Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences Radisson Blu Plaza Hotel, Hyderabad, India.

Day 3 :

  • Track 11: Agricultural Risk Management

Session Introduction

Shashi Vemuri

AINP on Pesticide Residues, EEI Premises, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, India

Title: Bio-efficacy of insecticides against Plutella xylostella (L.) in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)
Speaker
Biography:

Shashi Vemuri has completed his PhD at the age of 27years from Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University specialiasing in Pesticide Residues and has 30 years of teaching, Research and Extension experience. He is the Principal Investigator of the Central Sector project “Monitoring of Pesticide Residues at National level” and heading the All India Net work project on Pesticide Residues, Hyderabad centre. He has published more than 65 papers in reputed journals and 32 papers in international conferences in many countries. He is serving as an editorial board member of repute. Member of International Sugarcane Technologists Association and received number of State and National awards for his contribution to Farming Society.

Abstract:

Efficacy of seven insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG at 11 g a.i.ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG at 22 g a.i.ha-1, profenophos 50 EC at 500 g a.i.ha-1, profenophos 50 EC at 1000 g a.i.ha-1, spinosad 45 SC at 100 g a.i.ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC at 100 g a.i.ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis at 5 WP at 25 g a.i.ha-1 was evaluated during Kharif, 2012 against Plutella xylostella on cabbage. Among all the insecticides, profenophos (1000 g a.i.ha-1) was found to be the most effective one with a maximum reduction in Plutella xylostella population (70.20%), followed by bifenthrin 10 EC at 100 g a.i.ha-1 (68.18%).
Keywords: cabbage, insecticides, Plutella xylostella and efficacy

Speaker
Biography:

Tapan Pathak has completed his Ph.D. in the field of Agricultural Engineering from the University of Florida in 2010. He is currently a faculty at University of Nebraska-Lincoln with areas of research and extension in Agricultural Climatology. He has published many papers and Extension newsletters on utilizing climate information for agricultural decisions. He has been awarded a FELLOW for the center for Great Plain Studies at University of Nebraska and also recently won Paula Ford Professional Development Proposal of the year. He has been on the review panel for several peer-reviewed journals.

Abstract:

Although cotton is considered as a drought tolerant crop, climate variability may adversely impact cotton production. Especially, cotton produced under rain fed conditions could be severely affected by a variable climate. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a dominant phenomenon of climate variability in southeast US and other locations worldwide. An effective way to reduce agricultural vulnerability to climate variability is through an effective use of climate forecasts. In this research, CROPGRO-Cotton model was used to forecast cotton yield using climatology and ENSO based climate forecast. Specific research questions addressed in this research were; Do the in-season updates of CROPGRO-Cotton model yield forecasts using updated weather data improve accuracy over the forecast obtained before season. Which of the three ENSO indices provides the best cotton yield forecasting accuracy? Do the in-season updates of CROPGRO-Cotton yield forecasts obtained with the ENSO forecasts have better skills than using climatology alone? This study was focused on a single location using 1951-2005 weather data and three ENSO indices. Results showed that the in-season updates of weather forecast improved the forecasting skills of cotton yield. Results also demonstrated that the cotton yield forecasts obtained using ENSO based climate forecasts were better than the cotton yield forecast obtained using climatology in CROPGRO-Cotton model. Overall, these results show that there is a great potential in utilizing the CROPGRO-Cotton model for forecasting cotton yield using in-season updates and using ENSO based climate forecasts.

  • Track 10: Sustainable Practices for Agriculture

Chair

Rakesh S. Chandran

West Virginia University, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Dalbir Singh

Institute of Development Studies, India

Session Introduction

Rakesh S. Chandran

West Virginia University, USA

Title: Herbicide banding in Zea mays-A sustainable weed management practice?
Speaker
Biography:

Rakesh S. Chandran is an Extension Specialist and Professor at West Virginia University. He received a BSc in Agriculture from Kerala Agricultural University, MS in Environmental Horticulture from the University of Florida, and PhD in Weed Science from Virginia Tech. He carries out outreach and applied research in weed science for all commodities in West Virginia, teaches two courses, and coordinates the IPM program. His publications include 3 book chapters, 13 peer-reviewed journal articles, and numerous extension articles. He is currently the President-Elect of the Northeastern Weed Science Society (NEWSS), and a member of the editorial board of 'Agronomy'.

Abstract:

Conventional weed management programs in Zea mays L. provide close to complete weed control. Field experiments at grower-locations were conducted in West Virginia, USA, from 2010 to 2013, to compare banded and broadcast applications of residual herbicides. A herbicide pre-mixture containing atrazine, metolachlor, and mesotrione was applied either as broadcast applications or as bands 38 cm wide over corn rows spaced 75 cm apart. While broadcast applications provided the active ingredients at 0.84, 2.24, and 0.224 kg.ha-1, banded applications kept the same herbicides at half the application rates per hectare. At all locations, corn yields recorded were similar between banded and broadcast plots. Banding herbicides may not only reduce herbicide use but may also provide other benefits such as reduced soil erosion and nutrient runoff, habitat for beneficial insects and natural enemies, and increased levels of floral biodiversity and resultant levels of carbon sequestration. Buildup of weed seed bank remains to be the primary concern among growers. An integrated approach may be necessary to address this. Herbicides may be band-applied only when expected weed populations are below a certain threshold, and mechanical methods may have to be implemented to reduce the buildup of weed seed bank. Services provided by vascular plants to the ecosystem are affected by reductions in floral diversity and strategies to restore the same in cornfields without affecting yields significantly may be worthwhile. If determined to be a viable practice following further research, this approach may have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to modern cropping systems.

Biography:

P. Senguttuvel has completed his Ph.D. at the age of 28 years from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. He is working as a scientist at Directorate of Rice Research for past 6 years with research focus on Breeding genotypes and hybrids for abiotic stresses (especially for drought & aerobic, salinity and heat stress) through conventional and molecular markers. He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals, 2 book chapters, 3 popular articles and serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:

Rice is the staple food for more than half of the Indian population. The crop occupies one-third of the world's total area planted to cereals and provides 35-60% of the calories consumed by 2.7 billion people. More than 80% of the fresh water resources in Asia are used for irrigation purposes and more than 90% of the total irrigation water is used for rice production (Bhuiyan 1992). Success and sustenance of future rice production will therefore depend primarily on developing and adopting strategies that will use water more efficiently. Depleting fresh water resources, increasing growing population, limited availability of farm labourers resulted to breed and screen varieties and hybrids for water saving technology and shift for crop diversification of water loving rice into aerobic rice cultivation. Aerobic rice is a form of water saving technology in which high yielding rice grown in non-puddled aerated soil condition without standing water and without stress. Aerobic rice technology is mainly meant for irrigated lowland conditions (favorable lowland) with assured irrigation and it is different from upland rice, wherein which rice mainly depends on rainfall (unfavorable upland). The main purpose of aerobic cultivation is to save water without yield penalty. Varieties bred for irrigated lowland and upland were screened under aerobic conditions and some found suitable viz., Rasi, IR 64, MTU 1010, PMK 3, Vandana, Apo, Shabagidhan, MAS ARB26, MAS ARB946-1, PHB 71, PA 6444, JKRH 3333, DRRH2 and KRH 2. Research needs to be intensified in this area, so far best aerobic varieties are not released for proposed ecology. While, significant advances have been made in irrigation management, the genetic research to alter the basic water requirement of rice has to be strengthened. Based on research, it is proven that 30-50 % reduction in water requirement, reduction in methane emission, better aeration to root zone, hence better yield and biomass and ultimately better substitute of present 'looming water crises.

Speaker
Biography:

Davinder Kumar Grover completed his PhD in 1988, presently working as Director of Agro–Economic Research Centre at the internationally renowned Punjab Agricultural University in India - with major mandate of advising Indian/Punjab Government on various agro-socio economic issues. He gained work experience of about 25 years in the field of Agricultural/ Socio Economics; both at National/ international levels. He has published one research book and contributed more than 125 research papers, published in the referred journals of national/ international repute. He has been Visiting Fellow/Scientist at AVRDC- World Vegetable Centre, Taiwan, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines and International Food policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC, USA and as World Bank Consultant of Agricultural Economics under Agricultural Research and Training Project at Alemaya University of Agriculture, Ethiopia. He has also been a member of several expert panels/committees/ editorial boards and interdisciplinary teams both at National/international level along with session chairman/discussant in many international conferences.

Abstract:

The intensive farming practiced for the last over four decades in India, especially in agriculturally most advanced state of Punjab has led to contamination and pollution of soil , water, air, atmosphere, plants and crops. Organic farming is considered as one of the several approaches found to meet the objectives of sustainable agriculture. There are three categories of opinions about the relevance of organic farming for India. The first one simply dismisses it as a fad or fashion. The second category, which includes many farmers and scientists, opines that there are merits in the organic farming but should proceed vigilantly considering the national needs and circumstances in which Indian agriculture functions. The third one is all for organic farming and advocates its adoption unconditionally. They think that tomorrow's ecology is more important than today's conventional farm benefits. The present study has been based on the empirical experiences of 85 organic and 75 inorganic cereal growers in Indian Punjab during 2008-09. Though organic farming has been viewed more eco friendly yet the yield losses has been recorded as 15 % and 34 % in case of organic paddy and wheat as compared to inorganic ones. The comparative cost benefit analysis of both organic as well as inorganic paddy and wheat crops has brought out that the organic farming of both these crops have been more profitable even at lower yield levels, basically owing to the premium price of organic produces fetched by the organic producers. Hence, though organic farming of these cereal crops has been found more remunerative for the producers, yet the significant reduction in its yield have serious repercussions in term of national food security issues.
Keywords: Organic farming, conservation agriculture, sustainable agriculture.

Speaker
Biography:

Atul Bhargava completed his PhD in 2005 from National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow and postdoctoral studies from Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Cytogenetics at the University of Delhi. He is a senior faculty at Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Lucknow and Programme Leader for the prestigious B.Sc (H)-BT programme at Amity University Uttar Pradesh (Lucknow Campus). He has more than 40 research papers in reputed journals, 2 books and numerous book chapters to his credit. Dr. Bhargava is also serving as an editorial board member of several international journals of repute.

Abstract:

Underutilized or neglected crops refer to plant species that are indigenous, rather than non-native or adapted introductions, and often form an important part of the culture and diets of the people who grow them. Chenopods (Genus: Chenopodium; Family: Amaranthaceae), though termed as underutilized, have been in use since centuries as a leafy vegetable and subsidiary grain crop in different parts of the world. Although only 3 species viz. C. quinoa, C. pallidicaule and C. berlandieri subsp. nuttalliae are reported to be cultivated, the leaves and tender stems of numerous other species are consumed as food and fodder. The foliage of chenopods constitutes an inexpensive and rich source of protein, carotenoids and vitamin C, while the grain has high protein content with abundance of essential amino acids, and a wide range of vitamins and minerals. Chenopods could be a key to sustainable agriculture since they are known to thrive and flourish in stress conditions, and on soils with minimum agricultural inputs. The ability of chenopods to produce high protein grains under ecologically extreme conditions makes them an important player for the diversification of future agricultural systems in many parts of the world. The last two decades has seen a surge in research on this underutilized crop and chenopods can play a vital role in the fight against hunger and are a key resource for agricultural development.

Biography:

Mahesh K. Jat completed PhD from IIT Roorkee in 2007 and presently working as Associate Professor at Department of Civil Engineering, MNIT Jaipur. He has published more than 45 papers in reputed Journals, and International and National conference proceedings.

Abstract:

Runoff is one of the most important hydrologic phenomenon in hydrological cycle. Reliable prediction of quantity and rate of runoff is difficult and time consuming, specially for ungauged catchments, where sufficient data are not available. However, correct information of runoff is needed in dealing with many watershed development and management problems like soil erosion control, estimation of water availability, estimation of irrigation water demands etc. There are many methods, techniques, tools and mathematical models, which requires different level of data for modelling of rainfall-runoff phenomenon and estimation of runoff. However, different methods have diverse limitations and require extensive data for calibration and validation before use. The Natural Resource Conservation Services Curve Number (NRCS-CN) is widely used method of runoff estimation for rural catchments. Further, runoff estimation using NRCS curve number method can be improved by considering spatial variability of some important catchment characteristics using Geographical Information System (GIS). In recent past different artificial intelligence techniques are also being used for estimation of runoff, e.g., Artificial Neural Network (ANN). A comparative study of NRCS-CN and ANN methods for estimation of runoff has been carried out and presented here. Runoff has been estimated for a part of Satluj basin i.e., Rampur to Kasol, which is located in Himachal Pradesh (India), using both the methods. Further, results obtained from the above two techniques have been compared with observed runoff. Runoff estimated using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique have been found to be better as compared to NRCS-CN Method.

Biography:

Satya Sundar Bhattacharya has completed his PhD at the age of 28 years from Visva-Bharati University and served as Forest Ranger under the Govt. of West Bengal for nine years. He is presently working as Assistant Professor in the Department of Environmental Science, Tezpur University, a Central University situated in Assam, India. He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and served as reviewer many reputed journals.

Abstract:

Vermiconversion is a speedy conversion technique that converts slowly biodegradable solid wastes to valuable fertilizer materials through combined action of earthworm and microorganisms. Decomposition of organic matter (OM) by microbial activity improves nutrient availability. However, organic matter decomposition rapidly mineralizes organic carbon (OC) and accelerates the release of CO2, hence, depletes the OC stock. In this investigation, we have addressed the prospect of vermiconversion with Eisenia fetida to stabilize OC stock in municipal solid waste (MSW) without compromising the quality of the converted material. Earthworm (Eisenia fetida) specimens were deployed in MSW mixed with cow dung (CD) in various proportions. The periodic changes in different fractions of OC viz. Total OC (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), humic acid C and fulvic acid C were studied for 75 days. Maximum OC content was recorded in between 45 and 60 days, with substantial increment in nutrient (N and P) availability. The efficacy of different combinations of MSW and CD were also evaluated under the composting operations. The study clearly indicated significant magnitude of C stabilization due to vermicompositng. Moreover, we obtained substantial treatment wise variations in different C fractions that determine the final C budget at the end of the composting process.

Minakshi Grover

Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture (CRIDA), India

Title: Characterization of Burkholderia spp. strains capable of solubilizing both P and Zn
Speaker
Biography:

Minakshi Grover is currently working as Senior Scientist, Microbiology-Plant Sciences at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad, India. She is recipient of DST Women Scientist Fellowship. She is a life member of prestigious academic societies like Association of Microbiologists of India, Indian Society of Dryland Agriculture, Association of Agro-meteorologist. She is member editorial board for World J Microbiol Biotech. Besides, she is member of reviewer forum of several prestigious national and international journals such as, World J Microbiol Biotech., Indian J Microbiol., European J Soil Biol, FEMS Microbiol Ecol, J Basic Microbiol, Karnataka J Agric Sci. She has received commendation certificate for MJ Narsimhan award of Indian Phytopathology Society (2005), four best poster awards in conferences and one best research paper award (Indian J Hort). Her research focus is mainly on plant growth promoting microorganisms, biocontrol and plant-microbe interactions under abiotic stress (drought and high temperature) for which financial support has been provided by ICAR under AMAAS, NBF and NICRA projects. Dr Grover has published over 20 research papers and many review articles on biocontrol, growth promotion and abiotic stress alleviation in plants by microorganisms.

Abstract:

Phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies are limiting crop production in many agricultural soils worldwide. P is the major nutrient after C and N whereas Zn is an essential micronutrient required for various metabolic enzyme systems in plants. Less than 5% of P present in the soil is available to the plants. Exogenous application of soluble P and Zn sources causes transformation of up to 99 per cent of applied soluble nutrients to plant unavailable forms. Extensive use of chemical fertilizers also results in loss of soil health. To overcome this problem, P and Zn solubilising microorganisms can be deployed which can convert unavailable form of nutrient to the forms readily available to the plants. Microbial inoculants are an important component of the integrated plant nutrient management, particularly in rainfed areas, where farmers tend to rely either on 'no cost' or 'low cost' inputs. The microorganisms able to solubilize both P and Zn can be further advantageous. In the present study two bacterial strains PSB1 and PSB3 were characterized in vitro for plant growth promoting traits and were found to solubilize both inorganic P (tricalcium phosphate) and Zn (zinc carbonate and zinc oxide) besides showing IAA and ammonia production. The strains could grow in the presence of 25% PEG (moisture stress) and could tolerate high temperature of 45oC. The strains were identified as Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia cenocepacia depending on 16SrDNA sequence analysis. Pot studies revealed the effect of inoculation of these strains on sorghum plants. Inoculation improved plant growth of sorghum in terms of plant height, biomass, leaf area, chlorophyll content etc over control treatment. Inoculation also improved P and Zn contents in the leaves. The strains can be further exploited for nutrient management and growth promotion in plants.

Speaker
Biography:

Dalbir Singh completed his Doctoral Degree in Economics from Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla in 1993. His areas of specialization are Natural Resource Management & Environment and Agricultural Economics. Presently, he is Senior Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur, India. He has served as consultant in national and international agencies such as Sir Ratan Tata Trust, The World Bank, KfW Germany, and International Water Management Institute (IWMI). He has published more than 35 research papers in reputed journals, periodicals and edited books.

Abstract:

Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges of the 21st century for developed and developing countries. Response to climate change in developed and developing countries varies widely and its impacts can not be felt in isolation. It has a considerable impact on agriculture because of it’s dependability on weather and climate conditions. In resources-scarce conditions such as arid and semi-arid areas, climate change has severe implications on land and water that the base of agriculture sector. The present study highlights that various land and water management options are followed by the faming community to deal with the environmental challenges. These options are dictated by prevailing institutional arrangement include water and land rights, water sharing and trading, public policies, and technological innovations such as adoption of water saving technologies and input use at farm level. The prevailing arrangement and innovations work either ways i.e. positive and negative in dealing with the emerging environmental challenges. In such situation, the role of state becomes crucial in framing institutional mechanism, which can be helpful in resources management efficiently. The study suggests, there is a need of effective institutional arrangement and adoption of environment friendly technology for land and water resources management in arid agriculture. Only, a healthy coordination among different stakeholders can ensure sustainability in resource management that can be useful in climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture sector.

S. Jeevananda Reddy

Andhra Pradesh Akademy of Sciences, India

Title: Fallacies’ in studies of global warming vs agriculture
Biography:

S. Jeevananda Reddy got his post graduation in Geophysics & Applied Statistics from AU in Visakhapatnam and received Advance Training in Meteorology & Oceanography from IMD training school in Pune. Dr. Reddy got his PhD in agriculture Meteorology from the Australian National University, Canberra/Australia. Dr. Reddy served both national and international institutions in India and as well in abroad. Dr. Reddy worked as Expert of FAO/UN & as Chief Technical Advisor of WMO/UN. Dr. Reddy was awarded Fellow of Andhra Pradesh Akademy of Sciences. He published around 12 books and wrote chapters to several books and published around 500 scientific and popular articles. Dr. Reddy is presently working voluntarily to serve the cause of environment as well Core Member of Energy Conservation Mission of Institute of Engineers (India) AP Chapter & Member of Hyderabad Chapter committee of Indian Meteorological Society.

Abstract:

International agencies every now and then are warning developing countries with their short-sighted conclusions in their reports on the so called impacts of global warming on agriculture. It is well known in the basic science that in tropical countries, where most of the developing countries are located, moisture is the limiting factor and energy & temperature are the limiting factors in extra tropical countries. The international agencies are adopting models developed in extra tropical countries and they are predicting misleading conclusions on food production. On this they are emphasizing the need to implement chemical inputs technologies and genetically modified crops to achieve food security in developing countries. These are flawed theories. The study by FAO showed globally produced food is wasted through losses and wastage by around 30% and to that extent all the inputs are also wasted in producing that much food. In India it is 40-50%. Unfortunately they are using global warming and food security path to achieve their sole goal of business interests. Here, it is essential to know two things: that in fact Indian farmers have shown tremendous yields under organic farming and thus India needs traditional organic farming under cooperative farming structure that includes animal husbandry; and in climate change the natural systematic variations play vital role in agriculture that define moisture availability for choosing farming system.

Speaker
Biography:

Dev Narayan has completed his Ph.D. at the age of 27 years from G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand, India. He is senior scientist (Agronomy) in Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, a premier natural resource management organization in the country. He is having more than 27 years experience in the field of soil and water conservation and watershed management. He has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals besides book chapters, bulletins and reports etc. He is serving as a referee in number of journals of repute.

Abstract:

The Bundelkhand region with a geographical area of 7.04 M ha in Central India is characterized by hot semi-arid climate, undulating topography, scanty and uneven distribution of rainfall and lack of irrigation facilities. About 70% area in the region is rainfed and long dry spells are common even in rainy season consequently a long duration rainy season crop or a short duration low water requiring winter season crop cannot be taken successfully on residual soil moisture without supplemental irrigation. Keeping these facts in view, a field experiment was conducted during 2002-03 to 2005-2006 in red soils (alfisols) at CSWCRTI, Research centre, Datia, Madhya Pradesh in Central India to explore the possibilities of rainwater harvesting and recycling through a dug out pond for providing supplemental irrigation during dry spells to a long duration rainy season crop soybean and pre-sowing/life saving irrigation to winter season oil seed crops (toria and Indian mustard) for enhancing crop yield and returns. Results indicated that yield of different crops increased from 40 to 401% with supplemental irrigation. Increased yield of soybean and toria with one irrigation at pod filling and branching gave an additional net returns of Rs 4,703 and 9,652 ha-1, respectively, over no irrigation. Indian mustard with pre-sowing irrigation recorded an additional net returns of Rs 6,674 ha-1 over rainfed crop which further increased to Rs 22,623 ha-1 with irrigation at branching. Study revealed that rainwater harvesting and recycling through a dug out pond can be practiced for providing supplemental irrigation for augmenting production and returns under rainfed conditions in red soils of Central India.

Speaker
Biography:

Rokolhuii Keditsu, basically a Floriculturist has been working on substrate development and field evaluation, post–harvest physiology of cut flowers, exploiting meteorological conditions through adjustment in planting time, evaluation of flower germplasm diversity under protected conditions; landscaping through floriculture covering a large number flowers over the last 12 years. She is the recipient of Mahatma Phule Award for excellence, member of editorial board of 7 internationally known journals, and authored the book on Gerbera Nutrition by Lambert Publishing House, Germany. She is credited with many peer reviewed research papers and guided 16 M.Sc students.

Abstract:

Emerging energy crisis coupled with hike in fertilizer prices has further warranted towards finding alternatives to improve quality production of Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex. Hook) by exploiting the rhizosphere microbial dynamics. The optimum agropedological criteria were suggested as: nutrient regime (122.1-152.6 KMnO4-N, 6.1-7.2 Bray-P and 97.6-114.3 NH4OAc-K mg/kg) and climatic features (182.3-201.0 g/kg soil moisture, rain fall 96.2-223.5 mm/month, 5-8-6.80C hrs diurnal variation) in order to exploit upon the correct time of planting and harvesting maximum flowers yield of Gerbera grown on Alfisol under open field conditions. Treatments comprising different combinations of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers were tested. Treatment T1 utilising inorganic fertilizers maintained a significantly lower population of fungal count (15 x 103 cfu/g soil) and bacterial count (46 x 104 cfu/g soil). Such responses on soil microbial dynamics influenced the available pool of nutrients within the rhizosphere. Treatment T4 (50% inorganic + 25% Pig manure + 25% Farmyard manure) registered all the three nutrients in highest concentration (2.6% N, 0.26% P and 2.5% K), significantly superior to rest of the treatments. A greater magnitude of response was observed with treatment T4 (238-256 flower/m2) by replacing 50% RDF with either Pig manure as T2 (238 flowers/m2) or Farmyard manure as T3 (225 flowers/m2). The results have further established the differential changes in soil carbon pool with manures in triggering simultaneous microbial species redistribution within the rhizosphere.

Vijayachandra Reddy

National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM), India

Title: A constraints analysis of organic farming systems in Bagalkot district of Karnataka
Speaker
Biography:

Vijayachandra Reddy is currently working as Research Associate in National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM), Hyderabad-500030. He had completed his PhD from University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Dharwad-580005, Karnataka State. He has published more than 21 papers in reputed journals and edited books.

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to analyze the constraints of organic farming systems in Bagalkot district of Karnataka with specific focus on production, marketing, infrastructure and extension support related problems in Bagalkot district by collecting primary data from 95 organic growers using Garrett’s ranking technique during the year 2011-12. The results revealed that, the major production constraints like non availability of labour in peak season, insufficient power supply and non availability of irrigation sources for adoption of organic farming were major constraints in the study area. In case of marketing, major constraints like non availability of market information, lack of exclusive organic market and retailers are not ready to deal with organic produce. The results also reveals that, lack of awareness on utility and importance of organic practices, more schemes to compensate initial 2-3 years on the conversion to organic farming and lack of processing facilities and organic testing agencies in local areas were major problems related to infrastructure in the study area. However, In case of extension support, no proper communication among extension workers and farmers and lack of training or field demonstrations on organic farming systems and veterinary facilities were major problems observed in the study area. Hence study suggests that, arrangements should be made to provide required market information to the farmers timely and adequately through extension agents or concerned market institutions. There is also a need to strengthen infrastructure and extension facility and formulate appropriate policies for safe guarding the interest of the farmers.

Biography:

Rajendra Subudhi is an associate professor at Odisha University of agricultural technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. He holds a M.Tech (Water Resources Development and Management) degree from IIT Kharagpur. He is also a recipient of Bharat Jyoti Award and Best citizenship of India for the year 2013 as well as many international and national awards.

Abstract:

Kandhamal district situated in central part of Orissa receives an annual rainfall of 1396mm and this region is highly prone to soil and runoff loss due to heavy rainfall during kharif. A trial was conducted during 2001-04 to study the effect of conservation trenches on plantation crop. This trial was conducted on farmers field of Sudreju village of Kandhamal district under National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP, RRPS-7) with the following objectives. 1. To conserve moisture for establishment of plantation crop. 2. To reduce erosion from upstream area. 3. To increase production of timber, fruit species, fuel wood and fodder .The following treatments were tried : 1. No treatment. 2. Continuous V-ditches at 10m horizontal interval. 3. Continuous V-ditches at 20m horizontal interval. 4. V-ditches staggered at 5m horizontal interval. 5. V-ditches staggered at 10m horizontal interval. Mango varieties Pusa Amrapalli was tried during kharif and during, rabi Black gram (PU-30) was tried in between mango rows. It is observed that in, cont. contour V-ditch at 10m interval rate of growth was 2.06 cm/month in case of Amrapalli, which is 46% higher compared to control. The grain yield of niger, black gram & mustard are 33.4%, 23.5% & 26.6% higher than control respectively. Though the cost of construction is little high it is recommended to practice contour V-ditch at 10m intervals, to conserve soil and moisture and to get more grain yield in degraded watershed of Kandhamal district.

Biography:

Ranaivosn Holy Farahanta is a agricultural professional from the University of Antananarivo, Madagascar. He is presently working at Ecole Superieure des Sciences as an agro Management professional

Abstract:

Despite the possession of arable land, Malagasy farmers do not have sufficient access to materials and capital, do not much use modern inputs and invest a little in actions to improve agricultural land. It should be noted that only 16% of cultivated land are subject to 2% with fertilization with mineral fertilizers and 14% with organic manure. Using inexpensive and improved agricultural inputs such as vermicompost remain one of the solutions to improve the low agricultural productivity in Madagascar. Vermicompost is the result of research on earthworms keeping, to overcome the problems of fertilizers and provides many advantages to farmers. There is some performance improvement, preservation of ecological environment as well as solving the problem of soil degradation. Each farmer can practice vermicomposting because of its very simple production technology, especially for farmers whose financial resources are very limited. Furthermore, vermicompost is a solution to the valuation of garbage. Facing this situation, how can we develop the production and the use of vermicompost at the household level in rural areas in order to solve the problem of fertility, improve agricultural productivity and increase household incomes? This is a way to stabilize rural areas and stem the exodus to cities. All in all, the use of vermicompost is a form of sustainable agriculture. Yet, the state policy still favors the use of chemical fertilizers, without taking into account the environmental degradation and the loss of biodiversity which is mainly the task of the private sector and international organizations. The development of organic agriculture, in direct relation with the use of organic fertilizers like vermicompost, should not be excluded from national politic. It is time to act and clearly define a national policy on organic farming by supporting the private sector, NGOs or associations and by encouraging farmers to produce their own fertilizers such as vermicompost. An enabling environment for farmers has to be installed and the sector controlled. Actually, this policy helps to facilitate the involvement of private operators through grants, technical and financial assistance, especially regarding the development of experimentation constituting concrete visual references and can convince farmers on the technical and economic interest that organic farming brings by using vermicompost as fertilizer. To develop these actions, dissemination of information is imperative.
Keywords: vermicompost, household incomes, sustainable agriculture

Speaker
Biography:

Malik Ahmed Pasha is pursuing PhD in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology from University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad. He is working on metagenomic analysis of soils with organic and inorganic farm management. Couple of papers based on the outcome of his research is under process.

Abstract:

The diversity of microorganisms that are involved in varied functions of soil is critical to the maintenance of soil health. These microbes in turn are affected by the soil management practices. This study aims at identifying soil bacterial richness evenness and diversity under organic and inorganic soil management practices. The maize rhizosphere soil under organic and inorganic management from past five years was sampled during the vegetative stage. The hyper-variable region (V3) of bacteria was amplified from organic and inorganic soil DNA and sequenced by Ion torrent personal genome machine. The Q20 reads were phylogenetically classified using M5RNA annotation source of MGRAST. Species richness and diversity estimation was calculated using SPADE and the statistical significance in the species difference was calculated by STAMP. The species richness and diversity were found to be significantly more in organic sample whereas the distribution of species in both the sample is moderately even (0.73). Effective number of species was also found to be slightly more in organic soil. Organic soil is rich in species like Chloroflexus aurantiacus, Sphingomonas wittichii, Nocardiopsis kunsanensis and Rubrobacter radiotolerans which are involved in nutrient recycling and degradation of plant litter whereas the inorganic soil is rich in species like Thermoleophilum album, Chitinophaga pinensis, Terrimonas lutea and Flexibacter elegans which are known for degradation of plant litter and chemical compounds present in pesticides. The type of bacterial species present in organic and inorganic soil indicates formation of bacterial community structure based on farm management practices.

Speaker
Biography:

Langelihle Ndlovu has completed her Bachelor of Agribusiness degree at the age of 24 years from the University of Venda and is currently pursuing her Master of Science degree in Agricultural Economics at the same university.

Abstract:

Small-scale irrigation is mostly used in developing countries like Zimbabwe to address the problem of food insecurity. However, there are conflicting conclusions given on the viability and sustainability of small-scale schemes in the country because of its disappointing performance in many cases. This study analyses the major factors that contribute to productivity of the small-scale irrigation schemes. A random sample of 150 farmers was selected from 485 small-scale irrigation farmers. The selected farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested, semi-structured interview questionnaire. The information collected included biographical characteristics of the farmers, production methods, land size and tenure and available supporting institutions. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyse data. The results revealed that gender, level of education, plot size, availability of labour, technology, access to credit and extension services were significant factors that influence productivity in the small-scale irrigation schemes. The study recommends that female farmers should be encouraged to participate in irrigation farming and be provided with some basic education to increase productivity in the schemes. Access to credit should also be made easier to farmers so that they get adequate capital for better productivity in the schemes and more extension workers should be placed in small-scale irrigation schemes. The study further recommends that new innovative technology should be made available to small-scale farmers.

Speaker
Biography:

Ibukun Joyce Memudu is a PhD student in her second year at University of Ilorin located in the city of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. She is studying Agricultural Economics. She is 29years old. She currently works as a Community Facilitator in the World Bank sponsored FADAMA III project in Kogi state, Nigeria. She has published papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Bambara nut (Vigna subterranea) is a major crop that has dietary and socioeconomic importance among rural households in Kwara State. In spite of its nutritional benefits, the level of production depicted by the level of availability of the commodity is still very low. This study is therefore designed to examine the determinants of bambara nut production in Kwara State and determine the optimal resource allocation in bambara nuts –based cropping system. A four-stage sampling was used to select 120 households for the study. The tools of analysis used for the study comprised the Ordinary Least Square Regression analysis and Goal Programming model. The study showed that land and labour have positive and significant relationship (p<0.05) with bambara nut production. It also revealed that mixed cropping system is optimum for bambara production. The study therefore recommended the need for improved use of land management practices; use of labour saving devices including agricultural mechanization and adoption of optimal production systems among bambara nut farmers.
Keywords: Bambara nuts, linear programming.

Biography:

Mohammed Shafi is working on earth science at University of Kashmir, India.

Abstract:

The study area selected for this research is Anantnag district of Jammu & Kashmir, India. Commonly known as Lidder valley one of the best tourists destination in Kashmir. There are extensive rangeland in the upper stretches of lidder, the livelihood of semi and migratory grazers locally called Gujars and Bakherwals is linked the sustainability of these rangeland lands. The once lush green regime lands have deteriorated in quality, due to excessive tourism pressure and unmanaged grazing activity. The productivity of these rangeland lands would have to be estimated by using remotely sensed and field data. Results show that Rangeland lands increases 16% because of deforestation. The two approaches were used in this research on is on the ‘basis of NDVI i.e. high NDVI indicates High productive rangelands and moderate NDVI indicate and low indicates low productive or degraded, Another integrated approach is on the basis of slope, NDVI and other soil properties i.e. high NDVI and low slope indicates high productive, moderate NDVI and moderate slope indicates moderately productive, and while as low NDVI and low slope indicates low productive or degraded. The overall aim of this research is to demonstrate the usefulness and applicability of remote sensing, GIS and geo-spatial modeling techniques.

Speaker
Biography:

Francis Appiah teaches at the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Ghana. He holds a PhD degree from KNUST. He is a professional in Agriculture, Food Science, Postharvest Technology and Systems, Nutrition and Community Education. He is the Honourary Secretary of the Ghana Institute of Horticulturists and a member of the Quality and Postharvest Horticulture Commission of the International Society of Horticultural Science (ISHS). Francis has 18 scientific publications in reputable international journals. He has done work for institutions including The World Vegetable Center (AVRDC). He has convened several Scientific conferences in horticulture with the latest being the 13th Scientific Conference of the Ghana institute of Horticulturists (PROVAF 2012) in collaboration with The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and Global Horticulture Initiative (GLOBALHORT) in Accra, Ghana. He has special interest in promoting scientific research and dissemination.

Abstract:

In 2013 the world’s 7 billionth person will be born. Unfortunately, 1 in every 7 persons will be born hungry and nearly 1 billion will go to bed hungry each night. Although the world has grown more sophisticated in technology making it increasingly smaller in terms of reach and access, agricultural and horticultural production has not kept pace with the rising population, creating huge and unbalanced food deficits. This calls for new insight and approaches into agricultural research, policy, environmental management, dissemination of research findings in easy to understand and adopt modules. Interdisciplinary research approaches that pulls expertise from among fields including genomics, molecular biology, physiology, ecology, soil nutrient management and environmental remediation, nutrition, health sciences, water quality and conservation, sustainable and organic systems, landscape design, construction and management, urban horticulture, functional foods, food safety and quality and sociology are indispensable. Quality research driving on multi-stakeholder involvement in funding and setting research agenda, and instrumentation require serious attention and need to be promoted. Quality agricultural and horticultural research which translates into quality teaching and human resource development, improved extension service delivery, and ultimately improved quality of life should be based on scientific insight. The livelihood, nutrition and survival of the next generation can only be achieved based on knowledge. The world is waiting and looking up to the torchbearers and its leaders including scientists to put safe and nutritious food produced with environmentally-friendly technologies on their tables. The world can’t wait. It should not wait. We should not make it wait. The challenge is ours. We should neither deny nor disappoint humanity. This conference should ask all the questions, find all the answers and provide leadership for or hungry world.

Biography:

S. A. Safeena is Scientist in the field of Horticulture (Floriculture and Landscaping) presently working at ICAR Research Complex for Goa. She obtained her M.Sc (Ag.) in Horticulture degree from University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India and PhD in Horticulture from University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. She has published several papers in the journals of national and international repute and is a member of several professional societies.

Abstract:

Ornamental Asparagus serves as excellent filler materials for bouquets and are highly valued as florist greens due to their elegant symmetry and lush green foliage. Even though ornamental filler plants like Asparagus is grown by many farmers, there are no systematic studies on the performance of different cultivars for commercial cut foliage production in India. This supports the importance of conducting studies on ornamental asparagus to meet the ever growing demands for cut foliage in domestic and international markets. Therefore to exploit the potential of ornamental asparagus as cut greens, the present investigation was undertaken during 2011-2012 to evaluate the performance of different ornamental asparagus species/varieties for growth, yield and vase life attributes. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with five replications. Significantly wide variation was recorded in all parameters studied. The maximum plant spread[E-W direction(65.64 cm) and N-S direction(56.51 cm)], maximum cladophyll length (212.65 cm),breadth(43.43 cm), cladophyll stalk length(11.09 cm), maximum internodal length(3.12 cm) and minimum physiological weight loss(39.56 %) was recorded in Asparagus setaceus syn.plumosus followed by Asparagus densiflorus ‘Sprengeri’. Asparagus densiflorus ‘Sprengeri’ compacta was early to initiate newer cladophyll(3.80 days) and produced maximum cut foliage yield/year(1677.28 no’s) but it recorded least plant spread of 38.82cm(E-W direction) and 38.98 cm (N-S direction), minimum cladophyll length(23.87 cm), cladophyll breadth(6.32 cm),minimum no:of branches per cladophyll (8.93), minimum cladophyll stalk girth(0.14 cm), lowest fresh weight(2.16 g) and less vase life(6.20 days). Asparagus densiflorus ‘Myers’ recorded maximum vase life(11.20 days), followed by Asparagus setaceus syn. Plumosus (8.40 days). Keeping these characters in view, ornamental asparagus species viz., Asparagus setaceus syn. plumosus and Asparagus densiflorus ‘Sprengeri’ were found to be highly suitable for cut foliage production because of their attractive lustrous and good size foliages, higher yield and good keeping quality.

Vijay Shankar

National Institute of Technology Hamirpur, India

Title: Effect of plant parameters on moisture uptake based irrigation scheduling
Biography:

Vijay Shankar completed PhD from IIT Roorkee in 2007 and presently working as Associate Professor at Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Hamirpur. He has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals and international and national conference proceedings.

Abstract:

Improved irrigation water management requires precise scheduling of irrigation, which in turn requires an accurate computation of daily crop water use. Crop water use is dependent on soil moisture uptake by plants. Moisture uptake based irrigation scheduling necessitates modeling the water movement in the cropped soil by formulating a numerical model solving the moisture flow equation in the unsaturated soil coupled with a sink term representing moisture uptake by plants. In the present study a numerical model, based on a mass conservative, fully implicit finite difference scheme has been formulated, wherein Richards equation coupled with a non-linear root water uptake term has been subjected to appropriate boundary conditions. The model yields spatial distribution of pressure head and moisture content at successive advancing times in the soil. From the model computed moisture contents, the moisture depletion values at different zones of crop root at different times are computed by numerical integration. The input data required for prediction of soil moisture uptake by plants includes soil parameters, plant parameters and meteorological parameters to compute evapotranspiration. Field experiments under controlled conditions on a crop “Maize” were performed at Semi-arid and hill-temperate agro-climates of Roorkee and Hamirpur respectively. Study focuses on effect of different plant parameters on moisture uptake prediction. Investigations reveal that measured plant parameters i.e., root length, leaf area index and plant height, are insufficient to accurately predict moisture depletion in upper and lower layers of root zone. This results in improper irrigation schedules. Study puts forward plant parameters which have potential to accurately predict moisture uptake in entire crop root zone and optimised irrigation schedules.

Biography:

Anthony Egba was from Nigeria attened as a speaker on 4th International Conference onAgriculture & Horticulture.

Abstract:

One of the challenges that are facing the world today is the challenge of the food security and how to feed the continuous and never ending increasing population of the world.
In Sub-Sahara African countries, the average age of farmers today is between 55-60 years and the youths are not actually interested in taking up farming in traditional ways of hoe and cutlass.
If the youth must be encouraged taking to agriculture, new ways of farming and food production is necessary. This new way must be Appropriate, Technologically driven Sustainable and Energy efficient.
Appropriate Technology
“Much of what we purchase is not essential for our survival or even basic human comfort, but is based on impulse, novelty, a momentary desire. And there is a hidden price that we, nature and future generations will pay.-David Suzuki"
An appropriate technology is the use of tools, materials and processes that is accessible, affordable, easy-to-use, maintain and effective to solve a problem or fill a need and improve the human condition - and most importantly, to serves a real need"
Appropriate technology is environmentally selective and sensitive , what you can describe as appropriate technology in China may not be appropriate in Nigerian and what may be appropriate in one agricultural ecology may not be appropriate in another ecology
Appropriate technology is suitable for the conditions of a given situation.
Solves problems in a way that is fitting for the people who will use it and sustainable for the natural environment.

Speaker
Biography:

Samira Mumtaz has completed her M.Sc at the age of 22 from The University of Azad Jammu And Kashmir Muzaffarabad. She is the student of M.Phil at The University of Azad Jammu And Kashmir Muzaffarabad. She has completed her M.Phil research work under the supervision of Dr. Tahseen Ghous.

Abstract:

The present work is intended to exploit Flow injection technique for the preconcentration and determination of Cr (VI) in a biosorption column by Staphylococcus aureus staticbiomass immobilized on powdered egg shells as an effective and low cost biosorbent. The procedure is based on the retention of the analyte from buffered solution in a biosorption column and then its elution with NaCl and determination in the form of purple red Cr (VI) comlex with 1,5 diphenylcarbazide at 545 nm in acidic medium. The effect of various parameters such as pH of sample solution, volume of sample, different eluents, their concentrations and flow rate was investigated. The maximum preconcentration of Cr (VI) was achieved at pH 3 at the flow rate 1.2 ml min-1. The proposed method has a linear calibration range from 0.05-100 µgL-1 of Cr (VI) with regression Y= 0.0022x+0.0891 R2=0.987. The limit of detection was 0.05µgL-1 (50ngL-1). This system showed good precession and accuracy with enrichment factor 2.5 for calibration curve 0.05-100 µgL-1with relative standard deviation of 4.4% at 0.05 µgL-1. The sampling frequency was 12 samples h-1. The effect of various cations and anions was studied which have not induced any significant interference in determining Cr (VI).
Keywords: Preconcentration: Biosorption: Eluent: Biomass: Frequency.

Biography:

N. Narayana Reddy got his doctorate in Horticulture from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. Presently he is the Principal Scientist in Horticulture at CRIDA, Hyderabad under ICAR. He served the Council in different capacities for the past 28 years. Handled important Inter Institutional projects, associated with 21 national and international training programmes, developed 51 doable technologies of practical relevance, got 40 national and international professional awards and recognitions, guided 16 M.Sc., M.Tech and PhD students, published 134 research papers, books, book chapters, bulletins and others, expert member of INDIA GAP, NHB and on the board of various committees.

Abstract:

The present pace of climate change exerts influence on growth and developmental activities of horticultural commodities with respect to production timing, product quality, availability of inputs and their costs, cultural practices, pests and diseases, post-harvest and marketing costs and the environment. Financial viability and Priority issues within the Climate Change Response Strategy will be discussed with extreme events like unusually low or high rainfall, extremes in temperature, intense sunlight or wind like that of Phailin Cyclone in East Coast of India cause harm to the crops and animals. Suitable fruit and vegetable species and varieties for SAT regions, benefits of farm pond water harvesting system, conservation of natural resources, nutrient management and intercropping of annuals within the perennial fruit tree component are discussed. Technologies to combat climate change related issues and possible remedial measures, issues related to soil degradation, decrease in water resources, high energy requirement associated with projected climate change scenarios and mitigation measures for sustainable crop production and fuel economy are covered. Fecilitation to create reliable water resources for life saving irrigation atleast in the initial years of orcharding, measures to deal with adverse edaphic factors during consecutive droughts and cyclones and creating congenial conditions for proper phenological events for subsequent crop yields along with the case studies forming part of On Farm Adoptive Research (OFAR) trials conducted in different states of India and some success stories arose there on.

Biography:

Biography Rakesh S. Chandran is an Extension Specialist and Professor at West Virginia University. He received a B.Sc. in Agriculture from Kerala Agricultural University, M.S in Environmental Horticulture from the University of Florida, and PhD in Weed Science from Virginia Tech. His carries out outreach and applied research in weed science for all commodities in West Virginia, teaches two courses, and coordinates the IPM program. His publications include 3 book chapters, 13 peer-reviewed journal articles, and numerous extension articles. He is currently the President-Elect of the Northeastern Weed Science Society (NEWSS), and a member of the editorial board of ‘Agronomy’.

Abstract:

Conventional weed management programs in Zea mays L. provide close to complete weed control. Field experiments at grower-locations were conducted in West Virginia, USA, from 2010 to 2013, to compare banded and broadcast applications of residual herbicides. A herbicide pre-mixture containing atrazine, metolachlor, and mesotrione was applied either as broadcast applications or as bands 38 cm wide over corn rows spaced 75 cm apart. While broadcast applications provided the active ingredients at 0.84, 2.24, and 0.224 kg.ha-1, banded applications kept the same herbicides at half the application rates per hectare. At all locations, corn yields recorded were similar between banded and broadcast plots. Banding herbicides may not only reduce herbicide use but may also provide other benefits such as reduced soil erosion and nutrient runoff, habitat for beneficial insects and natural enemies, and increased levels of floral biodiversity and resultant levels of carbon sequestration. Buildup of weed seed bank remains to be the primary concern among growers. An integrated approach may be necessary to address this. Herbicides may be band-applied only when expected weed populations are below a certain threshold, and mechanical methods may have to be implemented to reduce the buildup of weed seed bank. Services provided by vascular plants to the ecosystem are affected by reductions in floral diversity and strategies to restore the same in cornfields without affecting yields significantly may be worthwhile. If determined to be a viable practice following further research, this approach may have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to modern cropping systems.

Biography:

Vitthalrao Khyade is working on Department of Zoology, Shardabai Pawar Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Shardanagar, Pune, India. He is also a member of Agriculture Development Trust, India.

Abstract:

The honey bees are well known for their behavior for effective communication. The biogenic amines exert a significant influence on the behavior in insects like honey bees. The present attempt is concerned with analysis of the levels of biogenic amines, like octopamine, dopamine and serotonin in the brain of worker honey bee, Apismellifera (L). The bioassay of the amines was carried out through the High Performance Liquid Chromatography with electrochemical detection. The influence of various factors on the levels of octopamine, dopamine and serotonin was analyzed. Exiting foragers were stressed by clamping their legs , which resulted in significant increase in the level of octopamine and serotonin after ten minutes. The seasonal variations in the levels of the three amines were found observed for the sampled from the colony during spring, summer and autumn. The levels of the three amines were highest during June – September, which correspond to high levels of colony foraging activity. The variations in the levels of the amines may reflect seasonal changes in colony nutrition, population size or brood rearing activities. In comparison with the randomly aged worker bees, the newly emerged bees were found with significantly lower levels of the three amines in their brain.
Keywords: Biogenic amines, Apis mellifera, stress, cerebral ganglia.

Biography:

Sanjay Singh has completed his Doctorate degree in Genetics & Plant Breeding in 1999 from Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India and thereafter associated in wheat research and coordination as wheat breeder at the Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal, the nodal centre for wheat & barley research in India. Released 09 wheat varieties and registered 11 wheat genetic stocks for various traits. Published 188 research papers/ abstracts/chapters, etc., pertaining to wheat crop in particular in journals of national /international repute. Recipient of several awards including Lal Bahadur Shastri Young Scientist Award (ICAR) in 2007 & Young Scientist Award of the Council of Science and Technology, UP in 2008.

Abstract:

Today, wheat is grown on more land area than any other commercial crop and continues to be the most important food grain source for humans. This golden cereal is the most important winter crop grown during rabi season from October to April. India, one of the greatest success stories of Green Revolution, has been highly recognised due to its significant contribution of approx. 12% to the global wheat basket for food security to mankind. India is maintaining its second position of wheat producing nations since last 12 years and the continuous record breaking wheat harvest to the tune of 94.88 million tons during 2011-12 crop season and 92.46m tones during 2012-13. The successful wheat improvement programme is resultant of breeding efforts based on very rich Indian wheat biodiversity that represents three species under cultivation. National repository at NBPGR, New Delhi has maintained nearly 25000 wheat accessions and more than 11000 wheat accessions maintained in germplasm repository at the DWR, Karnal serves as the main source of active germplasm collection for wheat improvement programme in India. The wheat genetic resources of Indian origin have been widely used in global wheat improvement programmes as these are the potential sources of abiotic stress tolerance and better quality traits. More than 400 wheat genotypes have so far been released since 1965 for commercial cultivation under different production conditions in the six wheat producing mega-zones in India. The genetic enhancement in wheat cultivars was achieved through combination of various traits and their evaluation under national coordinated evaluation system. Recent cultivars have not only contributed to the gain in yield potential but these have been providing sustainability to yield levels through resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. There is need to emphasize more on pre-breeding activities for parental building so that more genetic variability can be developed for further strengthening of wheat improvement programme for sustainable national as well as regional food security.

Biography:

P. Jeyakumar has completed his M.Sc (Ag) in Crop Physiology from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore and PhD from Forest Research Institute (FRI), Dehradun, India. He has undergone postdoctoral training in postharvest physiology at McGill University, Canada and ARO Volcani Centre, Israel. He has received the Best Researcher Award from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and Eminent Scientist Award from National Environmental Science Academy, New Delhi. He has published more than 60 papers in reputed journals and presented many papers in International Conferences across the globe. Prof. P. Jeyakumar is serving as the Technical Editor of The Madras Agricultural Journal and as Research Coordinator, Department of Crop Physiology, TNAU, Coimbatore, India.

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to study the physiological effects of a bioinoculant (NovoBac) on growth and yield of vegetable cowpea var.VBN 2. The morpho-physiological, biochemical, nutrio-physiological and yield parameters of cowpea were significantly influenced by the biostimulant. NovoBac seed treatment @ 2g/kg + soil drenching @ 500g/ha on 15 days after sowing (DAS) favourably influenced the plant height. A significant increase in the number of leaves and root length was recorded by NovoBac seed treatment @ 2g/kg + soil drenching @ 500g/ha on 15 DAS. The data on crop growth analysis also revealed the significant influence of NovoBac treatments. The physiological and biochemical constituents such as soluble protein content and the IAA oxidase enzymes activity were greatly enhanced. The yield and yield components such as days to 50 percent flowering, number of flowers per plant, number of pods per plant, fertility co-efficient, number of seeds per pod, pod weight per plant, pod length and hundred seed weight were significantly influenced by the biostimulant (NovoBac). The quality of seeds was also improved by this treatment through enhanced protein content. A close scrutiny of the data on correlation studies showed that pod yield was significant and positively correlated with the traits such as plant height, root length, leaf area index, leaf area duration, crop growth rate, dry matter accumulation, chlorophyll, soluble protein, IAA oxidase, uptake of NPK, bacterial population and soil dehydrogenase activity. It is concluded from the present study that NovoBac seed treatment @ 2g/kg + soil drenching @ 500g/ha on15DAS resulted in higher vegetable pod yield (6.22 t ha-1). However, considering the B:C ratio, NovoBac seed treatment @ 2g/kg + soil drenching @ 250g/ha on 15 DAS) was found to record higher ratio of 1: 2.26

Speaker
Biography:

Partho Dhang received his PhD from University of Madras in 1994. His research interests were on insect physiology, natural products, semio-chemicals and microbial pesticides. A number of his research work has been published in peer reviewed journals such as iPhytochemistry/i, Journal of Chemical Ecology, Applied Entomology, and Journal of Royal Entomology Society. Partho Dhang moved his interest to urban entomology in year 2000, with his main interest for bio-rational and sustainable methods of managing urban insect pests. In 2011 he published his first book titled “Urban Pest Management: An Environmental Perspective” from CAB International London. He is presently working on his second book with the same publisher.

Abstract:

SPLAT or Specialized Pheromone & Lure Application Technology developed by ISCA Technologies, a California based company was used to demonstrate the ease by which elusive insect pests could be managed. The test insect pests were Bactrocera philippinensis (fruit fly), a pest of fruits and vegetables and Oryctes rhinoceros (rhinoceros beetle) a pest of oil palm and coconut. Both are economically important pest in the Philippines and conventional way of treatment has often failed to limit control. While the SPLAT formulation designed for B. philippinensis was a lure and kill formulation the one developed for B. rhinoceros was a lure and capture formulation.
The work also showed a number of advantages of SPLAT particularly with regards its ease as an application method such as by the use of spatula, caulking gun, metered backpack sprayer; ability to vary release rates and duration of efficacy depending on the size of the SPLAT dollop; lesser use of insecticide; visible evidence for pest elimination etc., to attract attention from farmers.
The formulation attracted and helped mass capture and kill both pests soon after it application. Further the efficacy of the formulation was evaluated over a 90 day period. The results are discussed in this paper.

Biography:

Mohammud Soliman is a plant biologist and the head of the plant protection department at South Valley University, Egypt. He is honored with the License for the use of radioactive isotopes in scientific research from the Egyptian ministry of health. He also organizes training camps for the agricultural engineers and farmers on Environmental &Healthy Awareness in Cooperation with Safe Agriculture for Farmers in Egypt.

Abstract:

The efficacy of five insecticides i.e., diazinon, malathion, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen and tolfenpyrad against Helicoverpa armigera on okra plants were studied. In addition to determining the levels of two pesticide residues, i.e. dazinon and malathion on and in okra fruits, diazinon found to be the highly potent insecticide. The LC50 and LC90 values were 9.78 and 133.74 ppm. The other tested insecticides were arranged according to their LC50’s in descending order as follow: malathion; methoxyfenozide; pyriproxyfen and tolfenpyrad. The corresponding values of the LC50 were 26.06; 66.81; 75.96 and 82.35 ppm. The toxic effect of diazinon insecticide was 4.163 folds as toxic as that of tolfenpyrad at LC50 level. There were differences between the control and treatments at the mean numbers of larvae. Mean numbers of live H. armigera larval stages were decreased post treatment from 55, 52, 46, 44 and 40 to 20.00, 23.87, 25.60, 28.13 and 29.00, with diazinon, malathion, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen and tolfenpyrad, respectively. Considering the general mean number of H. armigera larval stages after the end of experiment, diazinon and malathion were the most efficient insecticides followed by methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen and tolfenpyrad, respectively. The efficacy of the tested insecticides was also, expressed as a percent reduction in live larval stage of bollworm insect 1, 3, 7, 10 and 15 days post spraying three times. The tested insecticides, diazinon, malathion, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen and tolfenpyrad against H. armigera larval stage reducing the percent infestation on okra plants. It could be concluded that diazinon and malathion were the most effective treatment at all periods after the three spraying with mean reduction percentages being 72.65, 86.18, 91.16 and 65.70, 81.02, 89.67 %, for diazinon and malathion, respectively. The amounts of diazinon and malathion residues detected on unwashed and washed okra fruits. The initial deposit of diazinon was 8.816 ppm in okra fruits. The residue of diazinon decreased to 4.576 ppm within 24 hours after application, showing 48.09 % loss. The residues of diazinon continuously deteriorated to different degrees where no residues detected after fifteen days of application. The initial deposit of malathion was 16.453 ppm. The residual level reached to 0.002 ppm after 15 days of application. The dissipation was high after five and seven days after application, were 1.168 and 0.436 ppm, respectively. Washing and different processing steps process significantly reduced the residues of diazinon and malathion insecticides to a clear extent. The initial deposits of diazinon and malathion on okra pods reduced from 8.816 and 16.453 ppm to 4.365 and 6.248 ppm at the initial deposited after washing revealing a rate of removing of 50.49 and 62.03 %. Freezing and storage processing caused complete removal of diazinon residues on okra fruits after four months where after six months for malathion. Draying process resulted in removal of 93.94 and 93.55 % of diazinon and malathion on okra fruits. Keywords: Insecticides, diazinon, malathion, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen and tolfenpyrad, effectiveness, Helicoverpa armigera and residue in and on okra fruits

Biography:

Apolinario Jr Gonzaga has obtained her Ph.D degree in agriculture from  University of the Philippines Los Banos in 2013. His specialty is corn cropping system.

Abstract:

In Southern Philippines, the last remaining frontiers for agricultural expansion are the sloping uplands. This ecosystem is considered to be fragile, vulnerable and has delicate resource. Owing to physiography, soil erosion is prevalent and excessive. In this agro ecosystem, corn is a major crop grown both for food and feed. Present cropping system is counterproductive to long term sustainability, hence soil erosion is destructive and rainfall is intensive. Conservation Agriculture Practice Systems (CAPS) is a tailor-fitted approach for successful adoption and implementation of Conservation Agriculture. The three main pillars of CAPS, namely: 1) continuous crop rotation 2) minimal tillage and 3) continuous ground cover were tested in synchrony using corn as test crop in this sloping oxisol. A one year study (November 2011 to November 2012) was conducted to determine and evaluate key physiological and agronomic parameters of corn under CAPS such as net assimilation ratio (NAR), crop growth rate (CGR), partitioning coefficient (PC), harvest index (HI), dry matter and yield and yield components. Five cropping systems (CS); CS1- (corn + Arachis pintoi -corn + Arachis pintoi) CS2- (corn + Stylosanthes guaniensis - corn + Stylosanthes guaniensis) CS3- (corn + cowpea –upland rice- corn + cowpea) CS4-(corn + rice bean – corn + rice bean) and CS5- (corn- corn) were implemented. Physiological parameters were measured at 30, 65 and 85 days after planting (DAP). HI, yield and yield components were determined during harvest. NAR values at 30-60 and 60-85 DAP differed among cropping systems and between growing seasons. CGR was not affected by cropping systems at 30-60 DAP in both cropping seasons. However, cropping systems influenced CGR at 60-85 DAP. Partitioning coefficient was influenced by the interaction effects of cropping systems and growing seasons at 65 and 85 DAP, wherein results followed similar trend especially for the dry matter allocated to the leaf and straw in both cropping seasons. Between cropping systems, CS2 and CS4 showed peculiar trend of dry matter partitioning. Corn intercropped with S. guianensis had more dry matter partitioned to the stem at vegetative stage (30 DAP) and had the second highest PC to the ear at 85 DAP (active grain filling stage). Similarly, when corn was intercropped with rice and bean, the corn plant invested more on its leaf organ at early stage (30 DAP), while more to the ear at 85 DAP. HI of 0.43 was obtained in CS1 which is significantly higher than the rest (CS2-CS5) of the cropping systems, having values of 0.3-0.33, respectively. Higher grain yields were obtained in cropping systems under CAPS or corn intercropped or sequenced with legume) compared to the conventional (CS5) cropping system. Highest yield was obtained in CS4 which is comparable with the recorded grain yields of CS2 and CS3, respectively. Highest grain yield (mean between seasons) was obtained in CS2. Initial results indicated viable adaptation of CAPS and its sub-components under local condition drawing special inferences for the tropical sloping areas.
Keywords: Conservation Agriculture Practice Systems, cropping systems, sloping uplands, oxisol, Southern Philippines

Biography:

Yoro Sidibé is a specialist in water engineering and water economics. His research focuses on agricultural productivity and investment, adaptation to climate change and the variability of water resources. He has experience with several economic methods including econometrics, mathematical programming and simulation. One of his present research interests is to model the links between adaptation to climate change, soil biodiversity conservation issues. He is involved in several projects with the International Water Management Institute (IWMI).

Abstract:

We analyse the role of pricing systems in the adaptation to climate change. A stochastic agro-economic model is developed to reflect farmers’ land allocation, water reservation and irrigation intensity decisions for different crops. The model is then used to assess how the representative farmer in south western France would adapt to given climate change scenarios. We show that a change in average rainfall or in rainfall variability would lead to different types of consequences and managerial implications. If average rainfall is the most affected variable, then the farmers will change their allocation of land to different crops and the manager’s revenue will be reduced. But if rainfall variability is mostly affected, the farmer will only change the allocation of water between crops once the climatic event has been observed and the manager’s revenue will be increased. Furthermore, with the different adaptation mechanisms and specific pricing systems, the impact of climate change on the farmers’ profit would be significantly reduced. Finally, we formulate policy recommendations to facilitate adaptation to climate change and to reach water management objectives. The model developed is suited for several agricultural environments.

Biography:

K. Senthilkumar has completed PhD in Agronomy in 2008 with C.T. de Wit Postgraduate School for Production Ecology and Resource Conservation, Wageningen University, Plant Research International (PRI), The Netherlands. As a post-doctoral researcher, he worked on ‘global food security studies’ at PRI, Wageningen, Netherlands. He worked on ‘Phosphorus cycles at national and regional scales for France’ in INRA-Bordeaux sciences agro, Bordeaux, France. He also worked on ‘Modelling maize agronomic adaptation to climate change in south-western France’ at INRA, Toulouse, France. Currently, he is working as a Systems Agronomist at Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), which is one of 15 CGIAR center focusing rice research in Africa and he is based in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. He published more than 10 research papers in high impact, international journals and also more than 20 papers in international conference and seminar proceedings.

Abstract:

The looming water crisis led the search for alternative water management methods in rice cultivation in south India. Experiments were conducted under on-station and on-farm conditions which confirmed the possibilities for saving water up to 40% with a yield advantage of 1.5 t ha–1 by using Modified Rice Cultivation (MRC) methods. However, adoption of MRC by farmers remained limited due to social and biophysical constraints. Four rice-based farm types were identified based on biophysical and socio-economic characteristics of the farms and opportunities were identified to adopt one or more components of MRC, but change in government policies are needed to improve adoption such as rules and regulations, pricing, institution building and infrastructure development, as well as training and education to farmers. A multi objective linear programming (MGLP) model was developed to explore quantitatively the impact of government policies introducing water pricing and water quota on adoption of MRC including water-saving irrigation and related impact on farm profit. The combination of modifying rice cultivation and water pricing was effective in achieving both the objectives of farmers and the society at large. The required degree of water pricing has to be kept low since higher prices lead to decrease in farm profit. Impact differed across farm types and affected poor resource endowed farmers most. Providing water quota can be an option to protect the livelihoods of poor resource endowed farmers. Apart from government water pricing and quota, policy instruments such as training and education in MRC practices, development of irrigation infrastructure and organised cooperative management of commonly available water resources could have impact on the adoption of MRC.
Keywords: Water-saving, Farm typology, Technology adoption, Policy intervention, Farmers livelihoods and modelling.

Speaker
Biography:

Salah Er-Raki holds a PhD in agricultural water management from the Cadi Ayyad University. He was actually Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Cadi Ayyad University. His main research interests include the application of remotely sensed data in land-surface atmosphere models especially in arid semi-arid regions. He worked in several Funded European research projects (SUDMED, WATERMED, IRRIMED, Pleiades). He is an author and co-author of more than 35 per review publications and more than 100 papers in conferences and workshops. He serves also as an editorial board member and reviewer of several international scientific journals.

Abstract:

Regions classified as semi-arid or arid constitute roughly one third of the total global land cover. In these regions, water consumption has significantly increased over the last decades, while available water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. Water scarcity is one of the main factors limiting agricultural development and yield. The impact of such water scarcity is amplified by inefficient irrigation practices, especially since the irrigation consumes more than 85% of the available water in these regions. Therefore, the first step toward sound management of the scarce water resources in these regions requires an accurate estimation of the water needs and consumption of irrigated agriculture. The crop water need is defined as the amount of water needed to meet the amount of water lost to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration.
Over the last decades, several techniques and models have been developed for measuring and estimating crop evapotranspiration (ET). However, these methods estimate ET only at local scale. For regional application, satellite remote sensing data have been widely used to initialize, to force or to control hydrological model simulations and so to estimate spatial ET.
This work, which is part of the activities of the SudMed program (http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/fr/sud_med.html ) and the International Joint Laboratory TREMA (http://trema.ucam.ac.ma), aims to estimate ET by using a synergy approach combining in situ measurements, modeling and remote sensing data. Current applications of this approach in the semi-arid region of Tensift Al Haouz (center of Morocco) have been presented.

  • Track 9: Horticulture, Floriculture & Forestry
Speaker

Chair

Romaine Ramananarivo

University of Antananarivo, Madagascar

Speaker

Co-Chair

R. Nagarjuna Kumar

Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture (CRIDA), India

Session Introduction

Devi Prasad Juvvadi

Centre for Good Governance, India

Title: Value chain analysis of fresh vegetables in Medak district of Andhra Pradesh
Speaker
Biography:

Devi Prasad Juvvadi is serving as Director of Agriculture Management at Director Centre for Good Governance, India.

Abstract:

India is witnessing rapid changes in retailing of vegetables with increase in disposable income, changing lifestyle, preferences and eating habits of its population, increase in number of nuclear families and increased competition with entry of many players in retail marketing of vegetables.
The fresh fruit and vegetables value chain in the state of Andhra Pradesh is dominated by small-scale farmers cultivating an average of 1.3hectares. A study was carried for value chain analysis in two villages near Hyderabad city, the capital of the state where there is generally a lack of organization among farmers and a lack of organized fresh produce supply chains, with deficiencies in grades and standards and cold storage infrastructure.
Value Chain analysis is an important task because it focuses on end to end movement of vegetables from farmer to trader, middleman, wholesaler, retailer and vendor and finally reaching consumer. The current study takes a value chain approach to provide solutions that can aid in the economic development of small scale vegetable farmers by addressing the major constraints faced by farmers or producers, processors, traders and other businesses at multiple levels and points along a given value chain.
The results of the study indicated all the selected crops during the study period were profitable and economically viable as per benefit cost ratio. Among the crops tomato seems to be fetching more income to the farmers compared to beans and bhendi though the average market price was almost double than tomato. For every one rupee invested on tomato, beans and bhendi the farmers are realizing an additional income of Rs. 1.22, Rs. 0.77 and Rs. 1.05 respectively.

Speaker
Biography:

Shailendra Nath Mozumder has completed his PhD at the age of 44 years from BSMR Agricultural University and Postdoctoral studies from the same. He has published more than 60 papers in reputed journals, two books, four abstracts and 13 popular articles in different publications. He developed 6 fruits, 4 vegetables varieties and many sustainable technologies which are being used by the farmers of Bangladesh. Presently, he is serving as a Senior Scientific Officer of RSRC, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur, Bangladesh and doing research on spices crops.

Abstract:

The effects of different sowing method, seed rate and growth regulator treatment on germination and biomass production of Eryngium foetidum was studied at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University during December 2007 to July 2008 to standardize the seed rate, sowing density with growth regulator treatment. All the factors influenced seed germination, flowering and biomass production. Broadcasting or line sowing in closer spacing (10 cm) with hormone treatment (500 ppm GA3 + 50 ppm kinetin) increased germination, number of harvested plants, fresh weight and biomass. The highest number of seedlings (1891/m2), harvested plant (1212/m2) and fresh plant weight (55.73 t/ha) were obtained from broadcasting sowing of growth regulator treated 30 kg seeds/ha. The maximum biomass (6.38 t/ha) was produced when 30 kg/ha growth regulator treated seeds were sown in line sowing 10 cm apart.
Keywords: Biomass, Eryngium, germination, seed rate, sowing method.

Samir C. Debnath

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada

Title: In vitro and molecular techniques to propagate berry crops
Speaker
Biography:

Samir C. Debnath is a Research Scientist of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) in St. John’s, NL and an Adjunct Professor of Biology at the Memorial University of Newfoundland in Canada. He had been trained/worked in Bangladesh (Professor), India (PhD.; 1978-82), Germany (Postdoc; 1984-86) and in UK (Postdoc; 1993-94) before he joined AAFC in 1996. He has authored and co-authored more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles, has been a keynote speaker at international conferences; was the President of the Newfoundland and Labrador Institute of Agrologists (P.Ag.) and is the President of the Canadian Society for Horticultural Science.

Abstract:

Berry crops include, but are not limited to the members of the genera: Fragaria (strawberry; Rosaceae), Rubus (brambles: raspberry and blackberry; Rosaceae), Vaccinium (blueberry, cranberry and lingonberry; Ericaceae) and Ribes (currant and gooseberry; Grossulariaceae). Berry fruits contain relatively high levels of vitamin C, cellulose, and pectin, and produce anthocyanins which have important therapeutic values, including antitumor, antiulcer, antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Tremendous progress in plant tissue culture, resulting in great advances in micropropagation, has been occurred. Although automation of micropropagation in bioreactors has been advanced as a possible way of reducing propagation cost, optimal plant production depends upon better understanding of physiological and biochemical responses of plant to the signals of culture microenvironment and an optimization of specific physical and chemical culture conditions to control the morphogenesis of berry plants in liquid culture systems. However, scaling up of any micropropagation protocol can be hindered by somaclonal variation that can result from genetic changes due to mutation, epigenetic changes or a combination of both. Molecular markers have been introduced in tissue culture research. The paper describes the progress in-depth of various aspects of bioreactor micropropagation, and on the employment of molecular markers for the assessment of genetic fidelity, uniformity, stability and trueness-to-type among donor plants and tissue culture regenerants.

L. C. De

National Research Centre for Orchids, India

Title: Post -harvest physiology and technology in Orchids
Speaker
Biography:

L. C. De has completed his PhD at the age of 27 years from IARI, Pusa, New Delhi. Presently, he is a Principal Scientist presently working at NRC for Orchids, Pakyong, Sikkim. He has published 58 research papers and written 9 books on horticulture and floriculture, 25 book chapters, 15 technical bulletins, 58 research abstracts, 32 popular articles, 20 technical reports and 7 training manuals. He is awarded HSI Gold Medal in Floriculture during 2011. He is a member of several scientific societies, National Level Committees and referee of reputed journals.

Abstract:

Orchids account for a large share of global floriculture trade and are estimated around 10% of international fresh cut flower trade. They have taken a significant position in cut flower industry due to its attractiveness, diversity in forms, shape and colour, high productivity, right season of bloom, easy in packing and transportation. Postharvest life of orchid cut flowers is influenced by preharvest factors like varietal or species differences, light intensity, sugar level of flowers, temperature and water loss; harvest factors including time and stage of harvest and postharvest factors viz. ethylene production, precooling, pulsing, use of preservatives, packaging and storage.
The hybrids of Dendrobium, Vanda and Mokara remain perfect from 7 days to 30 days. The flowers of Cattleya and Phalaenopsis remain fresh for 1 to 4 weeks whereas Aranda lasts for 18 to 28 days. Higher sugar levels of flowers improve longevity of cut flowers. The optimum harvesting stage of commercial orchids is fully open and mature flowers. In Cymbidium hyb. ‘PCMV’, harvest at two buds opened stage had maximum vase life (66.8 days). Ethylene is the main factor responsible for early senescence. In Cymbidium hybrid ‘Red Princess’ pulsing with 5% sucrose increases vase life upto 56 days. Pulsing with 4mM STS for 10 minutes in Aranda and 0.5mM STS for 24 hours in Phalaenopsis blocks the deleterious effect of ethylene.
In tropical orchids like Dendrobium and Oncidium, AgNO3 (10-30 ppm) and HQS (50-100 ppm) extends vase life and bud opening of cut flowers. In Cymbidium, 1-MCP and AVG are superior than STS in prolonging the vase life of cut flowers. In Cymbidium ‘PCMV’, highest per cent of fully opened buds (75%) and maximum vase life (45 days) were recorded with the chemical combination of sugar 4% + salicylic acid 200 ppm.
In orchids, cut spikes are inserted in tube containing water or water with preservatives and bunch of 5 or more or individual spikes are placed inside the CFB box in alternate fashion. Cool growing orchids are stored at lower temperature even at 5oC in cold chambers whereas tropical and subtropical orchids are stored at 7-10oC and 90-95 % relative humidity.
Keywords: Orchids, ethylene, vase life, pre-harvest, post-harvest factors.

Rakotonirina Rija

University of Antananarivo, Madagascar

Title: The horticultural chain and the sacked free zones
Biography:

Abstract:

Regarding a context in which the income of the majority of the population has plummeted, due to the political crisis, shifted to an economical and social crisis, the horticultural chain seems to be a refuge-activity. Many workers of free zones, who were sacked after the revocation of the AGOA benefits, swing to be ambulant sellers or a flower shop. This study will give an answer to the problematic that ask how the horticultural chain absorbs the stream of these workers, and what the impact on the supply side is. A survey was conducted in order to have information about the financing of their investment and their exploitation, and to know their opinion about the gender or the family issues. The main methodology consists of doing a factorial analysis to determine the most important variables. Recommendations will be given to all stakeholders, public or private, with a full respect of the scientific approach.
Keywords: Horticultural chain, free zones, supply, gender, family.

Speaker
Biography:

After post graduation from IARI, New Delhi, R. R. Sharma joined as Scientist there in 1997. He is Senior Scientist and associated with release of mango hybrids like Pusa Arunima, Pusa Surya, Pusa Lalima, Pusa Shresth, Pusa Pitamber etc., He has published 40 research articles in International journals, 60 in National journals, and authored 8 books. He is recipient of Dr. R.N. Singh award (twice), Dr Rajinder Prasad award (twice), and Himachal Shri Award. He has also served as International Mango Registrar for about 5 years (1999-2004). He is member, editorial board of Scientia Horticulturae, International Journal of Fruit Science (U.K.), American Journal of Plant Sciences (US), Journal of Food Processing and Technology (US), and Stewart Postharvest Reviews (UK), and Chief Editor of International Journal of Processing and Postharvest Technology, India.

Abstract:

Apple is considered as 'king of temperate fruits' in the world. In India, it is grown in hilly states like Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarkhand, NE states and to some extent in hilly regions of south India. From hills, apples are transported to plains for storage or marketing. During culture, apple is infested by several insect-pest and diseases, for which several insecticides and fungicides are sprayed. In general, Red coloured apples are preferred by the consumers in the market. For inducing red colour on apples, farmers use chemicals like ethrel, which may be injurious to human health. Similarly, during marketing, transportation and storage, apples suffer from several diseases and disorders. For the control of different diseases and disorders, farmers and traders use several chemicals and postharvest fungicides like carnedazim, thiabendazole, imazalil and captan are used, which are again injurious to human health. Hence, efforts worldover have been started to find out some non-chemical approaches to reduce the incidence of diseases and disorders in fruits including apple. Several studying have indicated that pre-harvest fruit bagging has been proved to be very useful in studying anthocyanin and reducing the incidence of insect-pests, sun scorching in several other fruits. Experiments on fruit bagging have given different results in different fruits crops. Hence, experiments were conducted to study the effect of single-layered spun-bounded fabric bags in apple cv. Royal Delicious. Studies were conducted in the Division of Post Harvest Technology, IARI. New Delhi-12 during 2010-12. Apples were bagged with single layered spun-bound fabric bags about one month before harvesting, in a private orchard at Kullu (H.P.) and the bagged fruits were re-exposed to sunlight for 3 days before harvesting. After harvesting, observations on colour, insect-pests, disease incidence and fruit Ca contents were taken. After initial observations, apples were stored at 2oC with 90-95% RH for 6 months, during which observations were recorded on fruit firmness, fruit Ca content, LOX activity, occurrence of diseases and disorders and quality parameters at monthly interval.
Standard procedures were adopted for taking these observations. Results indicated that bagging has resulted apples in the development of attractive red colour in apples over non-bagged apples. The incidence of sooty blotch and fly speech was significantly reduced (0.0%) over non-bagged apples (22.6%). Similarly, the incidence of San Jose scale was only 2.2% in bagged apples than non-bagged ones (12.6%). Fruit bagging has also affected the fruit firmness and quality of apples. At harvest, bagged fruits had higher firmness (38.6 N), Ca content (5.38 mg/100g) and LOX activity (1.38 µmoles min-1 g-1 FW) than non- bagged apples.
Fruit TSS (13.6 oB) and ascorbic acid content (28.6 mg /100 pulp) were also better in bagged fruits and their quality in respect to TSS, ascorbic acid etc, were also better over non-bagged apples. During storage, there was drastic reduction in disorders such as bitter pit, cork pit and brown core in the bagged fruits than non-bagged ones. At the end of 6th month of storage, the incidence of bitter pit (14.5%), cork pit (4.8%) and brown core (7.8%) was significantly higher in non-bagged apples than non-bagged ones.
Based on our results, it can be concluded that fruit bagging is a simple, eco-friendly technology, which has multifarious effects on apple fruits.

Speaker
Biography:

Sushil Saxena completed his PhD degrees in Forest Entomology as well as in Agricultural Entomology at the age of 45 and 48 years from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, and Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, respectively. He is the Principal Investigator of ICAR funded IPM and NICRA Projects. He has published more than 50 research papers in various International journal and National journals and is on the advisory panel of “Fruits” (International journal) and Journal of Applied Zoological Researches. He has more than 29 years of research experience in Horticultural Entomology and has won two national awards.

Abstract:

Abundance of major insect-pests of Indian bean cv. Gujarat papdi was studied at standard week wise interval during 2011-12 at Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, India. Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) population commenced from 41 standard meteorological week (SMW) attaining peak (8.28/leaf) during 4 SMW. The population indicated significant and negative correlation with temperature (maximum, minimum and average) (‘r’ = -0.6463, -0.5697 and -0.6162). Total contribution of all the weather factors was 31.62 per cent indicating significant correlation coefficient (R = 0.5623). Leaf miner, Liriomyza trifoli (Burgess) damage commenced from 41 SMW attaining peak status (34.86 %) at 5 SMW. It indicated significant positive correlation with wind velocity (‘r’= 0.6270) and negative correlation with temperature (maximum, minimum and average) (‘r’= - 06157, -0.4958 and -0.5562). Total impact of all the weather factors was 41.54 per cent indicating significant correlation coefficient (R= 0.6445). Aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch) oriented damage initiated from 48 SMW which attained peak (3.65) at 3 SMW exhibiting significant and positive correlation with wind velocity (‘r’= 0.5160) but significant and negative correlation with temperature (maximum, minimum and average) (‘r’ = -0.7219, -0.5619 and -0.6398). The multiple correlation coefficient (R= 0.7011) was significant explaining 49.16 per cent variation due to all the weather factors. Pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) population commenced on 49 SMW attaining peak (6.21 larvae/plant) at 18th WAS. It indicated significant positive correlation with wind velocity (‘r’= 0.4590) and significant negative correlation with temperature (maximum, minimum and average) (‘r’ = -0.6992, -0.5701 and -0.6376).

Bhuvaneswari S

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, India

Title: Fresh cut fruits and vegetables for ready to cook and eat
Speaker
Biography:

Bhuvaneswari S is having 12 years of research experience in the field of Post Harvest Technology. Her research contributions are in the area of post harvest management of fresh fruits and vegetables as well as in small scale processing of fruit juices and beverages. She has published research papers in reputed journals as well as presented her research work (both oral and poster papers) in national and international seminars.

Abstract:

Fruits and vegetables consumption plays a key role in healthy diet. The World Health organization suggests a daily intake of 400g of fruits and vegetables by a normal adult. In the urbanized living, where time is a limiting factor, this ready to use fruits and vegetables is available in easy to use form with minimal waste. The preparation involves trimming, peeling, cutting, sanitizing and packing conveniently to offer consumer fully usable product with high nutritive value, increased shelf life and without much change in their freshness. The cutting of the fresh fruits and vegetables causes destruction of surface cells, wounding of underlying tissue which causes biochemical and physiological reactions that results in shelf life reduction and quality deterioration. To overcome this, surface treatment is done by dipping the freshly cut pieces into aqueous solutions which may be antimicrobial agent to prevent microbial growth, antioxidants to prevent browning or firmness agents like calcium salts to improve tissue firmness. The selection of treatment depends on the type of the produce. The success of the fresh cut fruits and vegetables in the marketplace will be made possible by convenient package which will extend the shelf life without quality deterioration. Till today, most of the temperate fruits and vegetables are sold in fresh cut form, there is a wide scope for nutritive rich tropical fruits and vegetable to transform into fresh cut, ready to use form to find a place in domestic as well as export market in both developed and developing countries.

Biography:

D Vijayalakshmi has completed her PhD in Food Science and Nutrition from College of Agricultural Science, Bangalore. She is the Professor and head of the Department of Food Science and nutrition, University of Agricultural sciences. She has published many papers in the area of community nutrition and dietetics in many national and international journals.

Abstract:

Mango (Mangifera indica) is “King” of fruits. Its production and consumption has gradually increased. As mango peel is not currently being utilized, discarded as waste and becoming source of pollution. The edible pulp makes up to 33 to 85 per cent of the fresh fruit, while the peel and the kernel amounts to 7–24 and 9–40 per cent respectively. It contains total polyphenols (TPP) and total dietary fiber (TDF) which needs to be exploited as natural phyto- nutrients. Hence the present study sought to determine the processing of mango peel, development of food products from the extractions, sensory evaluation and shelf life study. The results revealed that Mango peel powder is good source of protein 3.8g, fat 2.6g, crude fiber 8.9g, carbohydrate 86.4g, ash 3.3g and energy 384 Kcal per 100g. Mineral content of the peel was 4.15 calcium, 0.45 phosphorous, 4.62 iron and 2.85 zinc mg/100g respectively. The total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber was 69.86, 44.23 and 24.63g/100g of MPP; β-carotene 5600 µg/g; total polyphenols 4.5 mg GAE/100g and antioxidant activity 76.96 per cent. These extracts were incorporated at different levels in formulation of bakery and extruded products which enhanced nutrition and shelf life of products. Hence the TPP and DF can be commercially exploited as natural anti-oxidants which are useful in nutraceutical formulation in the management of life style disorders.

R. Nagarjuna Kumar

Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture (CRIDA), India

Title: Identification of Pomegranate Orchard using combination of image analysis techniques
Speaker
Biography:

R. Nagarjuna Kumar has been working as Scientist (Computer Applications in Agriculture) at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad under ICAR. He has experience in applying information technology tools to Horticultural crops and Dry land Agriculture in India. He has experience in teaching and guided students for their project works. He has developed information systems expert system and decision support systems. His areas of research are developing web based applications and application of GIS and Remote sensing for land use land classification for management of agricultural resources.

Abstract:

Horticulture crops are an important component of food and a source of income to the farmers. These commodities undergo severe fluctuations both in production and consumption, thus facing unreliable price and market. Reliable and timely estimates of area of horticultural crops provide valuable information in market planning and export. Updated and accurate database is pre-requisite for systematic planning of horticulture sector be it area expansion, increase in productivity or creating post harvest handling facilities. There is no systematic survey of orchard crops for area, and orchard status in the country, which act as the major impediment in the development of horticulture scenario. Pomegranate is one of the most important fruit crop of India and grown for domestic and export purposes. Keeping in view the importance of pomegranate in India, the space technology including remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) are used in delineating the pomegranate orchard area of Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh was selected as study area, to estimate the pomegranate acreage. Ground truth data were collected on orchard locations, condition and phonological stages. IRS -1D digital data from LISS – III (path 99/62, of 1st February 2011,99/63 of 1st February 2011 and 100/62 of 2nd March 2011 and 100/63 of 13th January 2011) and LIS IV were acquired and ERDAS image 9.2 package was used for image processing. Satellite images were registered and joined using mosaic option of ERDAS package. Toposheet of Anantapur district was used to extract the subset of Anantapur district from scene. Ground truth data were used to identify the clusters belonging to pomegranate classes. The NDVI map is derived first and refined to set the threshold level for vegetation. Next, a query was developed to set zero to the non vegetative features in IRS 1D image. This image was further classified with unsupervised classification using ISODATA for clustering. It is shown from our study that the combination method of NDVI and unsupervised classification appears to be better choice for estimating area under pomegranate.
Keywords: Global Positioning, Pomegranate acreage estimation, Remote Sensing, Ground truth data, NDVI.

Speaker
Biography:

P C Sarkar completed his MS (Organic Chemistry) from Lucknow University in 1983 and subsequently obtained his doctorate from Ranchi University. He has more than 27 years of research experience on fundamental and applied studies of lac resin, including its application as a coating material on diverse substrates. He has published more than 50 research papers on synthetic chemistry, organic coatings technology and organic spectroscopy, especially FT-IR. His current research interests include the use of lac resin and gum arabic in post harvest technology of fruits, vegetables and spices.

Abstract:

Post-harvest losses are significant in our country, due to minimal organised collection / transport facilities and cold chains. Hence, during times of bumper harvest, farmers often resort to distress sales, due to lack of suitable support systems in this regard.
In as early as 12 century AD, the Chinese reportedly applied wax coatings on oranges and lemons. An off-shoot of modified atmosphere packaging, fruit coating technology has progressed over time, utilising materials ranging from waxes, resins, sucrose fatty esters, proteins (zein) and more recently, chitosan. However, there is no general-purpose coating which can be universally applied on any fruit / vegetable. Similarly, horticultural produce also have their individual requirements, such as colour loss, early ripening / maturing, shrivelling (weight loss), pathogenic attacks, flavour loss etc. Each issue has to be addressed individually and specifically. Inappropriate coating may result in undesirable off-flavours due to anaerobic respiration, flesh break down, and complete inhibition of ripening in some climacteric fruits.
IINRG has been successful in developing edible coating formulations and protocols for a wide range of fruits (including spices) and vegetables. These include pointed gourd, tomato, capsicum, kinnow, Nagpur mandarin, apples, pear, peach and pomegranate. Spices responding well to coating include black pepper, coriander and cumin. Work is progressing on ginger and mango. As a thumb-rule, coating doubles the notional shelf life of produce. It also inhibits pathogenic attacks during ambient storage conditions. This paper aims to describe some of the experiences and research achievements of IINRG in this field of research.

P. Ranchana

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India

Title: Studies on hybridization in tuberose
Biography:

P. Ranchana is doing her PhD program in the Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. She has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and working as a Senior Research Fellow in the GOI scheme entitled “Validation of DUS testing guidelines for jasmine”. She has attended and presented papers in both national and international conference.

Abstract:

A study on hybridization in tuberose by both selfing and crossing techniques were carried out under open field condition at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The ten single genotypes of tuberose were used for this study viz., Calcutta Single, Hyderabad Single, Kahikuchi Single, Mexican Single, Navsari Local, Phule Rajani, Prajwal, Pune Single, Shringar and Variegated Single. Fruit set was noticed in all selfed and crossed genotypes on seven days after pollination. But the results of selfing study revealed that after ten days of pollination, the fruits dropped in all genotypes. This shows the presence of complete self-incompatibility. Successful seed set was resulted in most of the crosses by using Variegated Single as a pollen parent on three months after crossing. Cross incompatibility was also noticed in few crosses of the above genotypes.
Keywords: Tuberose- hybridization- selfing and crossing- incompatibility.

Nikhil Dileep Narkar

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, India

Title: Pollen studies in Heliconia (Heliconia spp.)
Biography:

Nikhil Dileep Narkar working in Indian Agricultural Research Institute, India.He has many research paper published in national and international journals publication sites.Major area of research is floriculture.Recently he has published a paper "Fertiliser Best Management Practices in Floriculture" in Indian Journal of Fertilisers.

Abstract:

Heliconia is one of the most important cut flower and landscape plants due to their variation in growth habit and flower characters combined with easy cultivation practices. Knowledge of floral biology is essential for crop improvement programmes in any crop plant. Pollen is one of the most useful characters for identifying and classifying members of the genus. Pollen studies were conducted in 30 Heliconia species and cultivars. Highest fertility percentage was recorded in Heliconia psittacorum cv. Lena (100%) compare to all other cultivars and interspecific hybrids showing lower pollen fertility. Shapes of pollen were different from cultivar to cultivars, even in the same species. This indicates that selection of suitable cultivars by considering their compatibility and fertility characteristics to utilize for further breeding programmes.

Varun Amingad

University of Horticultural Sciences, India

Title: Ornamental plants and their role in human psychology
Biography:

Varun Amingad completed Phd in University of Horticultural Sciences, India.

Abstract:

Ornamental plants are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as house plants, for cut flowers and specimen display. Besides, ornamental plants play important role in human health and psychology. Human health depends on well-functioning ecosystems. We cannot live without the goods and services that nature provides to purify our air and water, maintain soil fertility, pollinate plants, break down waste, provide food and fuel and keep diseases in check. We live in a very artificial environment where we rely on mechanical systems. Alternatives to manufactured or engineered solutions improve occupant well-being, reduce operating costs and also improve environmental quality. Exposed to plant settings, people have more positive emotions. In a plantscaped office, people recover from stress quicker and employees show a significant improvement in their efficiency and concentration. Problem solving skills, ideation and creative performance all improve substantially. In a workplace with plants and flowers we are more productive and green workplaces help recruit and retain workers. When plants were added to an interior office space, the employees were more productive (12% quicker reaction time on the computer task) and less stressed (systolic blood pressure readings lowered by one to four units). Immediately after completing the task, participants in the room with plants present reported feeling more attentive than people in the room with no plants. When we shop in a plantscaped environment, we visit more frequently, stay longer, rate quality higher and are willing to pay more. Hence, interaction with plants, both outdoor and indoor, can change human attitudes, behaviours and psychological responses.

Speaker
Biography:

Shruti Sethi is currently working as Senior Scientist in the Division of Post Harvest Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi with more than 11 years of research, teaching and extension experience. She obtained her PhD from Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India in Food Science and Technology. Her research interests centre primarily on processing and value addition of horticultural and arable crops. She has standardized technology for development of ready-to-use gravy bases, spiced fruit appetizers and protein rich cookies and is currently engaged in development of nutritionally enriched baked products and drinks. She has more than 50 publications to her credit and has also co-authored a book entitled 'Processing of Fruits and Vegetables for Value Addition'.

Abstract:

Garlic is being widely used as a therapeutic food and a flavouring agent in Indian households. Rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, has led to an increase in the demand of shelf stable, ready-to-eat, convenience foods with consistent functional quality. Peeled garlic cloves offer convenience but have short shelf life as they have high tendency towards surface discoloration, moisture loss and microbial spoilage. The nature of the demand for minimally processed products requires that they be fresh-like, visually acceptable and appealing. Reports suggest that commercial ready-to-use garlic products such as paste, powder, flakes etc. do not retain the fresh like characteristics and the required functionality owing to the harsh processing procedures followed for their manufacture. Modified atmosphere packaging is a potent tool to maintain the freshness and functional quality of minimally processed garlic cloves in terms of its total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, pungency and nutritional value. In the present investigation, the effect on quality of minimally processed garlic cloves of two varieties, viz., Yamuna Safed (G-1) and Yamuna Safed-4 (G-323) was evaluated during modified atmosphere storage. Freshly peeled garlic cloves were packed in different modified atmosphere conditions of oxygen (1-3%) and carbon dioxide (5-15%) concentrations and stored for 28 days at 10ºC and 75-85% RH. It was observed that there was a non-significant increase in PLW for both the varieties under various modified atmospheric storage conditions in all the samples. Modified atmospheric packaging of samples was found to be most effective for retaining firmness, colour and other quality parameters such as total soluble solids, total antioxidant activity, total phenols and pyruvic acid and minimizing respiration and ethylene evolution rates throughout the storage period irrespective of and variety used.

Speaker
Biography:

David Ojo has completed his PhD at the age of 33 years from the University of Ibadan and postdoctoral studies from University of Hannover. He is the director of Research, Agribusiness and Consultancy Services at the Horticultural Research Institute, a government agency organization. He has published more than 85 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:

There is dearth of Knowledge regarding influence of soil phosphorus (P) fertility to improve nutritional qualities in Celosia (Celosia argentea). Such information is important for identification, selection and breeding genotypes with high capabilities for using P in low-P soils of the African Tropics. This study was therefore conducted on the vegetable experimental grounds at Ibadan, Nigeria (7°30’N, 30°54’E, 168m a.s.l.) during the early and late rains of 2009. The study was conducted to determine the optimum P rate for Celosia seed yield attributes and nutritional qualities under field conditions. Combinations of P rates (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P/ha) and three varieties (TLV 8, Purple, and Local) were studied in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement fitted to a randomized block design. Results revealed that soil phosphorus fertility had significant effect on food components of Celosia seed, crude protein, starch, sugars, fiber, fat and vitamin C in both seasons. Seed weight was not significantly different among varieties but ranked TLV 8>Purple>Local in both seasons. Harvest index differed significantly among varieties and followed the order TLV 8>Purple> Local. All the food components except percent sugar differed significantly among varieties in both seasons. The effect of variety x P rate on seed quality components showed significant increase in 1000 grain weight with increased P up till 30kg P/ha in each variety, thereafter increased P did not affect significantly seed weight in both seasons. Similar pattern was observed for harvest index, crude protein, starch and ash. Percent fibre, fat and vitamin C (mg/100g) increased with increased P rates in each variety in both seasons up till 60kg P/ha, thereafter the values declined. We reached consensus therefore that soil P fertility affects yield attributes and nutritional qualities of Celosia seed significantly especially in the African Tropics.
Keywords: Phosphorus, fertility, Celosia, nutrition, tropics.

Biography:

Swati Sharma has obtained her Ph.D degree from one of the premier institute of India, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi. She has a vast experience in agricultural research specifically in the field of Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. Currently she is posted as a scientist in National Research Centre for Litchi Muzaffarpur, India

Abstract:

Salicylic acid is a new approach to delay the ripening processes and maintain postharvest quality of fruits. This prompted us to study the effects of post harvest salicylic acid dip on ‘Santa Rosa’ cv. of Japanese plum so as to increase its shelf life while maintaining quality. For this, ‘Santa Rosa’ plums were harvested in the month of June from a private orchard at Kullu (Himachal Pradesh) and were dipped for 10 minutes in aqueous solutions of salicylic acid (SA) (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0mM) and distilled water (control) at 20oC in the laboratory. The fruits were then dried under fan, packed in plastic punnets (500 g capacity) and then stored at 2º C and 90±2 % relative humidity for 36 days.
Results revealed that all the concentrations of salicylic acid dip treatment had significant effect on fruit quality parameters like total phenolics, anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity. Of different concentrations, SA (2.0 mM) was the most effective in maintaining firmness (5.39 N) compared to control fruits (1.65 N) on the 36th day of storage. This treatment also reduced electrolyte leakage (42%) compared to 74% in control and chilling injury (11%) compared to 53% in control. No decay was observed till the last day of storage in 2mM SA treated plums compared to 18% in control. Respiration and ethylene evolution rates were also significantly suppressed and delayed in SA treated plums. Treatment with SA significantly delayed weight loss (8.6%) compared to 13.4% in control, colour development and disease incidence. The symptoms like discolouration, softening, scalding were the least in fruits dipped in 2mM SA followed by 1.5mM, 1.0mM and 0.5mM showing a clear concentration dependent effect of SA. This study reflects that salicylic acid dip treatment can be integrated as an effective postharvest practice in the supply chain management of ‘Santa Rosa’ plums to extend their storage life while maintaining fruit quality during storage at cold conditions (2±1º C and 90±2 % RH).

Vijay Rakesh Reddy S

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, India

Title: 1-MCP, a novel plant growth regulator for regulation of ripening
Speaker
Biography:

Vijay Rakesh Reddy S is a PhD Scholar at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. He completed his masters from GKVK, UAS, Bangalore securing top position at the university level. His area of interest is fresh fruit handling, minimal processing and utilization of eco-friendly techniques. At present he is working on "Ethylene modulation in mango using different ethylene inhibitors".

Abstract:

1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is a wonderful plant growth regulator, developed by Sisler and Blankenship (1996). It is an inhibitor of ethylene perception, which helps in improving the shelf and storage life of horticultural produce significantly by regulation of ripening. 1-MCP is registered for use on a number of horticultural crops such as apple, apricot, avocado, banana, broccoli, kiwifruit, pear, mango, melon, peach, nectarine, persimmon, plum, and tomato. However, apple is the most significant crop in which 1-MCP is commercially and extensively used around the world because apple is a crop for which limited ripening after harvest is desirable. For many other fruits, successful commercialization of 1-MCP will require an appropriate balance between 1-MCP concentrations and exposure periods that will delay but not inhibit ripening. The effects of 1-MCP on quality of these crops, as well as its effects on physiological disorders and pathological diseases, are significantly different and variable. The concentration and exposure time of different commodities to 1-MCP varies widely however, effective concentrations are low and range from 2.5 nl l-1 to 1 ml l-1. Similarly, 1-MCP is most commonly applied at 20-/25⁰C, but can be used at lower temperatures in some commodities. In general, treatment durations of 12-/24 h are considered sufficient to achieve a full response of 1-MCP in any crop. Several factors such as cultivar, developmental stage of the fruit/vegetable, time from harvest to treatment, and multiple applications, should be considered while using 1-MCP. Similarly, depending on the crop being treated, 1-MCP may have a variety of effects on respiration, ethylene production, volatile production, chlorophyll degradation and other colour changes, protein and membrane changes, softening, disorders and diseases, acidity and sugars.

Speaker
Biography:

Hafiz Umer Javed has completed M.Sc. (Hons.) Horticulture (Postharvest)-2013 from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.His interest of research is Experimental layouts ,Vegetative and reproductive assessments.His major laboratory skills is Physico-chemical quality analysis, Mineral analysis (selected macro & micro-nutrients),Spectrophotometery, Stereomicroscopy,Statistical Analysis and Scientific writings etc.Presently he is working as Project Development Officer at European Union/UNIDO funded “Trade Related Technical Assistance (TRTA II) Program Code of Practices (COP) Project in Kinnow & Mango Industries”.

Abstract:

Mango fruit colour is one of the main criteria of consumer’s choice. Post-storage peel colour development is a serious issue in our commercial mango cv. S.B. Chaunsa. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of pre-cooling and ripening temperature on quality and peel colour development under reefer and controlled atmosphere storage conditions. The fruit were harvested from a commercial orchard at physiological mature stage. After harvesting, fruit were physically de-sapped and subjected to prochloraz (0.5ml/L) dip followed by air drying, packaging and transport to PRTC in a reefer van at 18°C. At PRTC, the fruit subjected to pre-cooling for 8 hrs. at 12°C or 17°C, subsequently stored at 17°C under reefer and CA condition (4% CO2 & 6% O2) for different storage periods (10 & 20 days under reefer) and (10, 20, 30 and 35 days under CA). At removal, fruit were artificially ripened at two different temperatures (24°C or 35°C). The fruit response was significantly different under different treatment regimes. The experiment was laid down under CRD along with factorial design. Under reefer storage conditions (without CA), the fruit removed after 10 days of storage had 4-5 days of shelf life and in CA storage condition, the fruit removed after 10 & 20 days had 5-6 days of shelf life (including ethylene treatment period) at both ripening temperatures; whereas, the fruit removed from reefer (20 days) and CA (30 & 35 days) were found ripe (eating soft) at the time of removal (with 0 days shelf life), thereby not requiring anyethylene treatment. The peel colour development increased significantly at ripening temperature 35°C than 24°C and after removal to final ripe stage while pre-cooling temperature had non-significant effect. Significant difference was found among pre-cooling and ripening temperature regarding to physiological weight loss and respiration rate of reefer and CA stored fruit. Chilling injury, side rot and stem end rot were increased as the storage duration extends in CA stored conditions. Under reefer, the physico-chemical and organoleptic quality of fruit were found meritorious than the CA condition. This paper provides detail about treatment impact on physico-chemical, physiological and organoleptic quality attributes.
Keywords: S.B. Chaunsa quality, Pre-cooling temperature, Reefer and CA storage.

Hare Krishna

Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, India

Title: Assessment of morphological diversity in Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.)
Speaker
Biography:

Hare Krishna completed his PhD from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. He has got an outstanding academic career. With his experience and vision, he contributed significantly to address the major obstacles of commercial micropropagation. In his initial years of career, so far he has published research papers in more than 10 international and 20 national journals. Recently, he has submitted the draft DUS descriptor for Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana), which would be first such descriptor in world in line with the UPOV guidelines. Besides, he serves an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:

Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) is a multipurpose tree fruit crop of the hot arid regions, which holds high economic value in terms of nutritious fruits, medicinal properties, and fodder for the cattle. A large number of varieties of ber are being grown in different parts of the country. However, there is a considerable confusion in ber cultivars nomenclature as they have unique local names and name variants. In addition, information on genetic diversity of plants is vital, from the perspective of breeding, for efficient choice of parents for hybridization. At Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner the morphological diversity in ber has been noticed for growth habit; foliage characteristics such as leaf apex and base, leaf size, leaf curving, leaf shape, leaf pubescence and thorn characteristics like thorniness and thorn shape. Likewise, variation had also been noted in fruit characteristics such as presence or absence of anthocyanin blush on immature fruits, fruit surface, fruit apex, fruit shape, fruit size, fruit weight, mature fruit colour, pulp texture, pulp cavity, stone apex, stone shape, stone size, stone weight, pulp: stone ration and quality attributes such as soluble solid contents, acidity and ascorbic acid contents in as many as 314 varieties available in germplasm block. This study would help identification & characterization of ber varieties and elucidation of their morphological relationships based on the mentioned traits following the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) guidelines. In the future this data may be used for the purpose of registration.

Pavan Kumar P

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, India

Title: Genetic correlation studies in Heliconia genotypes
Speaker
Biography:

Pavan Kumar P has obtained his Ph.D degree from one of the premier institute of India, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi In the year 2014. He has a vast experience in the field of agriculture and spent 3 years (2011-2014) in the division of Floriculture and Landscaping.

Abstract:

Heliconias (Heliconia spp.) are emerging speciality cut flower plants of princely dimensions grown for their attractive foliage and brilliant flower spikes. They are known as lobster's claw, parrots flower, parrots plantain and false plantains. The heliconia's are gaining importance in both domestic and international market due to their diversity in both colour and form. Its brilliant colours, exotic form long peduncles and excellent post harvest characteristics make it as an outstanding flower for the florist trade. These are mostly grown for cut flowers, potted plant as well as interior decoration. All possible phenotypic and genotypic correlation studies were carried out to know the nature of relationship existing between growth and flowering characters in eighteen cultivars. The genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were worked out for ten parameters, viz., plant height, leaf length, leaf width, number of leaves per sucker, number of leaves per sq. m, spike length, stalk length, number of bracts, bract length and number of flowers per bract. Genotypic correlations were higher than phenotypic correlations. Correlation revealed that spike length had a strong positive and significant correlation with stalk length, leaf width, plant height, leaf length and flowers per bract both at genotypic and phenotypic levels. This indicates that indirect selection of anyone of these characters leads to increase the cut flower yield in heliconia.

Speaker
Biography:

C. Vasugi has obtained her Masters' degree from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University and Doctoral degree from Annamalai University in the discipline of Horticulture. Currently she is working as a senior scientist in the division of Fruit crops of the premier Institute, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesseraghatta. She has 15 years of research experience in the field of Horticulture especially on the crop improvement aspects of fruit crops viz., guava, mango and papaya. She has authored more than 25 papers in reputed journals and more than 25 abstracts in national and international symposium/conference.

Abstract:

Papaya (Carica papayaL) is one of the most important commercial fruit crops of India. It is affected by several diseases and pests, but most widespread and destructive disease in its cultivation is the 'Papaya Ring Spot Virus' (PRSV). All the varieties under C. papaya are susceptible to this disease. However, several species of the related genera of Vasconcellea are reported to be resistant to this disease. An attempt was made at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research to incorporate the resistant genes from the wild genera (V. cauliflora) into the commercial hybrid Arka Surya after overcoming the incompatibility barier. The tolerant progenies with good fruit traits were selected, sibmated / selfed to produce advanced generation progenies. These progenies were evaluated for various fruit traits viz., fruit weight, pulp thickness, fruit volume, TSS, Acidity, Total carotenoids and Lycopene coupled with field tolerance to PRSV. Considerable variation was found among the progenies for the characteristics evaluated viz., fruit weight (300 to 900 g), fruit volume (220 to 800 ml), pulp thickness (1.6 cm -3.1 cm), TSS (9.4 to 14.1 oB), Acidity (0.057-0.121), Vitamin C (34.76 to 106.64 mg 100 g-1), Total carotenoids (6.08-13.09 mg 100 g-1), lycopene (0.67 - 5.04 mg/100 g) and field tolerance. Thus, there is a scope to develop PRSV tolerant types coupled with good quality fruits through selection and sibmating.

B. N. Hazarika

Central Agricultural University, India

Title: Citrus diversity in Northeast India-Issues and strategies
Speaker
Biography:

B. N. Hazarika has completed his PhD at the age of 31 years from Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Umium, Meghalaya and Guwahati University. He has the experience of serving in ICAR Research Complex, Umium, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat and Central Agricultural University, Imphal. He served as incharge Dean of the College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh and presently Head, Dept. of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh. He has published more than 55 papers in reputed national and international journal having high impact factor.

Abstract:

The North Eastern region of India is regarded as one of the ‘Mega Biodiversity Hotspot’ in the world because of its diverse present of flora and fauna. This region stretches from 21° 57' N to 29° 28' N and from 89° 40' E to 97° 25' E, and is considered as one of the natural home of citrus. All the states of the region has lot of climatic variations because of its unique position in the Indian subcontinent. It has been blessed by nature with one of the richest flora and fauna on the earth. Its unique phytogeographical positions, topography and high degree of precipitation are some of the important factors which are mainly responsible for its enormous biological diversity. In a naturally cross pollinated genus like the citrus, nature has eventually created different forms of citrus and the region has the conducive environment, suitable soil and topography for perpetuation of these various forms. It can be regarded as ‘A live museum of Citrus’. The wide adaptability of citrus is also reflected in its general distribution of topographical situations. It also holds a unique position in the world map of Citrus occurrence and diversity and possess wide diversity of Citrus species either in cultivated or in wild form. About 17 species are found in North Eastern region of India and 8 species are indigenous to this region. There is every possibility to occur these citrus species as the states are a contiguity of Himalayan belt. The Khasi Mandarin of Arunachal Pradesh is unique in its quality. Other than the commercial species, some of other species of citrus namely Rough lemon, Kamala Australia, Samphola, Citron, Singkin, various Limes and Lemons, Pummelos, Grapefruit etc. are available in various types either in homestead or in forests. Due to changes in climaticcondition, the productivity of citrus shows decreasing trend over last few years. Many of the underutilized citrus species are in the verge of extinction due to various interventions. Considering the importance of the valuable citrus wealth of this region the emphasis has been laid on the collection and maintenance of the citrus species.

Biography:

S. A. Safeena is Scientist in the field of Horticulture (Floriculture and Landscaping) presently working at ICAR Research Complex for Goa. She obtained her M.Sc (Ag.) in Horticulture degree from University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India and PhD in Horticulture from University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. She has published several papers in the journals of national and international repute and is a member of several professional societies.

Abstract:

Sprengeri Fern (Asparagus densiflorus ‘Sprengeri’) is one of the important ornamental filler plant popular as cut foliages in different parts of the world. It is a herbaceous tender evergreen perennial belonging to the family Liliaceae which is used for its attractive, fine-textured foliage. Cut foliages of sprengeri fern looks very attractive when used at the base of large arrangements as cascading filler. Its feathery, emerald-green foliage is also used in preparing bouquets, garlands, swags or wreaths. The management practices bestowed after harvesting lack scientific techniques due to insufficient research and developmental support available. Asparagus densiflorus ‘Sprengeri’need to last longer as a filler material in a vase or flower arrangement in order to get good consumer acceptance. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop possibilities of extending its vase life through pulsing with three different chemicals. The three different chemicals used for pulsing were Benzyl adenine, 8-Hydroxyquinoline citrate and Sucrose. Two durations of pulsing were employed viz., 12 hours and 24 hours. After pulsing treatment, the vase life was evaluated by keeping the cut foliages in conical flasks containing 300 ml distilled water. The experiment was laid out in factorial completely randomised design. Higher fresh weight at senescence, minimum physiological loss in weight of cut foliages and highest uptake of water was found to be associated with cut foliages pulsed with 25mg/l Benzyl adenine+200mg/l 8-Hydroxyquinoline citrate+10 % sucrose for 24 hours. Foliages treated with 300mg/l 8-Hydroxyquinoline citrate supplemented with 10% Sucrose for 12 hours registered the minimum transpirational loss of water. The maximum water balance, lowest ratio between water loss and water uptake and maximum longevity of 17.00 days was experienced by foliages pulsed for 24 hours in Benzyl adenine @25mg/l+8-Hydroxyquinoline citrate @ 200mg/l+Sucrose @10 % and holding them in distilled water.

Raj Kumar

Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, India

Title: Regeneration complexities of Pinus gerardiana in dry temperate forests of Indian Himalaya
Biography:

Raj Kumar is a scientist in Central Soil and Water Conservation Research (ICAR).He has proficiency in the field of research on pinus. His study mostly emphasizes on the effect of soil salinity and impact of water on the seed generation of pinus.

Abstract:

Pinus gerardiana is often considered an important species because of its influence on the ecological processes and economic dependence of tribal people in Himalayan dry temperate forest. With large number of biotic and abiotic factor affecting P. gerardiana in Himalayan dry temperate forest, there is a crucial need to understand the regener¬ation dynamics of this tree species. This research was conducted in mature P. gerardiana forests of Kinnaur District, Himachal Pradesh, India, to understand regeneration processes in the species. P. gerardiana regeneration success is lower than the requirement of sustainable forest, but varies widely among sites in the temperate forest Himalayas. Results suggest that in different forests regeneration success that are influenced by collection of seed (nut) by tribal people, grazing and browsing, soil sand and nutrient content. Regeneration varied with Sites and it was observed that site with more P. Gerardiana regeneration have less biotic interference, soil sand and litter depth, but more soil nutrient availability. This research elucidates associations between successful P. gerardiana regeneration and site factors such as soil nutrient availability. More forest surveys are required to understand the conditions necessary for successful P. gerardiana.

Speaker
Biography:

Ratsiazo Sandra is an assistant professor at University of Antananarivo, Madagascar. She has take part in many national and international conferences. Her training and research is based on importance of horticulture in agriculture and service sector in Antananarivo.

Abstract:

The horticulture holds an important place in the agricultural and service sector in Antananarivo. Regarding a higher demand for ornamental plants in the city, this sector tends to move towards professionalization. The horticulture needed competencies are transmitted from generation to generation. Small producers and informal traders are an important part of this sector. It employs both men and women. The issue is to find out the distribution of gender and the added value in the sector in order to conduct economic survey to political decision. The study is about the evolution of horticultural chains. It focuses on the importance of added value and employment in this network. The outlets, the assets, the challenges and the situation of the stakeholders in the horticultural network are presented. The main method is to perform a factorial discriminant analysis and factorial correspondence analysis to identify key components variables of the survey results. Recommendations will be made towards the stakeholders and to guide policies to promote gender equity.
Keywords: horticultural, professionalization, added value, employment, gender

Speaker
Biography:

Kailash N. Gupta has completed his PhD at the age of 35 years from JMI, A Central University, New Delhi. He is the Assistant Professor cum Scientist of Plant Pathology in Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur-482004, India. He has published more than 15 papers in reputed national and International journals and 25 abstracts, 10 technical bulletin and 25 popular article.

Abstract:

Citrus is an important fruit crop in India. It is Grown in about 0.50 million ha with an annual production of 0.39 million tones. Citrus decline is a serious problem and has been attributed to many causes, e.g. Citrus tristeza virus, Indian Citrus ring spot virus, Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), Citrus exocortis viroid and the greening bacterium. The citrus greening bacterium, causing citrus greening disease (CGD), is one of the major factors for citrus decline. The incidence of the disease has ranged from 6-16% in different sweet orange orchards. Citrus yellow mosaic disease (CYMD) caused by CYMV is another important disease, which occurs more commonly in citrus plantations of south India.both disease are major constraints to the citrus production. A duplex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of Citrus mosaic badnavirus (CMBV) and citrus greening bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Ca. L. asiaticus) from sweet orange trees. Ca. L. asiaticus restricted to phloem region and can be detected from only the mid rib and petiole of the citrus leaves. On the other hand, CMBV spreads to the tissues of entire leaf lamina. Initially total DNA from individual Ca. L. aasiaticus and CMBV infected citrus plants were mixed and both pathogens were detected by PCR. Subsequently, both pathogens were detected from the total DNA obtained after mixing of mid rib of Ca. L. asiaticus infected and CMBV infected leaf lamina of the sweet orange. The final adopted multiplex PCR protocol simultaneously detected both pathogens from the total DNA extracted from the midrib of leaves field trees infected by both pathogens. The procedure is cost effective and sensitive and will be highly useful in quarantine certification programme.

M. K. Yadav

Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, India

Title: Horticultural produce processing through radiation: A newer solution for climate change
Speaker
Biography:

M. K. Yadav has completed his graduation from Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur (Rajasthan) India and Ph. D at the age of 33 years from Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat) India. He has served at various capacities in various organization and presently horticulturist at Mechanized Agriculture Farm, MPUAT campus Kota, Rajasthan. He has published more than 15 research papers & 100’s of popular and proceeding articles in reputed journals/magazines and serving as an editorial board member of repute in various national and International societies. And participated in more than 35 national & International seminar/symposia and presented papers there off. Also visited Rome, Republican of Dominica and Nepal.

Abstract:

For overcome the effect of chemicals radiation processing of horticultural foods and commodities can be undertaken both for export and domestic markets. The technology can be used to overcome climactic barriers of fruits and vegetables as well as for cut-flowers, hygienization and shelf life extension of horticultural products. The most widely used source of ionizing energy is the radioisotope cobalt 60. High energy electrons and X-ray generated machines using electricity are also used for food irradiation. Cobalt 60 is produced in a nuclear reactor by pure cobalt- 59 metal and is not a nuclear waste product generated in nuclear power reactors. Internationally, accepted basic safety standers and strictly regulated control procedures in the production, transport and use of radioisotopes and operation of food irradiation operating person. India has one of the world’s largest domestic markets and distributed throughout the length and breadth of the country. For domestic consumption radiation processing can be used to facilitate storage, movement and distribution of horticultural commodities from production centers to consumption centers and to prevent post harvest losses during these operations. Thus the producer, processor and consumer can all benefit from this technique in terms of improved storage, hygien and retention of quality.

Speaker
Biography:

l.Saravanan is working as Entomology Scientist in Indian Institute Of Oil palm research,India.Research on Oil Palm under irrigated conditions is practically a new start and the Indian Council of Agricultural Research established the National Research Centre for Oil Palm (later renamed as Directorate of Oil Palm Research) at Pedavegi in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh on February 19, 1995. IIOPR serves as a centre for conducting and coordinating research on all aspects of oil palm conservation, improvement, production, protection, post-harvest technology and transfer of technology. He was governing member of MAPAI (Medicinal and Aromatic Plant association Of India).

Abstract:

An experiment was carried out on a 7 year old Oil palm plantation (Tenera hybrid) located at Suryaraopet village, Pedavegi Mandal, West Godavari (Dt.) Andhra Pradesh to find out the influence of weather factors on pollinating weevil, Elaeidobius kamerunicus (Curculionidae: Coleoptera). The population of the weevil was less than 10.0 per spikelet during April, May and June 2012 (16 to 25th standard weeks). No weevils were found developing during May 4th week to June 2nd week. During that period the maximum and minimum temperatures reached to more than 35oC and 33oC respectively and relative humidity dropped to less than 55.0 per cent. At the onset of monsoon the temperature dropped down and humidity increased, which caused congenial conditions for the weevil multiplication and development. October, November and December months were found to be ideal for the development of the weevil. The correlation between weevil activity and weather parameters viz., maximum temperature (r=-0.57), minimum temperature (r=-0.78), mean temperature (r=-0.68) and sunshine hours (r=-0.60) were significantly negatively correlated. Relative humidity was significantly and positively correlated (r= 0.73). Rainfall did not have appreciable influence. The weevils were active during 8.30 A.M to 1.30 P.M of the day and the peak was observed during 09.30 AM to 11.30 A.M. Among the pesticides sprayed at recommended doses against insect pest control fipronil, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, monocrotophos, L-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin caused negative impact on population growth and development. Bacillus thuringiensis strains HD-1 and HD-7 were found to be safer. Ant species Monomorium pharaonsis (Formicidae: Hymenoptera) and a reduviid bug, Sycanus sp were associated with spent male inflorescences and found feeding on developing grubs and pupae of pollinating weevil. The occurrence of biotic factors especially during summer months could cause severe setback on efficiency and development of pollinating weevil coupled with abiotic factors. This information is useful for designing plant protection strategies and to conserve the pollinators in irrigated oil palm gardens.

Biography:

Moin Uddin has completed his PhD in 1987 from the Botany Department, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) and conducted his postdoctoral studies from CIMMYT (Mexico), IARI (New Delhi) and Potash Research Institute of India (PRI). At present, he is Associate Professor in Botany in the Women’s College, AMU, Aligarh, UP, India. He has published more than 65 research papers and review articles/book chapters in scientific journals/books of national and international repute. He has been the Editor of Journal of Potassium Research, published from PRI (Gurgaon, India). He is also working on innovative teaching methodology using ICT means for undergraduate students.

Abstract:

In view of exploring the role of K and Zn in manifestation of physiological attributes, yield, and proximate-composition of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.), a field experiment was conducted in a loamy sand soil deficient in K and Zn. The experiment was conducted with factorial randomized block design using three replicates. Five rates of K application, viz. K0 (no K application), K30 (30 kg K2O ha-1), K60 (60 kg K2O ha-1), K90 (90 kg K2O ha-1) and K120 (120 kg K2O ha-1) were applied along with two levels of zinc, viz. Zn0 (no zinc application) and Zn10 (10 kg ZnSO4 ha-1). Increasing K levels improved the physiological parameters, yield characteristics and quality attributes of guar irrespective of Zn application. However, Zn application significantly enhanced the values of most of the attributes studied in such a way that the benefit of zinc application increased progressively with increasing K levels, depicting positive interaction between K and Zn. Generally, K120 proved the best K application rate; however, K90 was statistically at par with K120 in most of the cases. K90 + Zn10 proved optimum K and Zn combination for most of the parameters studied. It improved the chlorophyll content by 45.5% and the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase by 20.0 and 31.3%, respectively. Further, it augmented the seed yield by 48.7%, total crop biomass by 26.9%, seed protein content by 3.6%, seed fat content by 1.2% and the gum-yield of guar seed by 4.6% as compared to the control (K0 + Zn0).

Speaker
Biography:

Bhupinder Thakur has completed his PhD at the age of 28 years from Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. He is Senior Scientist (Vegetable Science), at Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Regional Horticultural Research Station, Bajaura, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

The varieties 'Pusa Himjyoti' (early), 'PSB K -1' (late) and popular hybrids 'Swati' (mid), 'NS 106' (mid late) were planted at different altitudes (1090m a msl, 1350m a msl and 1650m a msl) at different planting dates for two consecutive years during 2009-10 and 2010-11 to find out the effect of varying temperatures on curd yield in each maturity group for year round production of cauliflower under the mid hills of Himachal Pradesh. Cauliflower curds irrespective of maturity group took more time to maturity at lower temperature regimes at higher elevations as compared to the high temperature regimes at lower elevations for every planting time. The varieties in different maturity groups varied in their performance for curd yield as per the maturity group and temperature regime it was found that early maturing varieties gave high yield under high temperature regimes at the lower altitudes whereas mid, mid late and late maturing varieties gave high yield under the mild temperatures at all the locations. The best production cycle for year round production of cauliflower in the mid hills was therefore found to be June-July (early group); October (late group); followed by February planting of mid or mid late group varieties which can fetch higher returns to the growers besides ensuring best quality curd supply to the markets.
Key words: Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., optimum temperature, curd initiation, altitude.

Speaker
Biography:

P. LalithaKameswari has completed her PhD in Floriculture and Land scape architecture from Dr. YSR Horticultural University. She is working as Sr. Scientist at Floricultural Research Station, Hyderabad. She has more than 7 years of experience in the field of Floriculture. She is involved in teaching, research and also extension activities. She has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and her publications also include 3 technical bulletins.

Abstract:

Chrysanthemum (Dendranthemagrandiflora T.) is one of the most important ornamental cut-flowers in floriculture trade, which is available in a wide range of flower colors, flower types, and plant sizes. It is cultivated as cut flower on commercial scale as well as for its aesthetic value in gardens. There are so many varieties of chrysanthemums today that a system of classification is used to categorize and identify them. Each genotype shows unique leaf and flower morphology with considerable variation. In the present investigation, 104 genotypes of chrysanthemum maintained at Floricultural Research Station, Hyderabad, A.P were evaluated at the field level for studying their morphological diversity. Twenty three qualitative characters of different genotypes of Chrysanthemum were observed and compared, which can offer reference for its genetic diversity studies. The plant stature was bushy in 82.69% of genotypes with semi upright growth habit in nearly 79 genotypes. The nature of leaf margin of all the genotypes was serrated and most of them are stipulated with varied sizes. Based on margins of sinus between lateral lobes, they were categorized into three groups i.e., with parallel margin (41.34%), converging margin(35.58%) and with diverging margin(23.08%) and most of the genotypes are having round base of sinus. Scoring the shape of leaf base classified the genotypes into 6 categories.
Based on floral characters, most of the genotypes were of spray type with corymbiform form of inflorescence. The ray petals were of ligulate type with straight longitudinal axis. The shape of tip of ray florets was also varied among the genotypes, while the margins were flat in 57.69% of genotypes followed by weakly revolute margins. The maximum of 81 genotypes (77.88%) possessed flat shaped disc in the fully opened flower head followed by 20 genotypes (19.23%) with dome shaped disc. Almost all the genotypes (99.04%) showed yellow coloured to greenish yellow disc florets with slight variation in intensity of the colour except the variety Modella (0.96%) with light pink coloured disc florets. Finally based on the economic use of chrysanthemum flowers, they were categorized into loose flower type (40.38%) followed by 23 genotypes (22.11%) suitable for garden display in landscaping, 22 genotypes (21.15%) for cut flower production, 13 genotypes (12.5%) suitable for pot culture and only 4 genotypes (3.86%) can be categorised under ground cover varieties.

Biography:

P. Jeyakumar has completed his M.Sc (Ag) in Crop Physiology from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore and PhD from Forest Research Institute (FRI), Dehradun, India. He has undergone postdoctoral training in postharvest physiology at McGill University, Canada and ARO Volcani Centre, Israel. He has received the Best Researcher Award from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and Eminent Scientist Award from National Environmental Science Academy, New Delhi. He has published more than 60 papers in reputed journals and presented many papers in International Conferences across the globe. Prof. P. Jeyakumar is serving as the Technical Editor of The Madras Agricultural Journal and as Research Coordinator, Department of Crop Physiology, TNAU, Coimbatore, India.

Abstract:

A strobilurin class fungicide, Trifloxystrobin has been found to have influence on postharvest quality characters in tomato fruits. The compound is widely used for disease management in many cereals, fruit and vegetable crops. Physiological alterations in plants resulting in longer retention of green leaf tissue, inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis, increase in cytokinins and auxins, better N assimilation, increase in CO2 assimilation, water use efficiency and harvest index have been reported in many crops. Trifloxystrobin alone or in combination with Tebuconazole imparts biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in few crops. However, there are no studies on the influence of Trifloxystrobin on postharvest quality of any commercial fruit or vegetable. Hence, an experiment was done during 2013 at Department of Crop Physiology, TNAU, Coimbatore, to assess the impact of Nativo 75 WG (Trifloxystrobin+ Tebuconazole), in tomato hybrid Vijaya. There were six treatments in the experiment consisting of foliar spray of Nativo at four different concentrations i.e., 200, 300, 400, 600gha-1, Mancozeb at a single concentration of 1000gha-1 and unsprayed control. The tomato fruits were observed for weight loss at three days interval and quality characters were assessed on twelfth day after storage at ambient temperature (~32°C). A gradual decline in fruit weight over the time was observed irrespective of the treatments. The minimal loss in weight was observed in fruits harvested from plants treated with Mancozeb @ 1000gha-1 and Nativo @ 300gha-1 by recording 27.96 and 29.05 per cent. The unsprayed control registered the maximum loss of 39.01 per cent after 12 days of storage. The plants treated with Nativo @400gha-1 had higher fruit moisture content (86.6 %), fruit firmness (1.39 kg) and total soluble solids (7.8 °brix). The same treatment also had lower respiratory rate of fruits (17.8 mg CO2 kg-1h-1) favouring extended shelf life. The quality characters such as pulp pH, lycopene, ascorbic acid and titrable acidity were found not influenced by any of the treatments. However, the measurements on chromacity indicated that Mancozeb had positive influence on colour (redness) of the fruit by recording the highest ‘a’ value of 24.2. Nativo treatments also resulted in ‘a’ value of >20 while unsprayed control registered only 18.1.

Biography:

Baswaraj Raigond has completed his PhD in the field of Plant Virology at an age of 30 years from University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India. He is working as Scientist since 2009 to till date in Central Potato Research Institute (CPRI), Shimla, India. He research focus is mainly on serological and molecular diagnostics, comparative genomics along with electron microscopic studies on potato viruses. He has published more than 10 publications in reputed journals and newsletters.

Abstract:

Potato virus M (PVM) is one of the important potato virus distributed worldwide. Hence, sensitive technique like RT-PCR was standardized by designing three sets of primers specific to coat protein (CP) gene of PVM. Primer showing a sharp amplicon of ~360 bp was selected and PCR mix and conditions were optimized for detection. The same amplicon was gel eluted, ligated in pPrime cloning vector and transformation of E. coli which resulted in several recombinant colonies. These colonies were confirmed by colony PCR and restriction digestion as well. The recombinant clones consisting of CP gene were sequenced and analyzed by BLAST and the results revealed that the query had similarity match of 96% and 94% with that of the sequences reported from Canada and Czech Republic respectively. After optimization of RT-PCR detection and characterization of CP gene, the protocol was validated by screening different cultivars of potato collected from different geographical locations of India. Wherein the protocol has successfully detected PVM in many of the cultivars tested from different locations. To localize the distribution of PVM in potato, different parts of potato plant (sprouts, roots, bark and leaves) along with dormant potato tubers were tested by RT-PCR. The results showed that all the tested parts are infected with PVM indicating its systemic nature of infection. Therefore, the optimized RT-PCR protocol can be employed for quick and reliable detection of PVM in a given sample and the variability in CP gene drives to have the complete genome sequencing and its variability study in India. Overall this study will aid in developing better management strategies against PVM.
Keywords: Potato, PVM, CP gene, RT-PCR, Localization.

Speaker
Biography:

Atif Riaz has completed his PhD in a split PhD program from University of Bangor Wales and postdoctoral studies from Amenity Horticulture Unit, Plant Breeding Institute, University of Sydney, Australia. He is working as Associate professor at Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. His research interests are in abiotic stress on ornamental plants like drought, salinity and sustainable landscape management. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals, including 15 journals with impact factor.

Abstract:

Urban green spaces play an important role in improving quality of life and sustainability in cities and require a careful empirical assessment. Development of green spaces with the participation of local community is considered a sustainable project in the whole world. In 2001, a project was designed to develop and maintain the green spaces in Faisalabad City, with the involvement of the local community. Finance, care, maintenance, security and preservation of urban green spaces were the aspects in which community was involved. At that time the project was found to be successful but with the passage of time these green spaces were miserably deteriorated and landscaped features were destroyed from many points. The aim of this paper is to investigate the basic and complex reasons for the failure of green spaces established by Municipal Corporation, Faisalabad with the collaboration of Department of Horticulture, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad involving the local community. The study was designed to collect the information from community (residents, visitor & contractors/investors) and Govt. sector in the form of field and social survey from different selected sites of the city. The paper examines the causes of failure of urban green spaces from the viewpoint of “local community or daily visitors”, “investors or contractors”, and “Government sector”, on the basis of information collected by interviews.

  • Track 12: Agricultural Extension

Session Introduction

Amtul Waris

Directorate of Rice Research, India

Title: Agricultural based enterprise skills for women farmers: Suitable extension strategies
Speaker
Biography:

Amtul Waris, PhD Extension Education and Fulbright Scholar is working as a Principal Scientist in the Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad with focus on gender mainstreaming and capacity building of development personnel.

Abstract:

The empowerment of women in agriculture is fundamental to reduce poverty, hunger and malnutrition as they play an important role in agriculture not only as agricultural labourers, co-farmers and family labourers but as managers of the farm and farm entrepreneurs. It is essential therefore to recognize that women farmers have the potential and the solution to bring their families out of poverty; and thus women farmers should be at the forefront of agriculture. Women agricultural workers constitute a large majority (27.82%) of the work force in Andhra Pradesh. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state and women are solely involved in the most critical operations of transplanting, weeding and harvesting of rice. There is a vast potential to develop women farmers as entrepreneurs and micro, small and medium-sized enterprises have been recognized as a crucial way to promote women's economic empowerment. The promotion of women's entrepreneurship through the formation of women's cooperatives in the niche area of organic paddy farming can be an effective means of helping to alleviate rural poverty. The specific areas under which women farmers can be provided technical knowledge and skills for taking up rice-based entrepreneurship are organic rice farming, quality seed rice production, mat type nursery production, vermi-compost units, custom hiring of implements, skilled labour force, value added rice products and agri-tourism. Suitable Extension services are therefore required for diffusing technology and good practices to reach female farmers. In order to transform women farmers' into entrepreneurs, it is important to provide them with access to technology, credit, product and market information and training in management skills and enterprise development.

Speaker
Biography:

Chetan Pandya has completed his M.Sc. (Extension Education) from College of Agriculture, Gujarat Agricultural University, Junagadh and PhD from Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. He is working as Subject Matter Specialist (Extension) in Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Navsari Agricultural University, Vyara, Dist. Tapi (Gujarat). He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and number of popular articles in News paper and magazines and wrote book on “Development of Socio-Economic Scale-Study on Organic Farmers”.

Abstract:

Women play an important role in this sector. In India, women contribute 71 per cent of the total participation in livestock sector. Though agriculture as a whole and dairy in specific, the farm women play a vital responsibility. So, the present study was carried out specific objective to know the participation of farm women in feeding, breeding and management practices. The study was undertaken in Tapi district of Gujarat state in the year 2011. All the ten adopted villages of the Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Vyara were selected purposively for the study. From each village, 20 respondents were selected making total sample size 200. The structural interview schedule was prepared. The statistical measures namely frequency, percentage, mean were used. It could be concluded that the respondents were taking regular participation in activity of selection of type of the milch animals, taking participation in activity of Purchase of improved / cross breed animals on regular basis, taken participation in activities like bringing fodder, have daily participation in giving warm water to bath at calving, taking contribution in feeding colostrums to the calf, adopting veterinary aids like vaccination, have revealed their contribution in activities like watering at proper time to animals, have revealed their stack in activities of purchase of feed / fodder, selling of milk through cooperative society, cleaning milk vessels, have contribution in making milk products like curd.
Keywords: Breeding, Feeding, Management, Milch animal.

C. D. Autade

CCS Haryana Agricultural University, India

Title: ICTs in Indian agriculture: A case study
Speaker
Biography:

C. D. Autade has been completing P.D course curriculum at the age of 28 from Choudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agriculture university, Hisar (Haryana) before which, He has served as Assistant Professor Dept. of Extension Education, at Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil college of agriculture, Talsande, (Affiliated to MPKV, Rahuri) Dist. Kolhapur State: MAHARASHTRA. He has completed my post graduate research work on Tribal Community of Maharashtra.

Abstract:

Rapid innovations in telecommunications, semi-conductors, microprocessors, fiber optics and micro electronics are the engines of growth for development of countries across the world. These innovations are being referred to as Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICT sector in India is growing fast with its application in various fields using different ICT tools like television, radio, telephone and others. Growth in Indian information technology (IT) in the world market is primarily dominated by IT software and services, including system integration, IT constituting, application management, custom applications, infrastructural management, software testing and web development. India has tremendous progress in the field of agriculture over last few decades. The technology development in Agricultural sciences has changed the agriculture sector in a great extent. Present time is right time to use Information technology revolution in Agriculture. The demand for fast access to accurate information on crop choice, technology, input, production practices, services and market is increasing at a rapid pace from farmers end. Application of ICT models in India, with a few initiatives from public and private sectors has helped the farmers to obtain the required and accurate information. The Old ICTs like radio, television, video, films, slides, pictures, print media, telephones, drama, dance, folklore, group discussion, meetings, exhibitions, demonstrations etc., are being used to disseminate the information to the grass root level users. The new ICT includes digital devices such as computers, E-mail, internet, multimedia, video conference, mobile phones etc., which have the potential of providing vast amount of relevant information to rural populations in timely, comprehensive and cost effective manner.
Role of ICT in agriculture management of natural disasters and environmental hazards is beyond doubt. It can provide access to timely information and facilitate link with government agencies for effective governance and can improve livelihood and security of rural community. Many ICT projects were taken up, to provide relevant agricultural information in rural areas, helping farmers to improve their labor productivity, increase their yield, and realize a better price for their produce. Thus, the role of Information technology to develop agriculture and quality of life in rural area is well established. ICT can help an average Indian farmer to get relevant information regarding agro-inputs, crop production technologies, agro processing, market support, agro-finance and management of farm Agri-business. A case of weather forecasting was taken up where the farmers of Haryana state are given weather updates through mobile phones SMSs. Based on these SMSs, the farmers can take preventive/ corrective measures.

Speaker
Biography:

Ikechi Agbugba attended University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) where he bagged B.Sc and M.Sc degrees in Agricultural Economics from 1998-2008. He has successfully presented his PhD Research findings seminar over a year ago from the same University. He will be examined soon alongside his PhD thesis. He is 34 years. He has engaged in several agricultural-based research works as researcher, senior researcher, as well as lead researcher during his masters and doctoral degree programmes between 2005 till date. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and serving as the Head, Human Resouces Department of Technologies Platform business Resources Limited, a software developing company at Ikoyi Lagos State of Nigeria.

Abstract:

This study was carried out with three purposes. The first purpose included a description of socio-economic features of tropical leafy vegetable marketers in the study area; the second described the marketing channel; and the third determined their marketing margin. Multi-stage sampling method was adopted for the study. In the first stage, three states were randomly selected from the Southeastern states. In the second stage, two agricultural zones were selected from the already chosen Southeastern states. In the third stage, two markets were randomly selected from a list of major markets from the two agricultural zones previously selected. This gave a total number of twelve markets. In the fourth stage, 10 tropical leafy vegetable marketers comprising 5 wholesalers and 5 retailers were randomly selected from each of the markets. In all, a total of 38 marketers each were randomly selected from Abia, Enugu and Imo states giving a total sample size of 114 respondents for the study. According to the first purpose of this study, which included a description of socio-economic features of vegetable marketers, eight marketing channels were identified, and the marketing margin analyses showed a higher percentage (79%) for the marketers.
Keywords: Marketing, channels, margins, tropical, leafy, vegetables, Ugu, marketers.