Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering San Antonio, USA.

Day 1 :

  • Track 1: Renewable Energy and Feedstock
    Track 3: Processes for Bulk and Fine Chemicals
Location: Texas E
Speaker

Chair

Thewys Theo

Hasselt University, Belgium

Speaker

Co-Chair

Ildenize Barbosa da Silva Cunha

Thomson Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Brazil

Session Introduction

Anatoly K Khitrin

Kent State University, USA

Title: NMR techniques to study gasoline-ethanol blends

Time : 11:00-11:20

Speaker
Biography:

Anatoly K. Khitrin graduated from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in 1978 and received PhD in 1985 from the Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, where he worked until 1999. Since 2002 he is a Professor of Physical Chemistry at Kent State University, USA. Khitrin’s research interests are spin dynamics and NMR spectroscopy and imaging. He has published more than 100 papers in peer-reviewed journals.

Abstract:

Gasoline-ethanol blends are popular motor fuels today. Presence of ethanol greatly increases solubility of water and all such fuels contain some water. Although a miscibility of gasoline-ethanol-water systems, as well as their performance in motors, has been extensively studied, little is known about these complex systems at a microscopic molecular level. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a microscopic probe, sensitive to molecular organization. In addition to commonly used “fingerprinting” of fuel blends, NMR may offer an arsenal of spectroscopic and pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) diffusion techniques for obtaining detail information on ethanol-water clusters in gasoline, their composition, structure and mobility. We will show that high-resolution proton NMR spectra of undiluted samples, after suppression of radiation damping, can be conveniently used to quantify both ethanol and water in the blends, that the spectra are very sensitive to proton exchange between ethanol and water, and that dynamic NMR and PFG NMR can be used to obtain a unique information about structure and dynamics of the ethanol-water clusters. Besides providing a fundamental knowledge of the mechanism of ethanol hydration in hydrocarbon blends, NMR can become a primary technique for characterization and express-tests for gasoline quality and stability.

Michel Delmas

University of Toulouse, France

Title: The biolignin : Key element of the future lignocellulosic biorefineries

Time : 11:20-11:40

Speaker
Biography:

Michel Delmas has completed his Ph.D. at the age of 24 years from University of Toulouse-France in 1971 and then postdoctoral studies from the University of Montreal. He was Assistant Professor at the University of Phnom Penh-Cambodia, Associate Professor at the University of Sfax Tunisia and, since 1983 Professor at the University of Toulouse. He has published more than 200 papers in reputed international journals and registered more than 60 international patents. (www.biomass-chemistry.com) He has created CIMV Inc. in 1998 to develop his biorefinery technology. (www. cimv.fr).

Abstract:

The CIMV refinery process which allows the separation without degradation of the three main components of the vegetable matter: cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignins is cloned on the oil refining process that first carried out the separation of the various components of crude oil. In the first stage the vegetal matter is treated, at atmospheric pressure, by a mixture of acetic acid and formic acids, which dissolve lignin and hydrolyze the hemicelluloses into oligo and monosaccharides with high xylose content. The raw pulp is filtered. The pulp is then treated with hydrogen peroxide. The commercial value of the raw pulp is close to the eucalyptus chemical pulp and very suitable for bioethanol production. The organic acids are then recycled by evaporation from the organic solution. The remaining extraction liquor is then treated with water to precipitate lignin which is then easily separated by filtration. Without purification, the raw C5 sugars syrup looks like molasses and can be used for C5 production for a lot of industrial applications. Pure C5 sugars can be easily obtain and used for a remarkable bioethanol production. This is the first technology worldwide which allows the transformation of C6 and C5 sugars, from a lignocellulosic raw material, with a quantitative yield. Our lignin showed new unusual linear oligomeric structures. This lignin extracted quantitatively and selectively, named bioligninTM, trade mark of CIMV, is of outstanding interest in chemical and biochemical industries due to its remarkable capacities to substitute weight / weight phenol and carbon black in their industrial uses. Under these conditions, the CIMV biorefinery of lignocellulosic raw materials, like cereal straws, hardwoods, sugar cane bagasse, switch grass, etc.., becomes very profitable, without subsidy, whatever the place in the world. Moreover, it is a perfectly clean technology. A pilot unit is in operation and two demonstration plants are currently under construction.

Louis Pilato

Member of the Society of Advancement of Material and Process Engineering, USA.

Title: Renewable raw materials for phenolic resins

Time : 11:40-12:00

Speaker
Biography:

Louis Pilato is a member of the Society of Advancement of Material and Process Engineering (SAMPE). He was installed as a Fellow of the Society in 2001. He is also a member of the American Chemical Society. Dr. Pilato consults in a variety of Chemical and Materials Science disciplines such as Resin Matrix Systems, Phenolic Resin Technology, and Nanotechnology. He has presented many SAMPE tutorials related to Nanotechnology and Resin Matrix Systems. He is the author of 4 books. The most recent book is titled, "Phenolic Resins: A Century of Progress." It was published in May, 2010.

Abstract:

About 6 million tons of phenolic resins are produced annually worldwide. The attractive resin properties such as excellent dimensional stability to 150°C, excellent chemical and moisture resistance, outstanding fire/smoke/toxicity (FST), and very favorable economics are the contributing factors that have maintained the large volume consumption of phenolic resins. Furthermore these resins can be transformed into a variety of important modified materials such as epoxies, benzoxazines, and cyanate esters. For many decades selected bio-based raw materials have been used in phenolic resins and these include: cashew, tannin, lignin, furfural, linseed oil, tung oil, others. With the continuing cost escalation of crude oil with prices exceeding $140/barrel, renewable sources of phenolic raw material components are desirable. Phenol, the major component of phenolic resins, is derived mainly from petrochemical source - cumene oxidation. Many government, academic, and industrial sponsored programs have been successful in transforming biomass materials into ethanol and biodiesel for transportation fuels. A new biomass process known as BBB and developed by CIMV, to be discussed during this conference by Professor Michel Delmas, provides lignin, known as BioligninTM in high purity and reproducibility. BioligninTM can be transformed into resoles and novolaks. The conditions and resin characteristics of BioligninTM modified phenolic resins and selected transformations will be discussed during the presentation.

Speaker
Biography:

Todsapon Thananatthanachon obtained his Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from Washington University in St. Louis, and then went on to complete his postdoctoral study at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is current an assistant professor in inorganic chemistry at University of Evansville where he teaches and conducts research in organometallic chemistry, green chemistry and catalysis.

Abstract:

One-pot conversion of biomass-derived substrates such as sugar and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) to an alternative liquid biofuel, 2,5-dimethylfuran were achieved catalytically using inexpensive heterogeneous Pd/C catalyst. The process creatively utilized formic acid as a hydrogen source, thus eliminating the use of expensive hydrogen gas. Furthermore, the reaction conditions were optimized to be mild (1 atm, 70°C), comparatively to the current technology. Recent progress on the conversion of biomass using novel homogeneous metal-pincer catalysts will also be discussed.

Speaker
Biography:

Ajaya K. Biswal has completed his Ph.D. at the age of 29 years from Utkal University and postdoctoral studies from Umea Plant Science Center, Sweden and University of Georgia, USA. He is currently working as Assistant Research Scientist at Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, USA. He has published more than 12 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

The major challenge to using woody Populus and C4 perennial switchgrass as energy crops for industrial processing and bioconversion to fermentable sugars is the rigid plant cell wall which is recalcitrant to bacterial and fungal enzymatic hydrolysis. Plant cell walls are comprised of lignin, cellulose, matrix polysaccharides (pectin and hemicellulose) and cell wall proteins. We took a genetic engineering approach to modify matrix polysaccharide synthesis and structure in both Populus and switchgrass. The saccharification efficiency of both the dicot and monocot modified biomass was improved. Furthermore, the ethanol yield from biomass of the modified switchgrass lines was significantly increased in comparison to controls. The reduction in recalcitrance of Populus and switchgrass has the potential to lower processing costs for biomass fermentation-derived biofuels and biomaterial production. The role of matrix polysaccharides in recalcitrance and the implications for saccharification will be discussed. The work was supported by DOE grant DE-AC05-00OR22725 to the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC). The BioEnergy Science Center is a U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Research Center supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the DOE Office of Science.

Break: Lunch Break 12:40-13:30 @ Lone Star West
Speaker
Biography:

Kohki Ebitani is a Chemist of Heterogeneous Catalyst, graduated from Department of Chemistry, Hokkaido University in 1992. He worked for Tokyo Institute of Technology 1992-1996 and for Osaka University 1996-2006. Since 2006, he became a Professor in Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. Now he has published more than 130 papers, 5 text chapters, and 24 reviews. In 2012, the Chemical Society of Japan awarded him for his article (Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn).

Abstract:

Succinic acid (SA, 1,4-butanedioic acid) is a versatile compound capable of producing useful chemicals such as γ butyrolactone, 1,4-butanediol, and tetrahydrofuran. SA has been currently manufactured from 2-butene through maleic anhydride. For the bio-refinery, it can also be produced through fermentation of glucose (a major hexose in hemicellulose). Glucose and xylose (a pentose in hemicellulose) can be converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), respectively, by solidcatalyzed elimination of three water molecules. Recently, we found that biomassderived furans (furfural, HMF, and furoic acid [FuA]) could be converted into SA using Amberlyst-15 as a reusable solid acid catalyst in the presence of 30% H2O2 in water solvent at 348-363 K . The maximum SA yield and H2O2 utilization efficiency of 74% and 85%, respectively, were achieved for the furfural oxidation. A scale-up reaction using furfural (20 mmol) afforded SA with 68% isolated yield. In the oxidation of HMF, 2-oxoglutaric acid (OGA) was formed as co-product, which is converted into SA. This catalytic oxidation process will provide a viable route for SA synthesis because of its easy handling and simple SA isolation.

Norifusa Satoh

National Institute for Materials Science, Japan

Title: Atomic-level precise artificial atom towards the global energy problem

Time : 13:50-14:10

Speaker
Biography:

Norifusa Satoh received his Ph.D. from Keio University with honors in 2006. After serving as a postdoctoral researcher and an assistant professor at Keio University, he moved to National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) as a permanent staff researcher in 2009. During 2011-2013, he is a visiting scientist at Harvard University. Through his wide range of experiences manipulating atoms and electrons in molecular chemistry, he aims to apply the fundamental concepts to oxide-based materials and electronics.

Abstract:

The global energy problems originated from the limitation of fossil fuels are strongly related to the limitation of elemental resources. Not only as energy source, we depend on fossil fuels as carbon source in the chemical industry. Although energy storage is important for long-term energy security, the current energy-storage devices like lithium ion batteries require organic solvents obtained from fossil fuels to smoothly transport ions. Thus, it will be difficult fabricate high-performance energy-storage devices after we lost fossil fuels. On the other hands, energy-generating devices including solar cells necessitate rare metals because the atomic properties naturally determine the material properties. It means that we cannot supply high-efficiency energygenerating devices to all over the world. In short, we cannot fully save the future energy security using the current technologies. As a first step to overcome the obstacles, we fabricate an oxide-based artificial atom through atomic-level control of oxide structure because oxygen is the most abundant element existing as oxides on the earth. Since the oxide-based artificial atoms will lead to (1) artificial materials unlimited by atomic properties in the electronic properties, (2) energy-storage devices free from ion transports, and (3) energy-saving electronics, this will contribute to our sustainable development toward the low carbon society.

Ildenize Barbosa da Silva Cunha

Thomson Mass Spectrometry Laboratory-UNICAMP, Brazil

Title: EASI-MS applied on Quantitation and quality control of biodiesel/petrodiesel (Bn) blends

Time : 14:10-14:30

Speaker
Biography:

Ildenize Barbosa da Silva Cunha, is a Brazilian Scientist, received bachelor's degree at Quimica Industrial from Universidade Federal da Paraiba and Masters in Organic Chemistry and doctorate at Analytical Chemistry from Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, Post-Doctorate on Laboratory Thomson of Mass Spectrometry from Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP. Stayed 2 months at PRG-University of Calgary- Canada, adapting the technique EASI-MS. Has experience in Chemistry, acting on the following subjects: Ambient techniques in Mass Spectrometry, Quality control on: Biodiesel, oils, Bee products and natural products.

Abstract:

Easy sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) allows direct and fast MS analysis of samples in ambient conditions with little or no sample preparation, therefore offering unprecedented simplicity, speed and ease of use. EASI-MS has been shown to access the quality, type(like soybeans, tallow, jatropha) and adulteration of biofuels and vegetable oils. Herein, EASI-MS is shown to quantitate and to monitor the quality of soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends (Bn). For adulteration, admixture of the parent oil has been tested, and nearly instantaneously and direct EASI(+)-MS detection of just 1% of soybean oil in biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was achieved. Quite linear analytical curves were also obtained for the quantitation of Bn blends,and the EASI(+)-MS quantitation results were compared with traditional techniques like mid-infrared (IR) spectroscopy.

Speaker
Biography:

Thewys Theo is currently Emeritus Professor at Hasselt University, Belgium. He is the member of Center for Environmental Sciences Research institute. He is the faculty of Business Economics.

Abstract:

The Campine region In the North-Eastern part of Belgium is diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium. Since traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred as a remediation technique. In a prior study (Schreurs et. al. 2011), the biomass potential from phytoremediation using willow in short rotation of the contaminated agricultural land in the seven most involved municipalities was assessed. The current paper uses GIS-knowledge to investigate which of three previously identified locations is most suitable for a biomass plant, taking into account the spatial distribution of the contaminated willow supply and the total cost of willow transport. Biomass transport distance from the centroid of each contaminated agricultural parcel to each of the three potential biomass plant locations was determined following Euclidian distance calculations and distance calculations over the existing road network. A transport cost model consisting of distance fixed and distance dependent biomass transport costs were developed. Of the locations identified the Overpelt Fabriek site results in the lowest biomass transport distance and costs. When willow allocation for each parcel occurs based on the nearest potential plant location, transport costs are on average 23% lower than when all biomass is transported to the single Overpelt Fabriek site location. Therefore, when only considering transport costs, installing a smaller plant at each of the three potential plant locations would be less expensive than when installing a single biomass plant at the Overpelt Fabriek site. Current research investigates whether the presumption that economies of scale in investment and operational costs for a single biomass plant (converting willow to bioenergy based on pyrolysis) would outweigh the higher biomass transport costs is valid.

Speaker
Biography:

Atila Caglar took Ph.D. degree in the department of Science Education at Black Sea Technical University in 2000, Turkey. The subject was acquisition of Hydrogen Rich Gas from pyrolysis of Several Biomass. After Ph.D., He joined Kastamonu Education Faculty as an assistant professor and he is still working there under the new title Kastamonu University. Currently, He is working on energy, environment, and recycling, and also their educational dimensions especially, recycling of mixtures like plastics, biomass and inorganic matters for recuperation of energy and precious chemicals via pyrolysis process. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

The increasing energy demands and the impact of fossil fuel usage on environment, make searching alternative routes for both energy technologies and living style. These studies are mainly on reduction of emission of hazardous gasses, elimination of solid wastes and searching alternative sources of energy and chemicals. The pyrolysis is the outstanding process in which the raw solid materials such as biomass, plastic and its wastes, and municipal solid wastes which are organic based are converted into precious solid, liquid and gas materials. The variables in pyrolysis process are temperature programming, pyrolysis atmosphere, residence time, reactor design and additives mainly catalysts. Pyrolysis of mono-constituent materials either biomass or polymeric materials in the presence of various catalysts was studied extensively. However, the pyrolysis of mixtures and effect of the catalysts on them have been rarely investigated probably due to need of high labor. The co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastics is really compulsory study. The diversity of biomass and plastic material, and their permutational probability of co-existence make the situation more troublesome and exciting. The plastics and their possible mixtures or produced materials with biomass with the consideration of catalysts or in general additives (pigments, dyes, stabilizers, filling materials etc.) should also be concentrated on their physical and structural nature along with their chemical properties for possible recycling technologies for acquisition of valuable substances. And these studies are inevitably based on trial and error method, due to improbability of simulation of such a high temperature pyrolysis medium theoretically.

Mario Kabbour

University Malaysia Perlis,Malaysia

Title: An overview on supercritical fluid extraction for natural compounds

Time : 15:10-15:30

Speaker
Biography:

Mario Kabbour, born in 1982, originally from Syria and has been doing research University Malaysia Perlis for the past 5 years. He is expert inn liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical extraction, and thermodynamic models. He has many published papers and books h in the field of Chemical Engineering and Green Engineering. He developed new parameters for thermodynamic models and new techniques for selective extraction for nature.

Abstract:

Growing concern for the environment has paved the way for the introduction of "Green Chemistry". Chemical engineers arebecoming more and more cautious about the use of organic solvents, and have put great efforts in designing new environmental friendly research protocols. Extraction and isolation of natural compounds from different sources may generate large amounts of organic waste solvents. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has become an important extraction technique in many fields, with the supercritical extraction technique; it is possible to extract sensitive compounds such as natural compounds and avoiding the residual toxic solvent, such as hexane. Besides, the energy costs associated with this novel extraction technique are lower than the costs for traditional solvent extraction methods. The supercritical fluid extraction technology is increasingly replacing many other techniques for extraction the natural products in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. Rich botanical resource countries have very high potential to use the supercritical fluid extraction as to make value addition to their export of natural materials in raw formula. The supercritical extraction process can be controlled with co-solvents and additives, which play a role in controlling the polarity of the supercritical solvent, and it could be controlled based on sets of mathematical modeling which can be used in predicting the outcome of an extract. The most commonly used solvent in supercritical fluid is carbon dioxide, it has more advantages of being cost-effective, non-toxic, non-flammable, easily removed from the extract following decompression and because of its low critical temperature, it may be an ideal technique to study the thermally labile compounds.

Break: Coffee Break 15:30-15:45 @ Texas Foyer
Speaker
Biography:

Yu Tian has completed her Ph.D. and postdoctoral studies from Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) of Environmental Engineering. She is the head of department director of Environmental Science and Engineering at HIT. Her research fields mainly focus on the Process, efficiency and mechanism of wastewater treatment and sludge reduction. She has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals. More than 30 national research projects in China have been in charge of by her ever since 1997.

Abstract:

Membrane fouling is a major obstacle to the wide application of membrane bioreactor (MBR), in which soluble microbial products (SMP) are identified as the key membrane foulants. A hybrid MBR, composed of a conventional MBR and a worm reactor, was proposed to achieve significant wastewater treatment efficiency and sludge reduction simultaneously. It was noted that the flux decrements of H-SMP (SMP in hybrid MBR) with PVDF and PES were respectively 8.5% and 9.5% lower compared to those of C-SMP (SMP in Control-MBR) with corresponding membranes. This meant that the worm predation reduced the fouling propensity of the SMP. The structural parameters analysis indicated the H-SMP fouling layer showed a higher porosity, lower biovolume and thinner average thickness than the C-SMP fouling layer at the end of filtration. Modeling work well indicated that the main fouling mechanisms for H-SMP and C-SMP filtration were standard blocking. As the driven force of standard blocking, the hydrophobic/hydrophilic attractive force was supposed to play a major role in SMP filtration. Based on the extended XDLVO analysis, the decreases in the hydrophobic interactions between H-SMP and membrane and between the H-SMP themselves were found. By investigating the difference of H-SMP and C-SMP characteristics, it was demonstrated that these changes could be attributed to the lower hydrophobic interaction caused by the decrease in the relative abundance of unsaturated groups (aromatic protein-like substances) in the H-SMP. Accordingly, the H-SMP has lower fouling potential, and effective fouling mitigation was obtained in the hybrid MBR.

Vimala Dhanala

Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, India

Title: Steam reforming of isobutanol for production of synthesis gas: Effects of metals

Time : 16:05-16:25

Speaker
Biography:

Vimala Dhanala has completed her Bachelor of Technology from Bhoj Reddy Engineering College for Women affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad and M.tech from University College of Technology, Osmania University, Hyderabad. At present, she is a doctoral student at IIT Hyderabad.

Abstract:

The catalytic steam reforming of biomass derived oxygenated hydrocarbons like isobutanol is a promising technology to produce synthesis gas for applications in chemical industries, for example, in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of fuels and chemicals and for applications in fuel cell to generate electricity and as transportation fuels. In the present work, the production of hydrogen rich synthesis gas from isobutanol (product of ABE fermentation) has been examined using γ-Al2O3 supported different metals catalysts in fixed bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The metals (Ni, Co, Mo) supported on γ-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized by powder XRD, BET, H2 pulse chemisorption, and temperature programmed reduction to determine crystallinity, surface area, metal dispersion, and reducibility of the catalysts respectively. The nickel supported on γ-Al2O3 showed highest catalytic activity followed by cobalt and molybdenum supported on γ-Al2O3. The H2, CO, CO2, and CH4 were identified as the non-condensable gaseous products. The analysis of liquid samples by GC-FID and GC-MS revealed the formation of large number of chemical compounds including acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, 2-propenal, butyraldehyde, 2-butanone, and butanols (1, 2, and iso-butanols). The hydrogen yield was found to remain unaffected for all three metals supported γ-Al2O3 catalysts. The selectivity to CO was found to be more for Mo compared to Ni and Co and selectivity to CO2 was higher for Ni compared to Co and Mo. The study was further extended to observe the effects of Co loading on γ-Al2O3, temperature, steamto- carbon ratio on hydrogen yield and selectivity to gaseous products.

Speaker
Biography:

Alberto Llamas is an Assistant Lecturer at the Madrid Polytechnic University. He is currently finishing his Ph.D. Thesis on biodiesel production and biodiesel combustion. He has recently published three papers on the subject of FAME as renewable jet fuel.

Abstract:

Three different oils: babassu, coconut and palm kernel have been transesterified with methanol by the homogeneous basic catalysis method obtaining good yields. After the alcoholysis the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) have been subjected to vacuum fractional distillation, and the low boiling point fractions have been blended with two types of fossil kerosene, a straightrun atmospheric distillation cut (hydrotreated) and a commercial Jet A1. The blends of FAME and Jet A1 at three different proportions: 5, 10 and 20% vol. meet some of the specifications, depending on the FAME content, such as: Density, lubricity, smoke point and flash point, although none of them, but the babassu sample, meet the lower calorific value by a very narrow margin, less than 1.0 MJ kg -1, when blended with 5% FAME. Oxygenated fuels are proved to decrease the emission regarding global warming such as: soot and CO2. On the other hand, these fuels present problems regarding their stability and may damage the elastomer materials that are mainly in the joints. In our work, we show the results of tests ran under stress conditions with 5 different elastomer materials and the one used in the aircraft's seals. From an industrial perspective we present on this work a simulation ran in Pro 2, which suggest that eight to nine stages are needed for the vacuum distillation of the FAME.

Speaker
Biography:

Zaixing Huang completed his Ph D from the University of Wyoming, USA.He worked as Vice President of AWWA/WEF from Aug 2009-Aug 2010, Member of AWWA/WEF, University of Wyoming, Aug 2007-present at University of Wyoming.

Abstract:

Biogenic coalbed methane is an underexploited source of clean energy that has attracted increased interest in recent decades. Most of the published studies have focused on biostimulation (the addition of nutrients) or bioaugumentation (the addition of nutrients and a nonindigenous consortium of bacteria). However, even with these amendments coal has proven to be a recalcitrant substrate for the microorganisms thereby limiting the bioconversion to methane. Our research effort has focused on a host of chemical treatments including acid, base and oxidants used to enhance the bioavailability as determined through bioassay. Acid (nitric acid) and base (sodium hydroxide) treatments have been shown to be more effective with respect to solubilizing the coal (i.e., the concentration of dissolved organic carbon). For example, as much as 14% of the coal was solubilized as a result of the nitric acid treatments as compared to 5.4% for permanganate. However, the biometer experiments revealed that there was not a direct correlation between solubility and bioavailability as the permanganate treatment which had much lower TOC produced more biogenic carbon dioxide. Consequently, permanganate was shown to be the most promising treatment agent and was utilized in subsequent experiments evaluating the potential for biogenic methane generation. For permanganate treated samples, 5.4% of the coal carbon was solubilized and 3.2% of the soluble carbon was converted to methane (CH4) by a consortium of microorganisms derived from coal. The methane was rapidly generated and producing approximately 93.4 µmol CH4/g coal (73.9 standard cubic feet (scf)/ton coal) as compared to estimates of 22-74 scf/ton within the PBR coalbeds. The results also showed that the most volatile fraction of the solubilized coal (as defined by sparging with N2 gas) was the most readily used in the conversion to methane gas. The findings of this study provide the basis for a better understanding of the underlying processes involved in the rate-limiting step of coal solubilization; moreover, they provide evidence of the significant potential for the in situ enhancement of biogenic coal bed natural gas.

Chengchen Wu

Zhejiang University, China

Title: Enhancement effect of ethanol on algal biomass accumulation

Time : 17:05-17:25

Speaker
Biography:

Chengchen Wu is a Ph.D. candidate at Zhejiang University in the College of Agriculture and Biotechnology. Her current research interests mainly focus on selection of oil-rich algae species and optimization of algal culture conditions. She has published several journal papers.

Abstract:

Microalgae is a suitable alternative to replace conventional fuel resources for biodiesel production for its renewable and environmental-friendly advantages that could meet the global demand for biodiesel production. To reduce production cost and improve feedstock yields of biodiesel production from microalgae, current research on algal biodiesel in our group mainly focus on selection of oil-rich algae species, optimization of algal culture conditions and amelioration of algal lipid extraction and transesterification. The effects of ethanol concentration gradients along with varied cultivation times on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella ellipsoidea were studied. Different ethanol concentrations showed different effects on the growth of freshwater microalgae, and proper amount of ethanol could markedly improve algal density, lipid productivity, lipid content and fatty acid content, respectively. Lipid productivity and lipid content were increased correspondingly with the increase of ethanol concentrations. However, ethanol at low concentrations could inhibit total lipid accumulation. Positive effect of ethanol on lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. should above a threshold value of ethanol concentration and algal light deprivation inhibited ethanol positive effects on algal growth and lipid biomass. Besides, with the increase of ethanol concentrations and cultivation times, the cumulative quantity of C16:0 and C18:0 decreased correspondingly, but unsaturated fatty acids were increased and appeared early in algal cells. The results indicated that adding proper amount of ethanol in algal culture medium was beneficial to biodiesel feedstock production and biodiesel properties

Break: 17:30-18:30 Cocktails Sponsored by Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology @ Rio Grande
  • Track 2: New Methods and Technologies in Petrochemistry and Oil-refining
Location: Lone Star East
Speaker

Chair

Irina Kumkova

Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Speaker

Co-Chair

Chuan-Jian Zhong

State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, USA

Session Introduction

Russell R Chianelli

University of Texas at El Paso, USA

Title: Transition metal sulfide catalytic materials for hydroprocessing, F. T. synthesis and other applications

Time : 11:00-11:20

Speaker
Biography:

Russell R. Chianelli is Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Materials Research and Technology Institute at the University of Texas at El Paso. Formerly at member of Exxon Research and Engineering's Corporate Research Laboratory, Dr. Chianelli is a world authority on Transition Metal Sulfide Catalytic Materials with over 160 peer reviewed publications and over 60 issued U. S. Patents. His work is highly interdisciplinary and covers theory, experiment and application with commercializations based on his work. In 1990 he was the President of the Materials Research Society and scientific leader of the Exxon Valdez oil spill successful bioremediation effort. He has received several recognitions for his work and continues to lead in the understanding of Transition Metal Sulfide catalytic materials and their application to petroleum refining and coal gas catalysis.

Abstract:

In this report we outline the growth in fundamental studies of structure/function in the TMS and suggest where improved understanding is needed. An understanding of the fundamental properties that lead to both the activity of the simple binary sulphides and the mechanism by which two metals (Co + Mo) acted together to enhance activity (promotion) has been developed. Initial efforts focused on supported commercial catalysts with limited success. In the early 1980’s the periodic trends of TMS catalysts on unsupported catalysts were discovered and these results formed the foundation for further basic understanding of the key properties that led to catalytic activity. These results have been extended over the years to include supported catalysts and many petroleum based substrates. Progress has been made by combining synthetic, experimental and theoretical techniques. Theoretical studies support the fact that the d-electrons in the frontier orbitals of the catalysts were key in determining catalysis at the surface. The triumph of this approach was that it unified the promoted TMS systems with the binary TMS and provided a common rational for the activity of both. Constant progress since then has been achieved through the application of Density Functional Theory (DFT) narrowing the gap between instinct and a formal description of catalyst structure/function made by combining synthetic, experimental and theoretical techniques. Theoretical studies support the fact that the d-electrons in the frontier orbitals of the catalysts were key in determining catalysis at the surface. The triumph of this approach was that it unified the promoted TMS systems with the binary TMS and provided a common rational for the activity of both. Constant progress since then has been achieved through the application of Density Functional Theory (DFT) narrowing the gap between instinct and a formal description of catalyst structure/function. It is crucial to remember that for real understanding to develop we must study the catalytically stabilized materials and not materials that are changing under catalytic conditions. In the case of the TMS this means that we must study materials like MoS2-xCx and RuS2-xCx. It has been demonstrated that "surface carbides" are the catalytically stabilized state under hydro-treating conditions. The original relation between the d electrons and later DFT calculations all point to the importance of these electrons in the catalytic reaction. However, more work is needed to define the relation between these electrons and the stabilized carbide surfaces before detailed active site structures can be developed with confidence. In addition the presence of Co metal in active hydro-processing catalysts stabilized for four years in a commercial reactor, calls in to question current theories of the structure of promoted catalysts. In addition application of the above has created more active catalyst and these results will be presented (model and real feeds).

Chuan-Jian Zhong

State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, USA

Title: Nanoalloy catalysts for petrochemical processes and sustainable energy conversion

Time : 11:20-11:40

Speaker
Biography:

Chuan-Jian Zhong, Professor of State University of New York at Binghamton, has about fifteen years research experience working on design and synthesis of nanostructured catalysts for sustainable energy production, conversion and storage (e.g., fuel cells and rechargeable batteries) anchemical/biological sensors, before which he had five years experience in surface chemistry at Iowa State University/DOE–Ames Laboratory. He received National Science Foundation Career Award, SUNY Chancellor Award for Excellence in Scholarship and Creativity, and 3M Faculty Research Award. He is author of over 180 peer-reviewed articles, inventor of 12 US patents, and has given over 140 invited talks.

Abstract:

Nanostructured catalysts have found increasing applications in petroleum reforming, catalytic combustion, and energy conversion/storage. One important area involves low-temperature nanocatalytic combustion over metal nanocatalysts, converting pollutants such as CO and gas hydrocarbons (HCs) into harmless gases and reducing emissions of particulate matter (PM), CO, NOx and HCs. The nanocatalytic combustion of biofuels such as alcohols serves as a heat source for thermoelectric energy conversion, a sustainable energy because the effectiveness in supplying liquid fuels from renewable resources. Another area of interests involves metal nanocatalysts for hydrogen production from petroleum by oxidative reforming, serving as a efficient and clean way for energy conversion in fuel cells where platinum-based nanocatalysts play an increasingly important role for catalytic enhancement. While the nanocatalyst market growth projects a multi-billion dollar global industry, a key challenge is the fundamental understanding of how the structure of such catalysts can be controlled precisely for achieving the desired catalytic properties in each of the above catalytic reactions. In this presentation, recent findings of the study of binary/ternary nanoalloy catalysts prepared by molecularly-engineered synthesis and processing will be discussed. Examples will focus on gas-phase catalytic reactions for hydrogen production, CO oxidation, nanocatalytic combustion of alcohols, and electrocatalytic reactions of oxygen in fuel cells and rechargeable batteries, highlighting new insights into the control of atomic-scale metal coordination and structural/chemical ordering based on a combination of synchrotron X-ray based techniques such as high-energy resonant X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, especially in correlation with the enhanced catalytic properties.

Speaker
Biography:

Irina Kumkova, Ph.D., graduated from Leningrad State University. Leading Scientist of IEE RAS. She has published about 120 papers in reputed journals. The major interests are concentrated in physics of dense low temperature plasma, discharges in gas flows, plasma technologies for waste treatment of different types, renewable energy generation and synthetic liquid fuels production.

Abstract:

Some results of gasification of some substances by means of air and steam plasmas are presented. Results of experiments and their comparison with calculation are given. The possibility of synthesis gas production by means of steam plasma with optimum relationship H2/CO ~ 2.1 for liquid fuels production is discussed. Methane has the highest thermostability among other hydrocarbons of the associated petroleum gas. That is why the methane decomposition is considered while developing methods of conversion of associated petroleum gas to synthesis gas. Plasma used as an oxidizing agent allows elimination of catalysts from the process of synthesis gas production due to achievement of high temperatures ~1400°C at atmospheric pressure. The reaction rates in a gas phase is sufficient for conversion of associated petroleum gas to synthesis gas during ~1s. It is necessary to generate plasma with heat content of ~15 MJ/kg that matches to temperature ~3060°C. There is a considerable dissociation of steam and carbon dioxide with formation of more active molecules and radicals. The plasma method allows production of ~5.4 m3 of synthesis gas from 1 kg of methane (~1.4 m3) as it is resulted from numerical evaluation. Also estimates show that ~23.9 MJ (6.6 kWh) of electricity is necessary to process 1 kg of methane. The experimental results of 100 kW AC plasma torch operation using as a working media a mixture of CH4 + H2O + CO2 in required ratio are presented. Efficiency of synthesis gas production of desired composition is evaluated.

J C Jones

University of Aberdeen, UK

Title: Energy-return-on-energy-invested (EROEI) for crude oil

Time : 12:00-12:20

Speaker
Biography:

J. C. Jones holds the 'Blue Ribbon'; degree of Doctor of Science from the University of Leeds, from which he also obtained a BSc and a Ph.D. He worked in Australia for over seventeen years, latterly at the University of New South Wales. He has over 700 publications including fifteen books. He also has extensive broadcasting experience having, for example, recently spoken on Marketplace about the Keystone pipeline.

Abstract:

The term energy-return-on-energy-invested (EROEI) is self-explanatory, and this topic has been the author's primary research interest since about 2007. Many publications in journals including 'Fuel' (an Elsevier journal) have resulted. All of it will be summarized at the presentation in San Antonio. The first part of the work is concerned with development of an equation for EROEI as a function of well depth, drawing both on basic Newtonian mechanics and on field data from the oil industry. A subsequent part is concerned with particular operations, including injection of steam in enhanced oil recovery, and their effects on EROEI. Perhaps the most potentially important side of the work is a quantitatively reasoned argument that if isothermally generated electricity were used at oilfields instead of thermally generated the EROEI would rise by about a factor of three. This has been published in full in 'Fuel'. The obvious example of 'isothermally generated electricity' is wind farms. If the practice of interfacing wind farms with oilfields could become internationally adopted the consequences for oil production would be far-reaching. The most recent part of the work has so to speak moved downstream, from production to refining. It is shown that once a crude oil is obtained at a particular EROEI, that EROEI is hardly affected if at all by fractionation. The EROEI of gasoline from a pump at a gas station is therefore the same as that for the crude oil from which it is derived. This too is closely reasoned in an article in 'Fuel'.

Speaker
Biography:

Maxim V Giruts is from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Russia.

Abstract:

Diamondoids has a characteristic mass-spectra using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for their analysis. Their characteristic ions are m/z 136, 135, 149, 163, 177 (for adamantanes C10-C14), m/z 188, 187, 201 (for diamantanes C14-C16), m/z 240, 239 (for triamantanes C18-C19) and m/z 292 (for tetramantanes C22). At the same time our investigations have been shown that often there are many foreign peaks at the diamondoids mass-chromatograms. These foreign peaks elute together with diamondoids at the same retention time. Since there is no published data on the diamondoids retention indices the correct identification of these hydrocarbons is difficult. At present time adamantanes and diamantanes are more studied than triamantanes and tetramantanes. It can be possible because their relative concentrations in crude oils are considerably higher than triamantanes and tetramantanes ones. As has been mentioned above triamantanes and tetramantanes are less studied than adamantanes and diamantanes. Nevertheless despite the presence of many foreign peaks at the m/z 240, 239, 292 and 291 mass-chromatograms we recently identified triamantanes and tetramantanes. For this purpose we used method of thermal-diffusion separation of saturated fractions of oils and isomerization of saturated concentrates with alumosilica catalyst. We determined the retention indices of triamantane (C18), 9-methyltriamantane (C19) and all isomers of tetramantane (C22) (iso-, anti- and skew-). The report will present their masschromatograms. Distribution of triamantanes and tetramantanes in crude oils studied poorly but we have found that their distribution in oils of various genotypes are different. Thus distribution of triamantanes and tetramantane can be used like admantane, diamantane and triamantane in geochemical investigations. According to our studies the distribution of C10-C22 diamondoids can be used for correlations biodegradated and unbiodegradated crude oils.

Break: Lunch Break 12:40-13:30 @ Lone Star West
Speaker
Biography:

Raymond Le Van Mao received his Ph.D. in 1974 from the University of Lyon (France). After post-doctoral studies in Paris and Milan (Italy), he worked until 1981 at Basic Petrochemical Research Centre, Montedison Corp. (Italy). In 1982, he became Associate Professor of Chemistry at Concordia University (Montreal, Canada). He is now Professor Emeritus. He holds 40 patents and is author/coauthor of more than 200 papers and technical reports in Heterogeneous Catalysis, Zeolites, Petroleum Chemistry and Biomass conversion.

Abstract:

Light alcohols such as methanol can be converted into hydrocarbons over ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts. The role of the dialkyl ether as the product of alcohol dehydration on the zeolite acid sites has not been thoroughly investigated yet. In the Thermo-Catalytic Steam Cracking (TCsC) process for the production of light olefins from petroleum naphtha or gas oil, methanol when blended in limited proportion into these conventional feedstocks, does not significantly change the yields of light olefins and, very importantly, the product yield ratio "propylene/ethylene" remains almost unchanged (much higher than 1.0). In the direct catalytic liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass (AC3B), diethyl ether formed by acid-promoted dehydration of ethanol in the main conversion step, when subsequently sent over a ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, alone or blended to some oxygenates obtained from such main step, is completely converted into hydrocarbons, namely aromatics-rich gasoline and C2-C4 olefins and paraffins. These examples taken from two different catalytic processes suggest that there is, as common reaction intermediate, a trialkyl oxonium ion generated by an initially adsorbed dialkyl ether on the strong acidic sites of the zeolite. This organic ion intermediate is capable of reacting with other molecules in the feed to generate hydrocarbons. As a practical consequence, these trialkyl oxonium ions are capable of deoxygenating some oxygenates without the need of a hydrogen-donating solvent or an external supply of hydrogen.

Speaker
Biography:

Sergii Boichenko is Doctor of sciences, Professor of the Ecology department of the National Aviation University. He is a Director of the Ukrainian Research and Educational Center of Chemmotology and Certification of Fuels, Lubricants and Technical Liquids. Sphere of scientific interests: effective and rational use of fuels, lubricants and technical liquids, environmental protection.

Abstract:

The origins of Chemmotology date back to 1964. The separation of Chemmotology into the independent applied science united scientists and practitioners of engineering, oil and chemical industries along with the companies which operate the technologies for Chemmotological problems solving. Over the last years Chemmotology being an applied science, has found its broad scientific and social acceptance. The definition and the main problems of Chemmotology were introduced by K.K. Papok in 1964. He defined the science as "a new science that studies chemical, physical-motor properties of fuels, lubricants and special fluids as well as their service performance, and develops the way for their rational use in technical equipment." The modern definition of Chemmotology, its subject, methods and goals was proposed in 2005: "a technical applied science about properties, quality and rational use of fuels, lubricants and specific fluids in technological equipment." Chemmotology is a problem science being at the edge of Chemistry, Physics, Engineering, Economics and others, in particular. The role of Chemmotology as an applied science is supported by the importance of the problems it solves: securing energy safety of economy of a country, rational use if traditional and alternative fuels, lubricants and specific fluids during the operation of modern and prospective technologies. The subject of Chemmotology is service performance of fuels, lubricants and special fluids. The main scientific and practical goal is rational use of fuels, lubricants and special fluids during equipment operation. In conditions when modern society tends toward sustainable development, alternative energy sources enter more and more spheres of human activity. During last decade the share of alternative fuels and lubricants has increased in several times. So, keeping up with times we see development of this new research area as inseparable part of Chemmotology science. Economical meaning of Chemmotology is achievement of maximal economy of raw materials, fuels, lubricants and special fluids through optimization of balance and quality of products, their rational and efficient use.

Anna Yakovleva

National Aviation University, Ukraine

Title: Peculiarities of the development and implementation of aviation biofuels in Ukraine

Time : 14:10-14:30

Speaker
Biography:

Anna Yakovleva has received her MSc in Ecology at the National Aviation University. For today she is a Post-graduate student and a junior scientific researcher. Sphere of scientific interests- Aviation chemmotology, alternative jet fuels and environmental protection. She has published more than 10 papers in Ukrainian and international scientific journals.

Abstract:

Ukrainian industry has some experience in production of biofuels for motor transport (biodiesel and bioethanol). There are already adopted normative documents that regulate questions of production, quality and application of biofuels. Numbers of scientific-research organizations actively investigate these kinds of alternative fuels. But, for today there are no any industrialprojections for alternative jet fuels manufacturing in Ukraine. However, keeping up with the times, we have started development and implementation of alternative jet fuels into Ukrainian civil aviation. These actions are stipulated by the number of reasons: exhausting of crude oil deposits, therefore increasing of prices for crude oil and so for jet fuels; increasing "greenhouse effect", caused by carbon dioxide emissions in a result of hydrocarbons burning; worsening of ecological situation because of aviation industry activity. Comparing to motor transport, aviation is seemed to be more resistant to such cardinal innovations as use of biofuels. It is mainly connected with provision of flight safety, reliability and durability of aircraft. There also some economical and legislative barriers for aviation biofuels implementation. The large-scale process of alternative fuels implementation into aviation requires development of complex general concept that will cover all activities in this sphere. The researchers of the National Aviation University have developed the Concept of biofuels implementation into aviation. This Concept comprises development of scientific-practical principles for the rational use of new ecologically safe fuels and lubricants for aviation technique. Practical realization of the Concept includes the following steps: development and production of experimental samples of the biofuel with execution of series of bench tests, development and accumulation of normative-technical documentation base, development and implementation of unified technology for biofuel production, development of the system of biofuel transportation to airports, development of the system for biofuel quality control at the airport and before aircraft filling. Thus, implementation of alternative jet fuels with provides further development of Ukrainian aviation within the principles of sustainability.

Iryna Shkilniuk

National Aviation University, Ukraine

Title: Biodegradation and biostability of mineral and biological fuels

Time : 14:30-14:50

Speaker
Biography:

Shkilniuk Iryna has postgraduate studies at National Aviation University. She is the chief of Testing Center of products "UCAH-SEPRO" of the National aviation university. She has published more than 12 papers in reputed journals and collections of conference.

Abstract:

Property of microorganisms to metabolize hydrocarbons of solid, liquid and gaseous petroleum products was known in the early XX century and named the field of oil producing, oil refining and petrochemistry, especially during exploitation of mineral and biological fuels. There is a necessary condition for development of microorganisms - higher temperature (20-35°C), presence of water and nutrients in fuel. The appearance and development of microorganisms complex in fuels leads to deterioration of their physical, chemical and exploitation properties due to changes in their hydrocarbon composition, accumulation of microbial slime and sludge formation of stable emulsions. Today it is known 200 species of microorganisms that can use hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon and energy. It is proved that biocontamination of fuel is connected to microbiological enzymatic oxidation of hydrocarbons with formation of organic acids that have surface active properties. Hydrocarbons with a linear structure of the molecules are destroyed faster than their branched isomers. Aliphatic hydrocarbons (paraffin's) are less biostable than aromatic. Therefore, fuels that contain mostly paraffin hydrocarbons can be destroyed by microorganisms faster than those containing more aromatic compounds. The processes of microbial oxidation of hydrocarbons are very complex, because the processes of biogenic oxidation have an influence of manyfactors: moisture, environment acidity (pH), temperature, osmotic pressure, and so on. From the physiological characteristics ofeach kind of microorganism depends orientation process of individual hydrocarbons destruction and their mixtures that have different degrees of resistance to oxidation.n Among the variety of protection methods of microorganisms was found that the most effective method of protecting mineral and biological fuels from microbiological contamination (biological stability of mineral and biological fuels) is the use of antimicrobial (biocide) additives.

Umakanta Jena

Desert Research Institute, USA

Title: Novel hydrothermal processing of algal feedstocks into liquid fuel precursor

Time : 14:50-15:10

Speaker
Biography:

Umakanta Jena is a Redfield Foundation Fellow in renewable Energy at the Desert Research institute, Reno, NV. Dr. Jena got his doctoral degree in Biological and Agricultural Engineering from the University of Georgia in 2011. His research interests include, generation of alternative fuels and value added co-products from microalgae and lignocellulosic biomass via thermochemical conversion routes.

Abstract:

Algal biofuel production has received considerable attention from around the world, with significant research effort put in converting algae into into biodiesel, renewable diesel, gasoline and jet fuel via lipid extraction and subsequent transesterification or catalytic hydrogenation/cracking reactions. At the same time, there has been considerable interest in hydrothermal conversion of whole algae (without drying) in hot, comprssed water into solid/liquid biofuels. This presentation outlines our research efforts and findings in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of whole algae into a liquid fuel precursor, "biocrude" and its upgrading via catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) into an ugraded product oil. HTL experiments were conducted at different temperatures (200-380°C), holding times (30-60 min) and catalytic conditions, using a high pressure Parr reactor. HTL generated up to ~51% biocrude in the presence of a catalyst. This biocrude had higher heating value (HHV) of 32-39 MJ/kg compared to approximately 42 MJ/kg for petrocrude. HDO experiments were carried out using the 1.8-L high pressure reactor at 350°C using high pressure H2 (1500 psi). The upgraded oil was found to have improved higher heating value, 40% less N, and 60% less O than the HTL biocrude.