation. Information regarding energy barriers and preexponential factors needed to determine reaction rates are obtained from DFT and TST respectively. These microscopic reaction rates are then provided as inputs in the kMC program, and the fuel oxidation process is modeled on a 2-D reactive surface representing the catalyst.

Perla B Balbuena

Texas A&M University, USA

Title: Gas separation using metal-organic framework membranes

Time : 09:40-10:00

Speaker
Biography:

Perla B. Balbuena received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. She was Assistant and then Associate Professor at the University of South Carolina, and since 2004, she is Professor of Chemical Engineering, and Materials Science and Engineering at Texas A&M University. Her research focuses on first-principles computational design of materials and processes, with applications to lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells, catalyzed growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes, hydrogen storage, and gas separations using porous materials. She is author of more 180 peer-reviewed articles and co-editor of five books in her fields of specialization.

Abstract:

In recent years, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of nanoporous materials, have received substantial attention due to their special adsorption properties for gas storage and separation. The separation of CO2 from N2 present in flue gas streams is especially significant due to the problems associated with CO2 pollution of the atmosphere. Since gas separation is a combination of thermodynamic and kinetic processes, both adsorption and diffusion properties need to be taken into account. A huge challenge is that CO2 and N2 have similar kinetic diameters (CO2 3.30 Å, N2 3.64 Å), making the separation based purely on size very difficult. On the other hand, the modular nature of the MOFs makes them attractive for introducing specific functional groups which may enhance adsorption selectivity. Additional challenges are due to the chemical and thermal stability of the framework materials and the presence of impurities in flue gas such as water, O2, NOx, and SOx. We review our recent computational efforts in understanding the behavior of MOF materials for gas separations. In particular we will refer to our results using ab initio and density functional theory as well as Grand Canonical Monte Carlo and classical molecular dynamics methods. We will address important practical aspects of MOFs such as the effect of the post-synthesis activation processes, as well as their thermal and chemical stability. In addition, we will introduce a new concept based on shape selectivity for the design of effective MOF materials, and we discuss evaluation of MOF-based membranes using molecular simulation techniques.

Speaker
Biography:

Olusoga Martins Akintunde is from Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of South Carolina, USA.

Abstract:

Reprocessing of the SeisData6 Coastal Plain profile was motivated by the need to provide enhanced subsurface imaging critical to site characterization studies for CO2 storage within the South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin. The objectives were to identify and interpret subsurface reflectors for evidence of the buried Triassic basin and its underlying characteristics. Our new interpretation, supported by analysis of well data, has helped substantiate the presence of a Triassic basin beneath the Coastal Plain sediments in South East Georgia. This basin is about 2.2 km deep and 170 km wide and appears to coincide with the subsurface convergence of the southwest and northeast extensions of the Riddleville and Dunbarton basins that are subsidiaries of the main SGR. It is characterized by distinctively higher seismic velocities relative to the overlying Coastal Plain sediments and manifests a series of sub-horizontal reflectors below the topmost reflector. We reinterpreted the topmost reflector to originate from a change in velocity and density between the Cretaceous Coastal Plain sediments and the underlying Triassic rocks. This does not always originate from the Pre-Cretaceous basalt contrary to previous interpretations. The interpreted absence of basalt from this study is consistent with Heffner et al. (2012) showing that basalt is not prevalent throughout the SGR basin. Absence of basalt implies that erosion, uplift and possibly fault reactivation may have limited the regional extent of basaltic flows extruded during post-rifting and by extension the Eastern North America's magmatism. Structurally, the basin defines an asymmetric half-graben possibly bounded by normal faults. Our data show no clear evidence for the Augusta fault that was identified in other studies in the vicinity of the Piedmont - Coastal Plain boundary in Georgia and South Carolina.

Belachew Tesfa

University of Huddersfield, UK

Title: Emission characteristics of CI engine running with biodiesel

Time : 10:20-10:40

Speaker
Biography:

Belachew Tesfa is a researcher at the University of Huddersfield, UK. He was awarded a Ph.D. in 2011 from the University of Huddersfield in the research area Performance and Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel during Transient Condition. He published more than 25 papers in international conference proceedings and prestigious journals such as Energy, Renewable Energy, Energy Conversation and Managements and Journal of Physics etc. He is currently actively working on alternative fuel, energy, emission reduction techniques, emission models and condition monitoring system of car tire and suspension. He is a member of Institute of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) and he is a charted engineer (CEng).

Abstract:

Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels which is renewable and environmentally friendly and can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. In the present study, experimental investigations were carried out on the effects of biodiesel types and biodiesel fraction on the emission characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine. The experimental work was conducted on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI) and turbocharged diesel engine by using biodiesel of waste oil, rapeseed oil and corn oil and normal diesel. The fuels used in the analyses are B20, B50, B100 and neat diesel. The engine was running for range of engine speeds and loads. Based on the measured parameters, detailed analyses were carried out on major emission such as NOx, CO, CO2, and THC. It has been seen that the biodiesel types (sources) do result in any significant differences in emission. The results also clearly indicate that the engine running with biodiesel and blends have higher NOx emission up to 20%. However, the emissions of CI engine running on biodiesel were reduced up to 15%, 40% and 30% for CO, CO2 and THC emissions respectively as compared to diesel fuel at main operating conditions.

Break: Coffee Break: 10:40-10:55 @ Texas Foyer

Bjorn Kvamme

University of Bergen, Norway

Title: Non-equilibrium modeling of hydrate dynamics in porous media

Time : 10:55-11:15

Speaker
Biography:

Bjorn Kvamme completed his Ph.D. in molecular physics and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in 1984. He was a professor at Telemark University College from 1987 to 1998 and then moved to University of Bergen for 2 years at Chemistry department and professor at department of Physics and Technology from 2000. He is presently running a research group of 12 Ph.D. students, one post.doc and an additional professor. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling are keywords for research that stretched from quantum mechanics up to reservoir scale natural or industrial processes. He has so far published more than 200 review papers.

Abstract:

Natural gas hydrates represents a substantial possible energy source for the future. Unlike conventional hydrocarbon resources hydrates are widely spread globally in offshore deposits and permafrost regions. Hydrates in porous media are unable to establish thermodynamics equilibrium. The reason for this is that local temperature and pressure are given locally by geothermal gradients and hydrostatics (or fluid mechanics in flowing systems). Gibbs phase rule can never be fulfilled for hydrates in a porous media because there are too many phases compared to the 2 degrees of freedom already fixed by nature since also adsorbed layers (mineral surfaces, hydrate surfaces) have impact for the hydrate phase transitions in the pores and have to be accounted for. Practically this implies that reservoir simulators for modeling of hydrate production needs to consider competing processes of hydrate formation and dissociation under the constraints of mass- and heat transport. We therefore propose to use a reactive transport simulator as basis for our hydrate model. Every phase transition that involves hydrate is treated as a “pseudo reaction” with corresponding thermodynamics and kinetics. For this purpose we also developed consistent absolute thermodynamics for all phase involved so as to enable free energy minimization. Kinetic models are developed based on a phase field theory with implicit hydrodynamics and heat transport. Simulation results are extracted and systemized into simplified models suitable for reservoir simulators. The approach is illustrated and discussed for pressure reduction and injection of carbon dioxide as two production methods of methane hydrate.

Speaker
Biography:

Shunsuke Kashiwakura has completed his Ph.D. at the age of 27 years in March 2010 from Tohoku University, Japan. After one-month employment as a postdoctoral fellow, he started working as an assistant professor at Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Japan. As a constituent of his doctoral thesis, he published 9 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Coal fly ash, which is a by-product of coal-fired power plants generally contains various trace elements. Since some of them has been recognized to be hazardous, the Ministry of the Environment of Japan has been regulated the elution concentration of them. The regulation of elution concentration of boron, arsenic, and selenium, which has been listed as hazardous substances, has been 1, 0.01, and 0.01 mg/L, respectively. In this study, the acid washing process developed was applied to the removal of boron, arsenic, and selenium from coal fly ash in order to avoid an excess elution of them to soil. Laboratory- and bench-scale investigations on the dissolution behavior of boron, arsenic, and selenium from various coal fly ash specimens into dilute H2SO4 solvent were conducted with the aid of inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Boron, arsenic, and selenium in the specimens were dissolved into H2SO4 solvents very rapidly; however, in some cases, the concentrations of arsenic and selenium in the solutions decreased with an increase in the pH of H2SO4 solution. The species of arsenic or selenium in the dilute H2SO4 was estimated as H3AsO4 or H2SeO3, and their anionic species was considered to adsorb with the elevation of pH under the presence of ash particle. The sufficient removal of arsenic was achieved by controlling pH and avoiding the adsorption of arsenic on the surface of ash particles, and the elution of them from coal fly ash sample was successfully below the regulation limit.

Speaker
Biography:

Yasuteru Shigeta has received Ph.D. (2000) degrees in chemistry from Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. He was selected as Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Research Fellowship for Young Scientists from up to 2003. He became an Assistant Professor at the University of Tokyo in 2003, a Lecture of Physics at University of Tsukuba in 2007, and an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering, Osaka University in 2010. He has received several awards for his outstanding efforts in theoretical chemistry. He has published more than 120 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

We have proposed a new scheme for estimating the acid dissociation constant (pKa) based on quantum-chemical calculations combined with a polarizable continuum model, where a parameter is determined for small reference molecules. pKa values of variously sized molecules were evaluated ranging from several organic molecules, amino acids, and a protein consisting of 300 atoms. Our scheme can predict a semiquantitative pKa value for specific chemical groups and discuss the influence of the surroundings on the pKa values. Applications to pKa value of the side chain of amino acids almost reproduced the experimental value. We also showed the influence of hydrogen bonds on the pKa values in the case of tripeptides, which decreases the pKa value by 3.0 units for serine in comparison with those of the corresponding monopeptide. Finally, with some assumptions, we derived the pKa values of tyrosines and serines in chignolin and a tryptophan cage. We obtained quite different pKa values of adjacent serines in the tryptophan cage; the pKa value of the OH group of Ser13 exposed to bulk water is 14.69, whereas that of Ser14 exposed not to bulk water is 20.80 because of the internal hydrogen bonds. We also apply the same methodology to estimate standard hydrogen electrode and redox potentials for several ractions. This scheme also reproduces well the redox potentials of several typical reactions within almost 0.1 V. Density functional theory-based methods also give excellent redox potentials of the same reactions with almost the same accuracy with our new computational scheme.

Speaker
Biography:

Sergio M Hanriot is from PUC Minas, Brazil.

Abstract:

This work analyzes a diesel engine behavior when fuelled with diesel oil and hydrogen. Analytical and experimental analyses were performed. The experiments were carried out in a diesel power generator. An electronic system was developed to control the injection of hydrogen in the intake manifold, with partial replacement of diesel oil. The engine was fuelled in bi-fuel mode with hydrogen concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Temperature and pressure were measured at various points of the system. Intake air mass flow rate, diesel oil, hydrogen mass flow rates, and the electric power generated were measured. The results showed that the partial replacement of diesel oil by hydrogen leads to increased thermal efficiency and reduced diesel oil consumption and the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. The analytical model was appropriate to quantify the hydrogen and diesel oil mass flow rates into the engine operating in bi-fuel mode.

Antanas Juostas

Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Lithuania

Title: Engine performance during field works and tractors operational period

Time : 12:15-12:35

Speaker
Biography:

Algirdas Janulevicius is an Associate Professor in Institute of Power and Transport Machinery Engineering at Aleksandras Stulginskis University (ASU). He completed Doctor of Science in 1993. He works as an Associate Professor from 1997. He was author or co-author of more than 100 scientific publications, and made 39 inventions. His research interests are transport and power machinery parameters from dynamic, economical and economical point of view.

Abstract:

There is ecological and economic importance for the tractors to be operated correctly: time of engine idling, operation at low and too high loads or high speeds should be shortened. To monitor tractor's operating performance, tools and techniques are necessary that would allow to determine the controlled indicators. Such problems are dealt with in this research. The research result gives an overview of possibilities to determine the values of tractor's fuel consumption, exhaust emissions and engine load in real operating conditions by using data accumulated in electronic control units. The proceeding presents research of tractors (Massey Ferguson MF 6499) engine load factor, fuel consumption and engine exhaust emissions within their operational period and during specific field works (ploughing, seeding and other field works). Histograms are presented that show time intervals of the ploughing and seeding process, fuel consumption and emission components (CO2, NOx and CO) in engine speed and cyclic fuel injection modes as well as within tractors operational period. Test results are analyzed separately for the processes of technological ploughing and works at headlands. Test results showed that in the ploughing process, the main amount of fuel was consumed and CO2 emitted during technological process of ploughing, and CO - during the work at headlands. As well proceeding presents average fuel consumption and CO, CO2 and NOx emission within tractors operational period. Detail information on the engine modes that are most used in the operation of tractors, their fuel consumption and exhaust emissions would motivate tractor designers and manufacturers to search for a new direction of technology development in order to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions harmful effects on the environment, and also would help to reveal them.

Break: Lunch Break 12:35-13:25 @ Lone Star West

Sarika Verma

CSIR- Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, India

Title: Development of advanced hybrid geopolymeric substrate materials for removal of phenol from aqueous solutions

Time : 13:25-13:45

Speaker
Biography:

Sarika Verma is a Chief Scientist from CSIR- Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, India.

Abstract:

Conventionally the activated carbon prepared using synthetic activated charcoal and agricultural waste has been used as adsorbent for removal of phenol. However the removal efficiency of these materials is limited. To improve the removal efficiency, there is an urgent need to develop novel substrate materials capable of exerting synergistic action of organic and inorganic hybrid materials. The unique characteristics of Geopolymeric materials are attracting attentions of materials scientist all over the world for further extending its application spectrum. Geopolymeric materials are basically inorganic polymeric materials. Recently the authors have developed a novel process for making advanced hybrid geopolymeric materials using industrial and agricultural waste namely fly ash and rice husk as a resource materials for obtaining precursor for organic and inorganic species and filed a patent application for the same in India and USA. In the present research work the developed novel hybrid geopolymeric material have been studies for its potential for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions. The novel hybrid materials contain inorganic and organic moieties having varieties of functional linkages capable of sorption of Phenol molecules. The novel hybrid material based substrate material has been characterized by Infra red spectroscopy and the phenol removal efficiency has been evaluated using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Removal efficiency up to 90% has been achieved using the novels substrates materials. The results of these studies are presenting in this paper.

Speaker
Biography:

Ali Garrouch is the Chairman of Department of Petroleum Engineering Department, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

Abstract:

A supervised feed-forward back-propagation neural network model has been developed for estimating the recovery performance of a reservoir subjected to a surfactant polymer (SP) flood. The optimal network paradigm has been designed by conducting extensive experimentation on the proper number of hidden layers, and of neurons in each of these layers. The optimal multi-layered network topology consists of an eighteen-neuron input layer, three eleven-neuron hidden layers, and a four-neuron output layer. The network input consists of 18 dimensionless groups that critically dominate the displacement efficiency of SP floods. These groups account for the effects of surfactant slug size, polymer slug size, surfactant concentration, surfactant/oil bank mobility ratio, polymer/surfactant mobility ratio, surfactant and polymer adsorption, interfacial tension, reservoir heterogeneity, relative permeabilities, capillary pressure, waterflood residual saturations, the optimal salinity in the three-phase region, gravity, and rock wettability. Principal component analysis indicated that all of these 18 dimensionless groups were essential for scaling SP floods. The network output consists of the oil recovery at 0.75, 1.5, and 2.25 pore volumes injected (PVI), along with estimates of the breakthrough dimensionless time. The network model has been trained on a data set consisting of 499 simulations, generated using a three-dimensional compositional chemical flood simulator. Tertiary chemical floods constitute 90% of the simulation runs. The rest of the simulation cases are secondary chemical injections. The optimal network architecture was able to estimate back the oil recovery from the training set within 1.5% average absolute error. The ANN model was able to predict the oil recovery for a blind-test data-set of 125 simulated field cases within approximately 3% average absolute error. With these remarkable results, the ANN model outperformed the non-linear multivariate models available in the literature. Compared to using extensive numerical modeling based on detailed knowledge of the oil reservoir, the use of the introduced ANN model saves significant amount of time needed for the performance prediction of surfactant-polymer floods. The ANN model may, therefore, be used as a valuable tool for the preliminary assessment of oil reservoirs with respect to their suitability for surfactant-polymer flood.

Speaker
Biography:

Francesco Rossi is from Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain. He has completed his Ph D from Mechanical Engineering.

Abstract:

Despite the industrial sector accounts for about a quarter of total final consumption worldwide and great efforts have been carried out to reduce its energy use in the last decades, there are still substantial opportunities to improve industrial energy efficiency. Among those opportunities, energy management systems (EMS) are one of the most successful and cost-effective ways to significantly reduce energy use, energy costs and environmental impact without affecting production and quality. This paper will describe the development of an energy management system for a naphtha reforming plant by the use of a data mining approach. The paper will show how these techniques have been applied to identify key influence variables on energy consumption and to develop an energy performance model of the plant. Energy baseline and energy targets will be derived for the assessment of achieved and potential energy savings. Plant results will show how savings may be achieved after the implementation of the EMS by tracking and adjusting performance against energy targets.

Speaker
Biography:

Jacqueline Pope is a fifth year Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Chemistry at Texas A&M University in College Station, TX. She is an active member of the Texas A&M University Student Chapter of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) and was president of this chapter for the 2012-2013 school year. She is also actively involved in the Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) organization at Texas A&M.

Abstract:

Blends of polyaryletherketones (PAEK), such as polyetheretherketones (PEEK) and polyetherketoneketones (PEKK), with polybenzimidazole (PBI) are of commercial interest due to their improved high-temperature stability and wear properties. Regarding the PBI component, the origins of the properties that are generally thought to be disadvantageous in thermally or chemically aggressive environments are not well understood. The same accounts for the specifics of the interactions between the PBI and PAEK components in melt or dry blend systems. In this presentation, we focus on the morphological and molecular changes of PEEK-PBI and PEKK-PBI blends after treating them with liquid water and steam at elevated temperatures and pressures. The pure polymer components and the PAEK-PBI (60:40 and 50:50 wt%) blends are steam-treated at 149°C (300°F) and 316°C (600°F). The goal is to understand the chemical changes on the molecular scale that might take place upon high-temperature steamtreatment and to examine the reversibility of moisture uptake of this material when exposed to water or steam. In this contribution, IR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy are used to study chemical or morphological transformations of the polymers. The changes detectable by 13C CP/MAS upon steam-treatment and their reversibility will be discussed. Interactions and reactions of the water with the functional groups of the polymer components have been studied using deuterated water in combination with IR, 2H and 15N MAS, and 1H wideline NMR spectroscopy.

  • Track 6: Chemical Reaction Engineering and its Applications
Location: Texas E
Speaker

Chair

J G Parsons

University of Texas-Pan American, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Toshihiro Moriga

The University of Tokushima, Japan

Session Introduction

J G Parsons

University of Texas-Pan American, USA

Title: Oxidation of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone using transition metal oxides

Time : 14:45-15:05

Speaker
Biography:

Jason G. Parsons received his Ph.D. in 2003 from the University of Texas at El Paso in Environmental Science and Engineering. In 2009 he Parsons joined the Department of Chemistry at the University of Texas-Pan American as an Assistant professor of Chemistry. He has published more than 70 manuscripts in reputed Journals and is a member of the editorial board of the Microchemical Journal.

Abstract:

In this report we outline the possibility of using two transition metal oxides, molybdenum(VI) oxide and tungsten(VI) oxide as catalysts for the oxidation of sulfur containing compounds in organic solution. Presently, oxidative removal of sulfur from feed stocks can be achieved through the addition of a peroxide or organic acid or a combination of both. However, the oxidation of sulfur in dibenzothiophene can be achieved in organic solution using only molybdenum(VI) oxide and tungsten(VI) oxide without the addition of an organic acid or a peroxide to the reaction mixture. Presently we have been focused on the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reactions for both metal oxides. The present reaction progress was followed using GC-MS, with both metal oxides studied at temperatures from 125-165°C, using a starting concentration of 10,000 ppm DBT. These studies showed that approximately 96-98 percent of the dibenzothiophene is oxidized to dibenzothiophene sulfone. Furthermore from the kinetic studies it was shown that the reactions followed first order or pseudo first order kinetics. In addition, mole ratio studies have shown that the catalysis are effective from 0.05:1 to 1:1 ratio of catalyst: dibenzothiophene with a minimum oxidation observed of 75%. Furthermore, thermodynamic studies showed that molybdenum(VI) oxide and tungsten(VI) oxide had activation energies of approximately 70 KJ/mol.

Break: Coffee Break: 15:05-15:20 @ Texas Foyer
Speaker
Biography:

Toshihiro Moriga has received his Dr,Sci. from Osaka University and had his sabbatical staying at Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University in 1996 and 1997, IL. He is now a Professor of the University of Tokushima and active in an international exchange coordinator of University of Auckland, NZ and some Indian universities and institutions (University of Pune, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University in Aurangabad and C-MET, etc.). He has published more than 130 papers in peer-reviewed journals and serving as an editorial board member of Journal of Ceramic Society of Japan and International Journal of Metals.

Abstract:

We have demonstrated that a color of the perovskite-type LaTiO2N oxynitride could be tuned from orange through yellow andgreen to pale gray or white by proper adjustment of the O/N ratio. This is because the width of the bandgap is controlled by the extent of overlap of the valence orbitals, O2p and N2p ones. LaTaON2, which contains more nitrogen amount than LaTiO2N, can be expected as the redder pigment. However, the ionic size of La3+ seems to be so small for accommodating the ideal perovskite that the crystal structure may be deformed to be monoclinic system. Distortions to bond angle of Ta-(O,N)-Ta were reported to make the bandgap wider. Such distortions are not preferable to prepare the redder pigments. In this study, we prepared solid solutions of La1-xBaxTa(O,N)3 and the compositional variation of optical properties as well as structural ones were examined. We also studied the effect of addition of NaCl as a flux during nitridation on the particle size and the distributions. LaNbON2, whose nitrogen amount is larger than that of LaTiO2N as well, should be one of the redder pigments. Niobium is one of the candidate substituent for titanium as an electron donor since the stable valence state of niobium would be pentavalent whereas that of titanium is tetravalent. We also examined anion composition and optical properties of solid-solution of LaTi1-yNby(O,N)3 and will discuss difference in ways of variation of optical properties against the substitutions mentioned above.

Speaker
Biography:

Takahiko Ban has completed his Ph.D. at the age of 27 years from Nagoya University and postdoctoral studies in Department of Chemical Engineering in Yamagata University and Doshisha University. He moved to Osaka University in 2011 and is currently developing and characterising self-propelled soft matters. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Controlling of droplet motion has great promise for diverse potential applications, ranging from target drug delivery to environmental remediation. Such flow can be created by several ways including the thermal, electrostatic, electrochemical, optical, and chemical methods. Among them, the chemical methods can induce droplet motion without any external forces and control its motion with stimulus-responsive functions. Moreover, nano/micro synthetic solid objects have been developed on the basis of combing the concepts of autonomous chemical power generation and asymmetrical catalytic reaction over the past decade. Therefore, chemical methods are considered to be most preferable method in the development of self-propelled objects for accomplishing particular tasks in microscopic spaces beyond the control of external forces. In this study, we show the pH-dependent motion of the oil droplets loaded with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA) in the size of the droplets from 500 µm to 1 cm. When the initial value of pH is adjusted such that pH exceeds the threshold at the equilibrium state, the droplets move spontaneously. Thus, the mobility of the droplet can be switched on/off as a function of pH. It was seen that the droplets was independent of the material of the solid substrates because the droplets were not directly in contact with the surface of the substrate. The condition for the onset of this spontaneous motion was verified by comparing the prediction from the linear stability analysis with experiments.

Romain Lemaire

Universite Lille Nord de France, France

Title: Study of the sooting propensity of different oxygenated biofuels

Time : 16:00-16:20

Biography:

Romain Lemaire has completed his Ph.D. at the age of 25 years from Lille University in France. After working as a Process & Development engineer in the chemical industry, he joined Mines Douai (a French engineering school) where he developed an experimental laboratory dedicated to the study of fuel oxidation and coal combustion under oxygen enriched air. He is now co-director of the Industrial Energetic Department in charge of research activities. He has published several papers focusing on fuels and biofuels combustion in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Effects induced by the use of different oxygenated biofuels as additive or substitute on the soot formation process have been studied using a laboratory-scale test bench allowing the standardization of liquid fuels turbulent spray flames. Investigations have been carried out by coupling Laser-Induced Incandescence and Fluorescence (LII/LIF) to obtain mappings and concentration profiles of soot and soot precursors (including light soot precursors and high-number ring aromatic species). The influence of the oxygen moieties on the sooting propensity has been analyzed through the study of the correlation existing between the peak soot volume fraction measured in flame conditions and the Threshold Soot Index (TSI) or the recently proposed Oxygen Extended Sooting Index (OESI) of the tested fuels. Such a methodology allowed the identification of the effects involved in the soot reduction observed when adding biofuels to conventional gasoline or Diesel (i.e. the dilution and the oxygenated functional group effects). Finally, different LII models have been developed and confronted to data collected in well characterized flames. Such models are based on spatial and temporal discretization of the mass- and energy-balance equations involved in the excitation process of soot particles by a laser source. Inverse methods have then been used to evaluate some physical properties of soot such as their diameter and their absorption function at different heights in the studied flames; such data being of interest to better understand the evolution of soot properties as a function of their formation stage depending on the nature of the burnt fuel.

Speaker
Biography:

Chen Zhonghong completed his Ph.D. at the age of 28 years from China University of Petroleum, and studied biomarkers in Stanford University during 2009.6~2010.6. He is an associate Professor, and his research field is oil and gas geology, now particularly interest in molecular biomarker. He has published more than 40 papers in professional journals as the first author.

Abstract:

The effect of burial related maturation on the molecular maturity ratios C29ββ/(ββ+αα) and C2920S/(20S+20R) have been studied in the Dongying Sag, a lacustrine rift basin in the Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China. At depths between 2800 and 4000m in the Depression, source rocks are present in the Paleogene Shahejie Formation. The source rocks comprise fresh to brackish water mudstones in Member 3 and evaporites deposited in a hypersaline setting in Member 4. Bulk geochemical data define the hydrocarbon generation threshold at a depth of about 2800 m. Molecular maturity parameters in general proceed to equilibrium values with increasing burial depth but may be inverted in hypersaline intervals. Progressive changes in molecular maturity parameters are associated with major changes in related biomarker concentrations. Increases in the ratios C29ββ/(ββ+αα) and C2920S/(20S+20 R) result from differences in the relative rates of generation and thermal degradation of the isomers involved: The transformation of 20R is faster than that of 20S, including some transformation from 20R to 20S; and αα isomers thermally degrade more rapidly than ββ isomers, including some transformation from αα isomers to ββ isomers. The inversion of molecular maturity parameters indicates that biomarker isomerzation and thermal degradation has been inhibited or retarded in hyper-saline sedimentary environment in which evaporitic rocks deposited. The minerals in evaporites also retarded the conventional thermal indicators including vitrinite reflectance (Ro) and pyrolysis peak temperature Tmax, which also show their another type of inhibition from overpressure. No evidence showed the inhibition due to overpressure on the biomarker thermal indicators C29ββ/(ββ+αα) and C2920S/(20S+20R). This observation will help with the interpretation and application of molecular maturity parameters in similar saline lacustrine basins.

Philip Engelhardt

Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Germany

Title: Mobile fuel cell system based on a diesel steam reformer and a PEFC

Time : 16:40-17:00

Biography:

Philip Engelhardt has studied architcture and energy engineering at Dartmouth College and RWTH Aachen University and has completed his PhD from RWTH Aachen University. After working as a project engineer at Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, he is currently engaged at the intersection between engineering and modern architecture at the Institute for Building Technology at RWTH Aachen University. He has published several papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a reviewer for the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.

Abstract:

Fuel cell systems based on diesel steam reforming and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) offer a great potential for auxiliary power units (APU) in mobile applications. In a joint research project with partners from industry, Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH is developing an integrated fuel cell system for mobile power generation in caravans and yachts. The system is based on a diesel steam reformer and allows the operation of low-temperature (LT-) as well as high-temperature (HT-) PEFC. In preceding investigations of the author's group, coupled operation of a steam reformer with an LT-PEFC was demonstrated using a sulfur-free surrogate fuel. Furthermore, the results of a fuel processor optimization regarding start-up, system integration, reformer geometry, and reformer catalyst performance have been reported. The focus of this work is the coupled operation of the steam reformer and an LT-PEFC using logistic diesel from a gas station as a fuel. An optimized reformer catalyst was used for these investigations, which has shown excellent performance with regards to fuel conversion for a thermal input of up to 10 kW even at reformer temperatures as low as 700°C. A single-stage preferential oxidation reactor was included to achieve the CO concentration required by the LT-PEFC. The effect of sulfur and residual hydrocarbons on the PEFC performance was investigated. The system design was optimized for fast system start-up and high system efficiency. Based on the results of the optimization, an autarkic fuel processor with balance of plant components for stand-alone operation is developed. This research and development project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi, FKZ 03ET2052A).

  • Track 10: Energy, Environment and Water nexus
Location: Lone Star East
Speaker

Chair

Abbas Ghassemi

New Mexico State University, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Ali A Al-Homaidan

King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

Session Introduction

Randy Shaw

Bureau of Reclamation, USA

Title: Presentation of the brackish groundwater national desalination research facility

Time : 09:00-09:20

Speaker
Biography:

Randy Shaw from Bureau of Reclamation, USA.

Abstract:

BGNDRF is a unique, federally-owned research facility located in Alamogordo, NM. Some of the technologies tested at this facility since its opening in 2007 are zero discharge desalination, electrodialysis reversal, pressure retarded osmosis, capacitive deionization, and solar distillation. The mission of BGNDRF is to conduct research for the development of: concentrate management solutions, renewable energy desalination hybrids, desalination technologies for produced waters and small-scale desalination systems. Additionally, BGNDRF's mission includes public outreach and education concerning desalination. The facility consists of a central research building located on 40 acres containing four brackish water wells, test areas, and evaporation ponds. There are several levels of testing service available to clients. Clients consist of universities, private sector companies, international companies, and other government agencies.

Speaker
Biography:

K Guerra is chief scientist at Bureau of Reclamation, USA.

Abstract:

During oil and gas extraction, large quantities of water are generated as a waste by-product. Water management strategies are necessary to enhance petroleum production while protecting the environment from damage caused by discharges of untreated brackish water. Produced water represents a large, presently under-utilized, "new" water supply mostly generated in water scarce areas. By applying treatment and appropriate conveyance strategies, there is a high potential, as well as economic drivers, to put this water to beneficial use to augment limited, conventional water supplies. Because of the unique conditions under which produced water is generated, special considerations must be taken into account when selecting treatment technologies. The majority of produced water is generated in remote locations with minimal personnel on-site. Therefore, treatment technologies must be robust, reliable, and require minimal operator maintenance and treatment chemicals. High water recovery and low residuals generation is also important because disposal is costly and difficult. Additionally, produced water is generated at individual well-sites with finite life-spans, therefore, treatment equipment must be mobile to move from site to site, modular to accommodate changing water volumes, and flexible to treat a wide range of water qualities. No single treatment technology exists to accomplish all of these design challenges, therefore, hybrid combinations of technologies consisting of pretreatment, desalination, post treatment, and brine minimization are considered. This presentation describes beneficial uses of treated produced water, technology selection and design criteria, and examples of successful produced water treatment plants from the Western United States.

Leili Abkar

New Mexico State University, USA

Title: Different approaches on energy optimization in reverse osmosis desalination plant

Time : 09:40-10:00

Speaker
Biography:

Leili Abkar is graduate student in the department of chemical engineering-NMSU. She graduated from school of chemical engineering-Iran University of Science and Technology at master level and her bachelor degree is from Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic). Also, she worked as R & D employee in the field of desalination for 3 years. Meanwhile she became familiar with different method of desalinations. Currently, she is working as research assistant with the Institute for Energy & the Environment under supervision of professor Ghassemi on water desalination processes integrated with renewable energy.

Abstract:

Clean water and energy are two major of concerns in today world and it becomes more significant due to the climate change and population growth. Membrane-based desalination has became a very common method to provide water, but the cost of water production should be affordable. Energy is the main cost component in desalination economics. The more energy consumption, the more water production cost. Therefore, producing water with low cost and without using conventional fossil fuel is of great importance. In this paper, approaches to minimize energy consumption in reverse osmosis desalination is presented. These approaches include design and configuration of plant, energy recovery device tools and new hybrid technologies like forward osmosis and pressure retarded osmosis. Utilizing energy recovery devices and design of system have shown to be effective in order to decrease energy usage and consequently final cost of water. Although applying hybrid methods need more investigation especially in inland area which is far from ocean or sea water, they seem promising.

Pedram Mohrdar Ghaemmaghami

New Mexico State University, USA

Title: Review on aqueous lithium Li-ion battery

Time : 10:00-10:20

Speaker
Biography:

Pedram Mohrdar Ghaemmaghami is working on his Ph.D., at Chemical Engineering Department of New Mexico State University. He got his master in Material Science Engineering from New Mexico Tech and his bachelor in Material Science Engineering from University of Tehran-Iran.

Abstract:

With increasing world population, the rate of using fossil fuels to produce energy has also increased rapidly. Because the use of fossil fuels releases green house gases such as CO2 , the development of environmentally friendly energy like the combination of renewable energy with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries becomes important. Lithium-ion batteries have been commercialized for two decades. These batteries perform well but some problems still remain. Usually rechargeable lithium-ion batteries contain flammable organic electrolyte, which can be a fire hazard and is not environmentally friendly. Another important problem is the high manufacturing cost of these organic electrolytes. In the middle of 1990s, Dahn and his research group published a study which proposed a new type of battery that uses an aqueous electrolyte instead of an organic electrolyte. This new electrolyte does not present a fire hazard and instead is cheap, safe and environmentally friendly. The major problem for developing is that the energy density of this battery is lower than the non-aqueous battery. Although much research has occurred on aqueous Lithiumion batteries since 1990, none of them have shown properties that are comparable with non-aqueous lithium batteries.

Speaker
Biography:

Nasser is now doing Ph.D. at New Mexico State University, Department of Chemical Engineering. He is Research Assistant in Institute for Energy & the Environment, IEE, which is a multidisciplinary, energy and water resource serving the Southwest and beyond. He is doing research on synthesis of advanced material exhibiting prominent adsorption capacity on CO2.

Abstract:

Changing temperature patterns have long been known to have impact on precipitation patterns over specific regions around the Earth. For instance, El Niño which is prolonged periods of excess rainfall in the southern US and La Nina which is associated with drought in this region are all in close relation with increase in greenhouse gas emission. Therefore, any attempt in CO2 capture and storage will indirectly lead to improve water availability and drought around the world. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are new generation of porous crystalline structures with huge specific surface area and, hence, capable of being applied as gas adsorbent and catalyst. Adsorption and catalytic properties of MOFs are still subject to be improved by post-synthesis modification (PSM) which includes imparting functional groups to the organic backbone of MOF structure. As a part of this study, imparting hydroxyl group to the structurally robust MOF, ZIF-7 and evaluation of effect of the PSM on CO2 adsorption are aimed. Another approach to the PSM of MOFs is doping an agent, e.g. a catalyst, inside the pores of MOFs results of which are synthesis of catalyst in nano scale as well as immobilization of the particles to prevent agglomeration. In the second part of this study, it is planned to grow metal oxides inside ZIF-8 structure and evaluate MOF-metal oxide composite performance in CO2 chemisorption process, carbonation-calcination cycle.

Break: Coffee Break: 10:40-10:55 @ Texas Foyer
Speaker
Biography:

Leili Abkar and Kwonit Mallick are graduate students in the department of chemical engineering. They are currently working as research assistants with the Institute for Energy & the Environment on water desalination system with renewable energy.

Abstract:

Water and energy cannot be considered separately, they are interrelated issues. The most significant problem associated with desalination systems, specifically Reverse Osmosis systems, is energy consumption. In reverse osmosis system, high pressure pump is the most energy intensive part. Providing the required energy for the high pressure pump helps to reduce the operating cost and as a consequence cost of producing water. The main objective of our research is optimizing the energy consumption and producing water. The more water production simultaneously the less energy consumption the higher performance will be achieved. Also, in arid areas that there is no access to grid electricity with enough amount of sun, the most proper solution for providing water is solar desalination system. In this paper, optimization of the photovoltaic-powered RO in respect to performance, energy efficiency and economic assessment is investigated. Performance evaluation in terms of flux and recovery is investigated. Energy consumption of the photovoltaic-powered RO is calculated and compared to grid- powered RO.

Azadeh Ghorbani

New Mexico State University, USA

Title: Developing a mechanistic transport model for electrodialysis reversal process

Time : 11:15-11:35

Speaker
Biography:

Leili Abkar and Kwonit Mallick are graduate students in the department of chemical engineering. They are currently working as research assistants with the Institute for Energy & the Environment on water desalination system with renewable energy.

Abstract:

Water and energy cannot be considered separately, they are interrelated issues. The most significant problem associated with desalination systems, specifically Reverse Osmosis systems, is energy consumption. In reverse osmosis system, high pressure pump is the most energy intensive part. Providing the required energy for the high pressure pump helps to reduce the operating cost and as a consequence cost of producing water. The main objective of our research is optimizing the energy consumption and producing water. The more water production simultaneously the less energy consumption the higher performance will be achieved. Also, in arid areas that there is no access to grid electricity with enough amount of sun, the most proper solution for providing water is solar desalination system. In this paper, optimization of the photovoltaic-powered RO in respect to performance, energy efficiency and economic assessment is investigated. Performance evaluation in terms of flux and recovery is investigated. Energy consumption of the photovoltaic-powered RO is calculated and compared to grid- powered RO.

Speaker
Biography:

Waddah Hussein is a master student, pursuing he's degree in chemical engineering in NMSU. He is a graduate research assistant at IEE/WERC working with algae and waste.

Abstract:

Renewable Energy; algae are the best economical choice for biodiesel production, because of its availability and low cost. Microalgae is one of the world recognized oldest life forms and one of the future green energy. The idea of using microalgae as a source of fuel is not new but it is now being taken seriously because of global warming that is associated with burning fossil fuels and the escalating price of petroleum. Microalgae was cultured reusing desalination concentrate and supernatant from anaerobic digested sludge (ADS) to conserve the water resource, energy-dependent nutrient, and reduce inland desalination and microalgae cost. Algae use nutrients from wastewater (such as anaerobic digested sludge) and have a capability to grow in low quality land without competition with the lands that's were specifically used to grow food which reduces the costs of desalination and microalgae production. It provides a treatment for the waste from desalination and reduces the need to buy nutrients for algae. Microalgae requires water, light, CO2, appropriate pH, suitable salinity, macronutrients (nitrates and phosphates), vitamins and trace elements for their growth. Microalgae grow well if all these requirements are available in the appropriate ratio. If freshwater is used without recycling, 3726 kg water, 0.33 kg nitrogen, and 0.71 kg phosphate are required to produce 1 kg of biodiesel. Recycling harvest water reduces the water and nutrients usage by 84% and 55%. Using sea/wastewater decreases 90% water requirement and reduces the requirement of all the nutrients except phosphate. Microalgae require 20.3 L of water, 134 g salt, 147g nitrogen, 20g phosphorus for each kg of dry microalgae to grow. The produced microalgae slurries contain green, protein, nutrient, and moisture that can be fed to cattle by mixing with feed stocks especially in Southwest of the United States (US) where fresh water and green material diminishing.

Saeid Aghahossein Shirazi

New Mexico State University, USA

Title: Innovative method of using brine water to produce energy

Time : 11:55-12:15

Speaker
Biography:

Saeid Aghahossein Shirazi is doing his master in Chemical Engineering at New Mexico State University. He got his bachelor in Chemical Engineering at University of Tehran. He is working on algal biofuel project in Institute for Energy and the Environment (IEE) at New Mexico State University. his research is mostly focused on upstream operations such as optimizing the growth of algae with appropriate media.

Abstract:

Water is an essential resource to sustainable life. Shortage of water to meet daily needs is a reality today for one in three people all around the world. Globally, the problem is getting worse as cities and populations grow, and the demands for water increase. Clean water scarcity underscores a crucial need to desalinate and make use of saline and brackish waters. Use of Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) technology systems has significantly increased over the past two decades. Main problem associated with these methods is concentrate stream inasmuch as disposal of saline concentrate water has negative environmental effects. Hence, any attempt to reduce the volume and make beneficial use of concentrate stream could significantly increase the practical deployment of saline and brackish water desalination. An innovative and unique approach aiming to mitigate this problem is to grow microalgae in concentrate stream disposal. Microalgae can consume nutrients available in reject water to grow and finally be converted to biofuel. As a consequence, to investigate the viability of using concentrate stream in order to grow microalgae some sets of full factorial experiment with completely randomized design arrangement have been designed. In one of the experiments, the growth of Chlorella Sorokiniana using concentrate, BBM, and three levels of concentrate and BBM (25%, 50% and 75%) under 16-h of illumination and the 8-h dark period at 25°C was investigated. Based on research findings, the percentage of biomass increase will be maximized in 25% Concentrate medium.

Speaker
Biography:

Ali A. Al-Homaidan is Professor of Phycology and Environmental Pollution and director of research and postgraduate studies at the College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He received his BSc (Hons.) degree from the University of Riyadh in 1976. In 1982 he gained an MSc from Colorado State University, USA. In 1986 he obtained his Ph.D. from the Department of Botany and Microbiology of the University of Wales, Swansea, UK. Since then, he worked as assistant, associate and full professor at KSU. He supervised many MSc and Ph.D. students and published more than 50 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Heavy metal pollution of the aquatic environment has been considered as a major global environmental problem; due totheir toxicity through food chains. Copper is one among the metals that cause serious problems through pollution. Hence, it is necessary to remove copper from wastewater prior to its disposal. In this context, the economically important micro-alga (cyanobacterium) Spirulina platensis dry biomass was used as biosorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solutions. The biomass was exposed to various concentrations of copper and adsorption of copper by the biomass was evaluated under different conditions that included pH, contact time, temperature, concentration of adsorbate and the concentration of dry biomass. Increased adsorption of copper by the non-living biomass was recorded with gradually increasing pH, and a maximal uptake by the biomass was observed at pH 7. The adsorption of copper was found to increase gradually along with decrease in biomass concentration. Biosorption was found to be at a maximum (90.6%), in a solution containing 100 milligram copper/L, at pH 7, with 0.050 g dry biomass and at 37°C with 90 minutes of contact time. Analysis of the spectrum obtained with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), indicated that the adsorbent has a great potential to remove copper from aqueous media contributing to an eco-friendly technology for efficient bioremediation in the natural environment.

Break: Lunch Break 12:35-13:25 @ Lone Star West
Speaker
Biography:

Leila Karimi attended Sahand University of Technology and earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemical Engineering. She then started her graduate studies at the same university and same field. Leila graduated as outstanding graduate of Chemical Engineering Department at Sahand University of Technology. Upon earning her Master degree in 2009, she started to teach some undergraduate courses from 2009-2011. Then she decided to pursue the doctoral program at NMSU and excel in water desalination. She chose NMSU due to its international leadership in the field of water treatment and the opportunity to work with distinguished researchers from academia, government and industry. She started her research as a member of the research team in Institute for Energy and The Environment/WERC under the supervision of Professor Abbas Ghassemi since August 2011. Her research focus is on selective removal of ions from brackish ground water in electrodialysis pilot and lab-scale. Leila has done several presentations in different conferences on water desalination using electrodialysis since 2011.

Abstract:

Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) is a membrane based separation processes in which cations and anions pass through cation and anion exchange membranes, respectively, under the influence of an electric field. Electrodialysis has been applied in very diverse industrial fields such as brackish and sea water desalination, salt production by concentering sea water or using brine discharged from a reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant, heavy metal recovery from waste water, recovering reverse osmosis concentrate stream, and citric acid separation. EDR process has been utilized for over 50 years for the drinking water production from brackish water sources. Although Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) technology has been commercially used since the early 1960s, the fundamental understanding of this technology is less developed than that of other technologies such as distillation and reverse osmosis. Selectively removal of some ions of interest compared to other ions which present in water has not been studies in details. Drinking water supplies in the Southwestern region of the United States are highly dependent on groundwater sources. Due to an emerging water crisis, brackish groundwater resources have and continue to be considered as a complementary resource for drinking water supplies. However, depending on the location of the available brackish resource, there are different water chemistries to contend with and concentrate issues to address. Depending on the specific chemistry of the given water resource, an appropriate desalination technology can be utilized including technologies such as reverse osmosis, thermal desalination or electrodialysis. Therefore, understanding of selective removal of ions and implication of this understanding would help to reduce the cost of desalination by reducing the number of moles of ions that is removed to get appropriate product water. The objective of this study is to verify the effect of water composition on the ion selectivity of ion exchange membrane at different operating conditions. Lab-scale selectivity studies were performed using a tiny electrodialyzer. Different composition of saline water was examined in order to determine the effect of feed water composition on electrodialyzer's performance. For this purpose different combination of cation and anion exchange membranes were applied. The primary results show that saline water composition affects selectivity of anions and cations in electrodialysis process which can cause significant increase in the process cost.

Fattaneh Naderi Behdani

New Mexico State University, USA

Title: Overview of produced water treatment technologies

Time : 13:45-14:05

Speaker
Biography:

Fattaneh Naderi Behdani is doing her Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering at New Mexico State University. She got her B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Chemical Engineering at University of Tehran. She is working on water desalination project in Institute for Energy and the Environment (IEE) at New Mexico State University.

Abstract:

One of the major requirements for sustaining human progress is an adequate source of water and energy. Large volume of water produced during oil and gas extraction, called produced water, are generated in drought prone locations that are also experiencing an increase in population. Produced water is the largest waste byproduct of the oil and gas industry; at some point the cost of managing the produced water exceeds the profit from selling the oil; however, with appropriate treatment, it can serve as a new water supply in the world. Many different types of technologies can be used to treat produced water. This article reviews current technologies for the management of produced water based on driving force: temperature driving force, pressure driving force, and electrical driving force. It also suggests that treatment technologies based on electrical driving force (ED/EDR) could be the future of the produced water management.

R K Tewo

Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa

Title: Processing of calcium sulphide to calcium carbonate and hydrogen sulphide

Time : 14:05-14:25

Speaker
Biography:

Robert Kimutai Tewo has completed his Bachelor of Technology in Chemical and Process Engineering from Moi University, Kenya and he is a registered graduate chemical engineer with the Engineering Registration Board of Kenya, and currently pursuing Masters of Technology (Research) at Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa at the department of Environmental, Water and Earth Science.

Abstract:

The growing problem of industrial solid waste disposal in South Africa and the rest of the world has become a subject of increasing public environmental concern. In South Africa, the neutralization of acid mine water as well as desalination processes using reverse osmosis, ion-exchange or chemical desalination, produce gypsum and metal hydroxide rich sludges. In addition, 12 000 tonnes of industrial solid gypsum waste are produced every day by the fertilizer industry in South Africa. The recent trend in the closure of landfills, as a preferred method for solid industrial waste disposal, has led to the necessity for the development of innovative ways of converting these solid wastes into usable and saleable products. The purpose of this study was to establish conditions for the chemical processing of calcium sulphide, the product of the thermal reduction of gypsum, into calcium carbonate and H2S.CaS was converted under batch conditions to soluble Ca(HS)2 by contacting it with water and H2S. In the following step the Ca(HS)2 was contacted with CO2 to precipitate CaCO3 and liberate H2S. The following findings were made: (i) CaS has a low solubility of <100 mg/l as CaS; (ii) Ca(HS)2 has a high solubility of >100 g/l (as CaS); (iii) CaCO3 with a purity of 80% was produced when the Ca(HS)2 solution was not filtered and 99% when it was filtered; (iv) the CaCO3 yield amounted to 91% and the H2S yield to 95%. The following process conditions were found to be suitable: (a) CaS concentrations in the range 100 - 300 g/l; (b) agitation speed of 125 rpm - 500 rpm, and (c) H2S feed flow-rate had no detectable effect on the dissolution of CaS; (d) CO2 flow-rate influenced the particle size and structure of the product CaCO3.

Speaker
Biography:

Shanmuga Priya Shanmuga has completed her Ph.D. in 2010 from National Institute of Technology,Tiruchirappalli, India and presently doing postdoctoral research in the field of Solar Photocatalysis in Manipal Institute of Technology,Manipal University,Manipal. She is presently working as an Associate Professor in the Chemical Engineering department. She has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and 50 papers in conferences and has been serving as an editorial board member of reputed journals.

Abstract:

Among food industries, the dairy industry produces the greatest volume of pollutants (generating 2.5 litre of effluent per litre of processed milk) largely attributable to the elevated amounts of water consumed. Dairy wastewater does not generally contain inherently toxic chemical substances. It does, however, host a substantial load of dissolved organic compounds such as proteins, lactose, fat, and minerals. Experiments were performed using effluent from Nandini dairy, Manipal, Karnataka, India having high BOD (2450 mg/l), high COD (4250 mg/l) content, and TOC content (2750 mg/l). Due to the presence of high organic matter, pre-treatment was required before solar photo-catalysis. Apart from developments increasing the photocatalytic reaction rate, the most important progress in solar photocatalysis in recent years has been related to its combination with biological treatment and the application of toxicological analytical methods. Biological treatment using activated Sargassum was used as a post-treatment step resulting in 45% reduction in organic content and decolourization. Parabolic trough reactor was designed for efficient solar photocatalytic oxidation. The reactor consists of aluminium sheet as reflecting medium, acrylic sheet as cover to provide maximum UV transitivity and low ion glass tubes are used as reactor. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic oxidation of organics were investigated. Degussa Nano grade P25 TiO2 was used as a photo catalyst. Recirculation mode was designed for flow of effluent through tubes (held at parabola focal line for line tracing of radiation). Optimization of pH and catalyst dose was done. Maximum reduction of organic content was observed at the normal pH value of the wastewater (pH = 6.8).Hence the above studies can be used as a treatment in high organic wastewater treatment as it effectively reduces the COD content by 95% and it's good for efficient solar treatment (secondary treatment) sufficient for in-situ treatment of wastewater and recycling of water for low-grade applications in the industry.

Break: 17:00-17:45 Poster Presentations @ Austin
17:45-18:45 Cocktails Sponsored by Journal of Chemical Engineering & Process Technology @ Rio Grande