Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences Radisson Blu Plaza Hotel, Hyderabad, India.

Day 2 :

  • Track 7: Agricultural Engineering and Technology

Session Introduction

Hifjur Raheman

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India

Title: Performance and emissions of a bio-electricity generating system
Speaker
Biography:

Hifjur Raheman is a Professor in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. He has published more than 50 papers in reputed international journals and is member of various professional societies of repute. He has two patents to his credit and handled several projects sponsored by CSIR, DST, PCRA and ICAR.

Abstract:

The performance and emissions of a 4.5 kW bio-electricity generating system comprising a down-draft gasifier, diesel engine and a generator were studied when fuelled with producer gas-biodiesel (BDPG) and producer gas-high speed diesel (DPG) in dual fuel mode and was compared with those when operated with high speed diesel (HSD) and biodiesel (BD) in single fuel mode. The biodiesel was obtained from Jatropha oil and producer gas was obtained from the gasification of briquettes made from de-oiled Jatropha seed cake. The cost of generating kilowatt hour of bio-electricity was found to be 0.84$ and 0.75$ for BD and HSD in dual fuel mode, respectively as compared to 0.69$ and 0.5$ in single fuel mode of the same fuels with a saving of pilot fuel up to 48%. The system efficiency (SE) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the power generating system increased with increase in system load to a maximum of 30.58 and 33.98%. However, these values were reduced by 25-32% when operated in dual fuel mode as compared to in single fuel mode due to the lower calorific value of producer gas. Significantly lower NOx and higher CO, CO2 and HC emissions were obtained under the dual fuel mode of operation for both pilot fuels compared to the single-fuel mode. Over all the developed power generating system can be recommended for remote rural areas where grid supply is not available.

Biography:

Manoj Karkee is an Assistant Professor in the Biological Systems Engineering Department and Center for Precision and Automated Agricultural Systems (CPAAS) at Washington State University. Dr. Karkee was born and raised in Nepal, some 400 km east of Kathmandu. After completing high school, he moved to Kathmandu for his undergraduate degree. He received his bachelor's degree in Computer Engineering in 2002 from Tribhuvan University, and then moved to Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand where he earned his Master's Degree in Remote Sensing and GIS. In 2009, Dr. Karkee received his PhD in Agricultural Engineering and Human Computer Interaction from Iowa State University. Dr. Karkee works in the areas of agricultural automation and mechanization, with particular emphasis on machine vision systems for robotics and automation of production agriculture. He has been working on various research projects in this area, including apple tree pruning, apple crop-load estimation, apple and cherry harvesting, water and nutrient stress monitoring, and solid set canopy delivery. In his personal life, Dr. Karkee enjoys spending time with his family, singing Nepali songs, reading and writing literature and playing sports including Volleyball and Badminton.

Abstract:

Accurate crop load estimation is important for efficient apple orchard management. This information is important for planning and assigning appropriate labor pool and equipment for harvesting and transportation of fruits from orchard to packing houses. Current machine vision-based techniques for crop load estimation have achieved only limited success. Two primary factors affecting the accuracy of such systems are the occlusion of fruit, and variable outdoor lighting condition. In order to minimize the effect of these factors, an over-the-row platform with a tunnel structure was developed to take images of apple trees from two opposite sides. Average visibility of apples increased from 70% to 97% when imaged from both sides of a row of apple trees in a modern commercial orchard. The tunnel structure minimized illumination of apples with direct sun-light; hence reducing the variability in lighting condition. The platform, equipped with artificial lighting, was capable of night-time operations also. Images captured during day and night time were processed for identifying apples. Location of apples in three-dimensional space was used to eliminate repeated counting of apples that were visible from both sides of the tree. Root-mean-squared error on identifying apples and repeated apple counting were estimated to be 12% and 9.5% respectively. Over-the-row machine vision system showed a promise for accurate and reliable apple crop-load estimation that may substitute for traditional way of crop load estimation using visual inspection. Accurate identification and 3D localization of apples will also provide a foundation for the development of robotic harvesting system.

Sandip Gangil

Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, India

Title: Thermal activation of charcoal produced from Pigeonpea stalk
Speaker
Biography:

Sandip Gangil has completed his doctorate from Shizuoka University, Japan. He is Principal Scientist at Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal India. He has published several papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

The crop residues can be used for preparation of low cost activated charcoal. Pigeon stalk was converted in charcoal using slow pyrolysis in two different type of charring systems, namely vertical reactor bio-char unit and closed charring kiln. Iodine value was taken as indicator of adsorbent ability of charcoal. The iodine values charcoal produced were of the order of 200 ± 10 mg/g. This level of iodine value is relatively low in comparison to iodine value of commercial laboratory grade activated carbon (1140 ± 10 mg/g). The iodine values of raw char obtained from vertical cylinder bio-char unit were ranged from 200 to 320 mg/g; the higher value being for lower pyrolysis temperature when the pyrolysis temperature varied from 250 to 450°C. Thermal activation of charcoal was conducted at 630°C for different durations in muffle furnace. It was found that the duration of half hour is better than higher durations. The iodine value could be enhanced until 650 mg/g by half hour thermal treatment for the charcoal produced at 250°C. The iodine value of the char produced in closed charring kiln was 200 mg/g which could also be improved by thermal activation process till 600. Thus, the iodine values of 625 ± 25 mg/g are obtainable for pigeon pea based char after thermal processing of raw charcoal. In reference to the iodine value of raw charcoal, the iodine value could be improved until 2-3 times. In comparison with commercial activated carbon this iodine value is about 45%.
In other experiment, we produced the charcoal from wood using downdraft gasifier. The activation of wood based charcoal obtained through gasification was achieved till iodine value level of 900 mg/m. This level was nearly 80% of the activation level of commercial activated carbon. Thus, the activation of gasification generated wood charcoal was better than the activation of pyrolysis generated crop residue charcoal. It was due to two reasons viz., the char obtained from gasifier was generated at higher temperatures; the wood contains relatively lower volatiles, moisture and ash content than the experimented crop residues.

J. C. Tarafdar

Central Arid Zone Research Institute, India

Title: Biosynthesis of nanoparticles and its application in agriculture
Speaker
Biography:

J. C. Tarafdar did his M. Sc. & PhD from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi and Post Doctoral Research in Göttingen University, Germany. He is a DAAD, AvH, NAAS, ISSS, ISSRS and National Fellow. Dr. Tarafdar was published 286 research articles in reputed journals including 2 books and 28 book chapters. He has four patents and 39 potential organisms for nanoparticle production. Dr. Tarafdar received many awards most notable are Sukumar Basu Memorial Award, IMPHOS-FAI Award, Bharat Jyoti Award, Prof. S. K. Mukherjee Memorial Award, Prof. R. S. Murthy Memorial Award and Glory of India Gold Medal.

Abstract:

Nanotechnology is the revolutionary technology where the particle size ranges between 1 and 100 nm at least in one dimension. Nanoparticles have better chemical reactivity, biological activity and catalytic behaviour which may be exploited for the benefit of mankind. Biosynthesized nanoparticles are more important in agricultural sciences due to their stability (> 90 days) as they are naturally encapsulated by mother protein. Thirtynine organisms identified in our laboratory which have the potential to synthesize of N, P, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Ti, Au, Ag and Pt nanoparticles. In general, agricultural important nanoparticles are applied to the foliar mode at two weeks old plant. Aerosol spray, lower concentration < 5 ppm, particles of size < 20 nm and cube-shape may help more penetration both in plants and microorganisms. Nanoparticles enter into plants through cuticle, stomata, stigma, root tips, cortex, lateral root junction and wounding. It may enhance prevention of membrane damage and stress tolerance. Improvement in root length, root area, chlorophyll content, enzyme activities, and protein content was also noticed. In general, three times efficiency of nano-nutrient was observed after using biological nanoparticles. Nano-induced polysaccharide powder helps more moisture retention, C and microbial build up in arid and semi-arid areas. In general 15-50% improvement in crop yield, 8-100 times improvement in nutrient use efficiency was noticed with the application of biosynthesized nanoparticles to different crops. The early maturity was also noticed in vegetable due to nanoparticle application. Thus, nanotechnology can be an important part of the future agriculture and food industry.

Ranjan Kumar Naik

Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres (ICAR), India

Title: Fibre extraction of jute and allied fibre crops: Problems and machine development
Speaker
Biography:

Ranjan Kumar Naik has obtained his B.Tech. and M.Tech. degree in Agricultural Engineering from Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. He is currently working as a Scientist (FMP) at Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata– 700120, West Bengal, India under Indian Council of Agricultural Research. His specialization of work is mechanization of Jute and Allied Fibre crops. He has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Jute and allied fibres like mesta, sunnhemp, ramie and sisal are used in textile and related industries. These fibres are extracted from the bark or bast of the harvested plants (leaf in case of sisal). Energy as well as cost analysis of existing cultivation technology of these crops showed major consumption in the process of fibre extraction. Improved technology has been developed to reduce the cost of fibre extraction and to improve the quality of fibre. Partial mechanization was introduced in the process of fibre extraction. Improved technology includes first the separation of ribbon from the harvested plants with the help of machine and then retting of ribbon in water. For jute, Mesta and Sunnhemp fibre extraction, low cost machines viz. power operated ‘CRIJAF Bast Fibre Extractor’ and manually operated ‘CRIJAF Jute Extractor’ were developed to extract the fibres directly from the harvested plants. Also, developed the method of ribbon retting which economizes in water use, time and produces quality fibre. The machines ‘CRIJAF Flax extactor’ and ‘sisal fibre extractor’ were developed for extraction of fibre from flax and sisal respectively. This paper discusses in detail the conventional method of fibre extraction, the developed machines, ribbon retting and the outcome of the improved technology.

A Padmasri

Seed Research and Technology Centre, India

Title: Management of shoot borers in Sugarcane through integrated approach
Speaker
Biography:

A Padmasri is presently working as Scientist (Seed Entomology), Seed Research and Technology Center, ANGR Agricultural University, Hyderabad. She joined as Scientist (Entomology) at RS &RRS, Rudrur during 2006 and involved in testing the efficacy of newer insecticides against early shoot borer in sugarcane and rice stem borer and gall midge. Presently her work is involved in evaluating the novel insecticides and packing materials against stored grain pests in different crops and suitability of the same against the storability of the seed. She was awarded with Junior Research Fellowship by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research during 1997. She was awarded with Hexamer Foundation medal for securing highest OGPA during post graduation in 1999. She was involved in releasing a book on Integrated Pest Management in various crops.

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted at Regional Sugarcane and Rice Research Station, Rudrur during 2008 and 2012 to study the effect of integrated approaches for the management of Early shoot borer (Chilo infuscatellus) and Internodal shoot borer (Chilo sachariphagus indicus). Incidence of Early shoot borer was significantly lowest (6.6 per cent) in Integrated approach for management plot as compared with untreated control plot (14.50 per cent). Similarly lowest per cent of intensity (4.28 per cent) and incidence (7.71 per cent) was observed in Integrated approach for management plot as compared with 6.87 per cent and 13.96 per cent in untreated control plot, respectively. Increased number of millable canes and cane yield (84.62 t/ha) was obtained in Integrated approach for management plots over the untreated control (78.06 t/ha). Integrated approach, when combined into an unified manner is useful for the management of shoot borer.

C. P. Devatha

National Institute of Technology Raipur, India

Title: Soil moisture uptake under different salinity levels for paddy crop
Speaker
Biography:

DEVATHA Chella Purushothaman is an Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Karnataka. She acquired her Ph.D degree in –Civil and Environmental Hydraulics Engineering in the year 2005. She specializes in Modeling of soil moisture in unsaturated zone, Ground water modeling, Remote sensing and GIS applications to Hydrology and Water resources Engg., Flood Modelling, Contaminant Transport Modelling, Design of Water Supply Networks, Modelling of Advanced Waste Water Treatment system.

Abstract:

The essence of salinity problem starts from the fact that all irrigation waters contain some amount of dissolved salts. Soil water salinity is dependent on soil type, climate, water use and irrigation. Root water uptake pattern for paddy is studied for saline as well as non-saline conditions in the present study using non-linear root water uptake model. Experimental work had been carried out using two different levels of salinity (4dS/m and 6.25dS/m) and fresh water condition. Salinity effect on soil moisture had been studied by two approaches viz., effect on crop efficient and effect on hydraulic conductivity. Based upon the experimental observation for less saline (4dS/m), high saline (6.25dS/m) and fresh water condition, exponential form of equation is established for the hydraulic conductivity. The results obtained for soil moisture depletion in the crop root zone shows significant improvement in simulation for saline cases with the use of non linearity parameter.
Keywords: Salinity, O-R model, Crop co-efficient, Root water uptake, Hydraulic conductivity.

Speaker
Biography:

Deodas T. Meshram (b.13th May, 1970) completed Bachelors (1995) in Agriculture Engineering from PDKV, Akola and Master (1997) in Water Resources Development and Management from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Recently completed (2010) PhD from CTAE, MPUAT, Udaipur with specialization of Irrigation Water Management Engineering. He is having total 15 years experience and written number 31 National, 11 International research papers and 3 books. Presently he is working as Scientist, SS (Soil and Water Conservation Engineering) at NRC on Pomegranate, Indian Council of Agriculture Research, Solapur.

Abstract:

This paper deals with the stochastic modeling of weekly pomegranate evapotranspiration in semi-arid climatic condition by using seasonal Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARIMA) model. The daily values of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETr) were estimated by Penman-Monteith method for 32 years (1981 to 2011); which were summed up to obtain the weekly values. These weekly ETr values were used to fit the ARIMA models of different orders. ARIMA models of 2nd order were selected based on autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) of the ETr series. The parameters of the selected models were obtained with the help of maximum likelihood method. The diagnostic checking of the selected models was then performed with the help of three tests (i.e. standard error, ACF and PACF of residuals and Akaike Information Criteria) to know the adequacy of the selected models. The ARIMA models that passed the adequacy test were selected for forecasting. One year ahead forecast (i.e., for 2012) of ETr values were obtained with the help of these selected models and compared with the values of ETr obtained from the climatological data of 2012 by root mean square error (RMSE). The lowest RMSE was obtained for ARIMA (2,1,2) (2,1,0)52 and hence is the best stochastic model for generating and forecasting of weekly ETr. These best weekly ETr values were used to estimates for pomegranate evapotranspiration (litrs/day/tree) of pomegranate orchards in Western part of Maharashtra, India.

Speaker
Biography:

Ipsita Das did M.Tech. & PhD from IIT Kharagpur in Food Process Engineering. She is presently working as Scientist in Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Bombay. She has authored about 25 technical publications in peer reviewed journals and proceedings. She has published Two Book Chapters (Taylor and Francis Group & In Tech Publishing House) and Two Monographs with LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co, Germany. Her areas of research interest include Food Drying & Disinfestation.

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using microwave energy for blanching and dehydration of mushroom slices. The technology utilizes by applying microwave energy at the beginning of dehydration process to heat up the mushroom for simultaneous blanching and partial dehydration and then followed by hot air drying to accelerate the dehydration process. This technology does not involve the addition of steam or water for the blanching process and intended to be a replacement of steam/water blanching technique. The partial removal of the moisture during blanching makes the whole drying process more energy efficient than conventional method. Mushroom slices were pretreated with different microwave power levels of 240, 360, 480 Watt for 1, 3, 5 minutes before the hot air-drying. The influence of above parameters were studied on drying characteristics, colour, water activity and rehydration ratio of dried mushroom.
Keywords: Blanching, Dehydration. Microwave, Mushroom Slices.

R. Rejani

Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), India

Title: Runoff estimation using modified SCS CN model coupled with GIS for Nethravathi river basin of India
Speaker
Biography:

R. Rejani has completed her M.Tech and PhD from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur and received DAAD fellowship during 2000-01 and done part of her PhD programme at University of Hannover, Germany. She is the working as Scientist (Soil and Water Conservation Engg.) at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (ICAR). She has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals, 4 book chapters and serving as reviewer for the Journal of Water Resources Management.

Abstract:

The SCS-CN method is one of the most widely used method for quick and accurate estimation of surface runoff. The coupling of this technique with the Geographic Information System (GIS) helps to predict runoff spatially and in an efficient manner. Keeping in view of this, in the present study an attempt was made to estimate the daily runoff spatially using GIS coupled slope modified SCS-CN method for Nethravathi river basin, lies along the west coast region of India. Even though huge amount of water from Nethravathi river is flowing out into the Arabian Sea during monsoon season, there is insufficient water during summer season (February to May). Hence, rainwater harvesting and insitu moisture conservation are very essential for this basin. The daily runoff depends on the daily rainfall, antecedent moisture condition (AMC), soil properties, land use land cover, slope of the land etc. Hence, the different thematic layers were prepared in ARCGIS, intercepted and the runoff was estimated. ASTER 30 m DEM data was used for generating the basin map, drainage network, slope map etc. The basin area generated from the DEM (3211 km2) was on par with the values reported earlier by Central Water Commission (3184 km2). The slope output derived from DEM showed that the major portion of the basin has slope below 25 degrees with mountain ranges upto 40-70 degrees. The land use land cover map AWFIS 2007-08 data showed that the major portion of this basin is under forest followed by plantation crops. The surface runoff estimated using SCS-CN and slope modified SCS-CN techniques were validated for the Nethravathi river basin using the runoff data recorded data for the period 2003 to 2006 at Directorate of Cashew Research (DCR) Puttur and the river discharge data of Nethravathi river at Bantwal Station. It was found that the slope adjusted CN method performed the best (R2 =0.89) followed by standard CN method (R2=0.87). This methodology can be adopted for estimating the runoff potential from unguaged watersheds with deficient data. It is concluded that in order to ensure long-term and sustainable groundwater utilization in the region, proper estimation of runoff and implementation of suitable water harvesting measures are the need of the hour.
Keywords: ArcGIS, cashew, curve number, SCS-CN model, slope, surface runoff.

Biography:

Rajendra Subudhi is an associate professor at Odisha University of agricultural technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. He holds a M.Tech (Water Resources Development and Management) degree from IIT Kharagpur. He is also a recipient of Bharat Jyoti Award and Best citizenship of India for the year 2013 as well as many international and national awards.

Abstract:

Four tanks with full storage capacity of 11.31 cubic meters were excavated at Sudreju village of Kandhamal district of Orissa near Dryland Research Station, Phulbani during 2003-2005 and were lined by soil cement mortar (6:1) of 6 cm & 8 cm thickness, concrete plaster (8:4:1) 4 cm thickness and fourth was unlined. Observations on seepage loss were recorded in all the tanks. The unlined tank had seepage loss of 936 lit/day. Observations from three other lined tanks indicated that seepage loss was 78.15 lit/day in soil cement ( 6:1) mortar 6 cm, 12.26 lit/day in soil cement ( 6:1) mortar 8 cm thickness & seepage loss was 39.48 lit/day in concrete plaster (8:4:1) 4 cm thickness. The cost of construction of the soil cement (6cm) lined tank (Rs. 1950/-) was nearly 21 percent cheaper than that of soil cement (8cm) lined tank (Rs. 2362/-). The economic loss due to seepage was lowest (2.03Rs/day) in soil cement (6:1) mortar 8 cm thickness. Thus soil cement (6:1) mortar 8 cm thickness are economical in all respects and are the only means of storing water in the laterite regions of Orissa.
Orissa comes under high rainfall region of the country. It receives annually an average rainfall of 1500 mm. nearly 40 percent of it is lost through deep percolation and is never available to crops. Porous soil accelerates the movement of underground water. The district of Kandhamal is centrally located plateau and mostly comprises of red laterite soil whose retentive capacity is very poor and seepage loss is very high. The district has the irrigation potential of only 10 percent of the total cropped area. It receives an average annual rainfall of 1393 mm. The farmers grow a single crop in a year due to lack of irrigation water. The water table is very deep. Most of the lands are undulating. Nearly 80 percent of the cropped area belongs to high lands. Under such situation tank irrigation is an imperative means for water resource development. The limiting factor to such water resource development is the seepage loss.

Suresh Kumar

Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, India

Title: Sprinkler irrigation system for enhancing the sustainability of depleting groundwater resources of Rajasthan state
Speaker
Biography:

Suresh Kumar has completed his M.Sc. in Agricultural Economics from Indian Institute of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. At present, working as Scientist (Agril. Economics) at Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute.

Abstract:

Over-exploitation of groundwater resources of the state has made the farming unsustainable due to increased water scarcity. The potential area for sprinkler irrigation in countries like India is huge, as it can be used for closely grown crops like cereals and millets besides using for horticultural crops, and in all kind of terrain conditions-undulating terrain, rolling topography, hilly areas, barren lands and, areas having shallow soils. Total potential area under sprinkler irrigated was estimated about 6.7 Mha in Rajasthan state but as of 2008-09, the area covered under sprinkler irrigation is only 9 per cent of the potential area. The large scale adoption of sprinkler irrigation in state may help in sustainable management of groundwater, and going to have positive bearing on the stage of groundwater development. Keeping in the view the water saving capacity of sprinkler irrigation system under different farm conditions (farmer skill, type of soil, topography, type of crops) varies between 30 to 50 per cent, two type of scenarios are assumed to study the impact of sprinkler irrigation on the stage of groundwater development, irrigated area and social front. These two scenarios are viz., first- with the saved water extra area can be brought under sprinkler irrigation system, If the sprinkler irrigation is adopted in entire potential area, then the around 2.0 Mha and 3.3 Mha area can be brought under irrigation in the state. Moreover, with the adoption of sprinkler irrigation, the social inequality of water availability can be addressed and surplus water also may be given to needy farmers through the effective and efficient groundwater markets. Second scenario - saved water may be used for recharging groundwater. At present, the numbers of blocks under safe (stage of water development less than 70 per cent) and Over-exploited (stage of water development is more than 100 per cent) categories are 1 and 8, respectively. If the sprinkler irrigation system is adopted in entire potential area, and if sprinkler irrigation system enables to save 30 and 50 per cent of water requirement for irrigation, then the number of blocks under safe category increases to 3 and 5, and number of blocks under over-exploited category reduced to 3 and nil. However, the estimated potential can be realised only if the constraints to adoption and to operation are addressed effectively and efficiently. High initial investment on the sprinkler irrigation, small land holdings and high rate of interest on the loan are considered as the major constraints to adoption of sprinkler irrigation. Main problems faced by the farmers in the operating the sprinkler irrigation system are intermittent fall of water table and erratic supply electric power. The regular and constant voltage supply of electricity should be provided in the day time, to avoid the excess use of groundwater, as the irregularity and during night time supply leads to excess use of groundwater and also render inconvenience the farmers.

M. Shakila Banu

Avinashilingam Institute of Home Science and Higher Education for Women, India

Title: Comparative studies on solvent and supercritical fluid extraction techniques of capsaicin
Biography:

M. Shakila Banu is the Chairperson – Board of Studies in Food Processing & Preservation Technology Faculty of Engineering, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore.

Abstract:

Chilli have been a part of the human diet in the since at least 7500 BC. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids. The two most abundant capsaicinoids in peppers are capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, both constituting 90%, with capsaicin accounting for ~71% of the total capsaicinoids in most of the pungent varieties. Capsaicin content of peppers is one of the major parameters that determine its commercial quality.
The simplest form of solid liquid extraction is treatment of solid with a solvent. Soxhlet extraction is one of the conventionally used methods for extracting capsaicin. Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed as an alternative to organic solvent for the extraction of capsaicin. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is probably the most widely used supercritical fluid because of its critical temperature (31.1 ℃), which makes it an ideal solvent for extracting thermally labile materials.
In the present study capsaicin extraction using two techniques supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction are compared. The extraction efficiency was found to be higher in Supercritical fluid extraction. The resulting capsaicin was then incorporated into different products like cookie, honey, mayonnaise and yoghurt and sensory evaluation was conducted.

Speaker
Biography:

Harashala Patil has completed her M. Tech at the age of 23 years from IIT Kharagpur in Post Harvest Engineering. She has worked with microwave assisted hot air drying of fruits and vegetables. Currently, she is enrolled in the PhD program in IIT Bombay and her PhD topic is microwave applications in food processing, in which she is going to apply the microwaves for blanching, drying and disinfestations of various food type, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts and spices.

Abstract:

Almond is one of the most valuable edible nuts in the world with distinctive taste, nutrient and texture. The major problem in production, processing and storage of almond is insect infestation. The major potential quarantine treatment methods used for postharvest control of insect pests in raw almonds are chemical fumigation, ionizing radiation, controlled atmosphere, conventional hot air/water heating, and dielectric heating using radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) energy etc. Increased regulation of chemical fumigants has forced the almond industry to seek non chemical alternatives for postharvest control of insect pests. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the short time microwave-heat treatment on quality and storability of almonds. The microwave oven with 2.45 GHz frequency was used to see the effects of the microwave treatment on almonds. Almonds were exposed to different microwave power levels i.e., 120, 240, 360, 480 and 600 Watts for the exposure time of 30, 60, 90 seconds. Quality attributes such as Color, Water Activity, Texture, Peroxide Value, Fatty Acid and Iodine Value of the fresh and treated almonds were studied immediately after the microwave treatment and after storage of 6 months.
Keywords: Almond, Disinfestations, Microwave, Quality Attribute, Storability.

Dilip G. Durbude

National Institute of Hydrology, India

Title: Model parameterization using watershed geomorphology
Speaker
Biography:

Dilip G. Durbude is working with National Institute of Hydrology (An Autonomous Organization under the Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India). Dr. Durbude is having more than 15 years of research experience in the area of Hydrology and its allied field such as water resources planning and management, environmental hydrology, RS and GIS application in hydrology and watershed modeling, soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation, etc. He has more than 50 publications to his credit including book chapters and research papers in various National and International Journals. His internationally acclaimed works are on SCS-CN based long term simulation modeling.

Abstract:

Finding the value of parameters of a conceptual model is a challenging task particularly in ungauged basins or basins where very less measurements are available. Hence, it has been the endeavor of many hydrologists to quantify and relate geomorphological characteristics of ungauged watersheds to their hydrologic response characteristics. The geomorphological characteristics of a watershed, such as size, shape, topography, geomorphology, land use and soil characteristics etc., play vital role in generating runoff and affect significantly the hydrological response of a watershed. Recently developed Modified Long Term Hydrologic Simulation Advance Soil Moisture Accounting (MLTHS ASMA) Jain et al., (2012) 15-parameters model performed better to simulate total stream flow than the existing one, but for its pragmatic application, it is required to relate model parameters with measurable geomorphological characteristics of the watersheds. Therefore, in the present study, the measurable geomorphological characteristics of the watersheds lying under different agro-climatic set-up of India are correlated with model parameters using step-wise backward elimination procedure via p-value of F-statistic of multiple regression analysis. In most cases, the parameters exhibited a good relationship with geomorphological characteristics of the watersheds.

Kshirendra Kumar Mahanta

Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, India

Title: Managing salt affected soils: Issues and strategies
Speaker
Biography:

Kshirendra Kumar Mahanta has completed his B. Tech (Agril. Engg.), M. Tech (SWCE) form College of Agril. Engg. & Tech., O.U.A.T., Bhubaneswar and PhD from Dept. of WRDM, IIT, Roorkee. He is working as Scientist (Soil & Water Conservation Engineering) at Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (ICAR) since 1999. He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and serving as a member of Executive council of Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research, Canning Town.

Abstract:

Improper land and water management has amplified the soil salinity problem across the world. In saline soil high concentration of soluble salts results in high soil permeability, thus, making soil physical conditions favorable for leaching. But the presence of excess Na+ ions in sodic soil makes the reclamation process more difficult and complex because the hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rate are often poor. The problem in sodic soil is for the electric double layer. More number of sodium ions is required to balance the deficit charges on the clay surface. Hence, the thickness of electric double layer in sodic soil is more than the non-sodic soil where multivalent ions are dominant. Most of the previous studies on reclamation of salt affected soils are field studies. A few analytical models were attempted without involving the interaction of ions and geometry of soil, hence failed. The electric double layer has hardly been taken into account for solving the reclamation problem of the sodic soil. As Na+ and Ca2+ ions are ions of concern for reclamation of the sodic soil, the interactions among these ions need to be considered through the electric double layer theory.

Ritu Prakash Dubey

Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, India

Title: Process standardization of value added (jack fruit seed flour and soy flour) Parantha
Speaker
Biography:

Ritu Prakash Dubey completed her PhD in the year 2003 from Allahabad Agriculture Institute, Naini, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh (Now SHIATS). She had published 28 research papers in reputed National and International journals. More than 100 abstracts were published in national and international conferences and seminars and symposium. 50 Articles published in magzines. She had 10 years of experience in field of teaching, research and extension.

Abstract:

The present study was carried out with the objectives to prepare parantha by incorporation jackfruit seed flour and soy flour in wheat flour, to assess the sensory acceptability of developed product and to find nutrient content of the product. Control and four experimental treatments were prepared with varying proportion of jackfruit seed flour and soy flour at constant level in wheat flour in 4 different ratio’s viz. 5:10:85, 10:10:80, 15:10:75, 20:10:70 , in each combination ratio of jackfruit seed flour, soy flour and wheat flour. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. Sensory evaluation of product was carried out using 9 point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during the study were analyzed statically using analysis of variance and critical difference techniques. On the basis of findings it was concluded that T2 (10% jack fruit seed flour +10 % soy flour +80 % wheat flour ) scores the best with regard to color (8.76), taste and flavor (8.56), overall acceptability (8.81) whereas body and texture was best at T1 (5%) and scores (8.1). All experimental treatment were also analyzed chemically using AOAC (1980) procedures. Compared nutritive value of parantha with its treatment showed that the highest protein content was observed in T2 (15.04g). Likewise highest energy was found in T2 (446.3kcal). Fiber content showed an increase as the level of incorporation of jackfruit seed flour and soy flour increased. Fat content was highest in T4 (15.34). Calcium content was also found highest in T1 (66.27). Iron content was highest in T4 (8.63) in which the percentage of jackfruit seed flour and soy flour was maximum. Hence it can be concluded that jackfruit seed flour and soy flour can be successfully incorporated up to 10% in preparation of parantha.

Laxmikanta Nayak

National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, India

Title: Banana fibre extraction: Problems and prospects for machine development
Speaker
Biography:

Laxmikanta Nayak, presently working as Senior Scientist at National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, Kolkata has Completed his PhD in Agricultural Engineering from prestigious Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. He is involved in R & D in the field of natural fibre extraction & Biomass energy. He has more than 35 Publications in International and National Journals and more than 30 presentations in International & National conferences/Symposia/Workshops.

Abstract:

After harvest of banana fruits, huge quantity of biomass residues (60t/ha - 80/t ha) is left over as waste that constitutes pseudo stem, leaves, sucker etc. Among these waste components, there exists a vast potential of extracting fibres from the banana pseudo stem. Fibre from this pseudo-stem can be extracted both manually and by mechanical processes. Low cost, user-friendly machines can extract 15-20 kg fibres from the banana pseudostem in a day compared to 500 gm through the laborious manual process. Though banana fibre extractors have been designed and developed at various parts of the country over the years, no where the quality matches the desirable properties of textile grade fibre like fineness, strength etc., to get fine quality yarn. Moreover, the fibres obtained from these extractors differ in quality posing problem to the processor. Hence, there is a great scope in developing an efficient extractor for getting good quality fibre for textile use.

Biography:

B. Sailaja has completed her PhD from Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India and has been working as Scientist in Computer Applications in Agriculture with Directorate of Rice Research (ICAR). She has 14 years experience in applying information technology tools to Rice Research in India. She has developed information systems (www.aicrip-intranet.in), expert system and decision support system by integrating spatial technologies and crop models for rice management.

Abstract:

An agricultural region can be considered as a collection of individual fields that vary in environmental conditions and management practices. Similarly, the impacts of any potential changes whether they are intended (such as reductions in fertilizer use) or unintended (such as climate changes) will be variable across a region. Influence of soil, water and climatic variables on rice productivity can be effectively estimated through different crop models. Greater use of crop simulation models has also been being suggested to increase the efficiency of different trials. Decision Support System for Advanced Technology Transfer (DSSAT) is relatively new model applying to Indian farming conditions. A field experiment conducted at Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad (17°32' N, 78°38' E) during 2006 was used for evaluation of this model. This experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with 2 rice varieties viz., BPT 5204(long duration) and Ajaya (Medium duration) at 3 nitrogen (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha) levels and 3 replications. Genetic coefficients for these 2 varieties were calculated independently and used for executing this model. Crop growing dates and management data were entered into DSSAT model files and model was executed at 0,100 and 200 (kg/ha) nitrogen levels. Results of this model include days to panicle initiation, days to flowering, days to maturity and grain yield. DSSAT model performed well at 3 nitrogen levels and at 200 nitrogen level, percentage differences with observed values were below 10(AJAYA-1% & BPT 5204-9%). Performance of this model was also assessed by statistical analysis (R2, D-index and NOF). DSSAT model can be effectively used for simulating rice growth and development and to assist in management decisions under irrigated ecosystem in India.

Zulkifli Bin Husin

Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia

Title: Portable device for herb leaves recognition system
Biography:

Zulkifli Bin Husin has completed his Master at the age of 29 years from Universiti Malaysia Perlis and studies from Universiti Malaysia Perlis School of Computer and Communication Engineering. Currently, he is the senior lecturer at his university and working experience is about 7 years. He has a lots of awards in national and international exhibition competition such as WIPO Best Award in SIIF2010 and gold medal in IENA Germany, SIIF Korea and (ITEX, MTE, PECIPTA and BIOM) in Malaysia. He has published several papers in reputed journals and serving as a reviewer of repute. He has funding more than MYR 700K especially from his government fund for developing new fundamental and prototype of research projects.

Abstract:

Malaysia is an agriculture based country with many people working in this area. In particular, a large number of persons work for herbs based industry especially food, medicine and cosmetic. Knowing which herbs to be used would be very critical in these applications. The current way of identification of types of herbs is still being done manually and prone to human error. Designing a convenient and automatic recognition system of herbs species is essential since this will improve herb species classification efficiency. Based on popular botanical theory, the types of vein images of leaves have been used for plant recognition. This research focus on recognition approach to the shape and texture features of the herbs leaves. It aims to realize the computerized method to classify the herbs plants in a very convenient way. Portable herb leaves recognition system through image and data processing techniques is implemented as automated herb plant classification system. It is very easy to use and inexpensive system designed especially for helping scientist in agricultural field. The proposed system employs artificial intelligent and vision techniques to perform recognition on species of herbs. Most importantly the system is capable of identifying the herbs leaves species even though they are dried, wet, torn or deformed. With the advancement in mobile phone technology, camera is now embedded into communication devices. As such, the newly developed system could easily be implemented into mobile communication devices and help consumers to learn and recognize the type of herbs around the world.

Speaker
Biography:

B. Moravejalahkami working as a professor in Water Engineering Department, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan.Visiting Scholar in International Development Technologies Center, Department of Civil and Agricultural Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parlville Vic. 3052, Australia (Visiting period: Sep. 1994 to June 1995), Department of Land, Air and Water Resources and Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA (Visiting period: June 2001 to June 2002).

Abstract:

The performance of furrow irrigation system as one of the surface irrigation methods can be improved through optimal management practices such as selection of proper inflow rates and cut-off times. In this study, the effect of modified increased discharge on water and fertilizer use saving and soil erosion was investigated under actual field conditions. To apply the modified increased discharge an automatic device was designed and used in the field. The applied volume of water and total fertilizer mass were the same for all of the experiments. The field results showed irrigation water saving of 16.87% and fertilizer loss due to runoff decreased 34.7%. Tailwater runoff decreased 68% for modified increased discharge that could decrease soil erosion in furrow irrigation. The performance of a zero- inertia model for the application of modified increased discharge under different field slopes and furrow lengths showed that the irrigation water saving became higher under higher field slopes and lower furrow lengths. The proper management of furrow irrigation can significantly reduce water use, soil erosion, fertilizer losses and consequently water resource pollution.
Keywords: Furrow irrigation, water saving, fertigation, tailwater runoff.

  • Track 8: Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness

Session Introduction

B. Nirmala

Directorate of Rice Research, India

Title: Narrowing the yield gaps for profitable rice production
Biography:

B. Nirmala is working as a Scientist (Agricultural Economics) at Directorate of Rice Research (ICAR), Hyderabad, India. She has completed her Ph.D. (Agricultural Economics) from Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India. She is trained in 'Food Value Chain Analysis' by International Rice Research Institute. She has been awarded ICAR Junior Research Fellowship to pursue M.Sc. (Agriculture) and also was awarded 'Young Scientist Award' in 2009 by Green Cross Society, Agra, India. She has published 13 research papers in peer reviewed research journals, 2 international book chapters, 2 national book chapters and 9 popular articles. Her areas of research include impact studies of agricultural technologies, production economics and international trade in agriculture.

Abstract:

An analysis of yield gaps in rice will help in understanding the production status and constraints in rice production. It also suggests strategies to enhance productivity at micro level and production at macro level. With an objective to estimate the magnitude of yield gaps and the constraints in rice production, a study was conducted in four districts viz., West Godavari, Guntur, Kurnool and Mahboobnagar of Andhra Pradesh in 2012. Yield gap I which is the difference between the potential yield (experimental station yield) and the potential farm yield (demonstration yield) is 5%. Yield gap II which is the difference between the potential farm yield (demonstration yield) and actual yield (average yield realized by the sample farmers) is 7%. The index of yield gap was found to be 12%.
The major constraints in rice production in each of the sample districts were quantified by using the Garret's ranking technique. The results revealed that lack of remunerative price, problems of tenancy, shortage of labor during peak operation periods, non-release of canal water in time were the major constraints in West Godavari district with a Garret's score of 74, 66, 61 and 58 respectively. In case of Guntur non-availability of fertilizers in time, lack of remunerative price and pests and disease incidence leading to yield losses were the major constraints as opined by the sample farmers. The sample farmers of Kurnool opined that the release of canal water and the availability of fertilizers in general and phosphorous in particular were not in time. The major constraints in realizing the potential yield as opined by the sample farmers in Mahboobnagar were shortage of labour, lack of remunerative price and incidence of pests and diseases resulting in reduced returns from paddy cultivation.

Sundara Rajan S

Janani AgriServe – ICT based Agro EcoSystem, India

Title: Janani AgriServe (Janani’s Smart Agri EcoSystem)
Speaker
Biography:

Sundara Rajan has a Fellowship in Marketing from Delft University (RVB), Nederlands, also holds a MBA from AIMA, Delhi, in addition to his PG Dip. in Advertising and Sales Management. A seasoned Marketing & Management professional - His past experiences encompasses many industries, which includes Food, FMCG, Media, Housing Infrastructure, IT services. He also provides Consultancy Services.

Abstract:

Janani AgriServe is a Village level Agri EcoSystem - An integrated Physical and Information & Communication networked Agri Value Chain which exploits the latest in Agri Sciences, Computing, Information & Communication and other technologies to design, monitoring and delivery of agri products and services to small farmers in a personalized, effective and efficient manner.
Janani AgriServe - Village Level Agri Ecosystem
Comprises of network of stake holders in agriculture, viz

    • Small farmers, farmer clubs, Self Help Groups, Producer Companies,

    • Local Agriprenaurs, NGOs, farmer co-operatives

    • Local, State and Central Governments agencies;

    • Agri Universities, Research Organizations, Scientists,

    • Agri Business organizations in Finance, Insurance, Input distribution

    • Agri Commodity Marketing organizations (Exporters, processors, Retailers, Commodity Exchanges, Spot Markets)

    • Infrastructure, logistics, Information Technology, communication services

that connect the stakeholders internally as well as to the external economic and social environment; and resources including financial and skilled human resources with connections, knowledge of the agricultural environment. It is built on a framework of Agri Sciences, ICT Technology, Business Processes, Management and e-Commerce.
Janani has a strategic partnership with IBM India to deploy IBM’s SRAP (Smart Rural Aggregator Platform) an ICT platform that will help in streamlining the existing processes and interaction and communications and IBM’s Spoken Web, a voice based module to disseminate information, an answer to the illiteracy and language issues at farmers level.
Janani’s Smart Agri EcoSystem creates and operates a logistics network, purchase/marketing system which enables an efficient and effective flow of goods, information and funds between the villages and agri businesses seamlessly.

Speaker
Biography:

V. C. Pande completed his PhD in Economics from The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara. He is working as Senior Scientist at Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, Research Centre, Vasad under Indian Council of Agricultural Research. His area of specialization is natural resource economics, soil and water conservation and watershed management. He has published 16 papers in reputed journals and presented 24 research papers in national and international conferences. He is serving as an editorial board member of a national journal and is in the panel of reviewers of several national and international journals.

Abstract:

The institutional arrangements for community water management are diverse, varying in their structure, scope and style. Designing policy instruments in respect of community based natural resource (CBNR) management warrants an understanding of the interactions and empirical relationships of factors affecting the interplay of local governance forces. The present study has examined these issues within a CBNR sustainability framework encompassing two components, CBNR financial sustainability and CBNR functionality. Twenty two community owned water storage structures in semi arid tropics of Gujarat were extensively surveyed during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Data collected on social aspects and technical details of structures were empirically examined to understand the interactions. The study reveals that strength of Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI), which manages the community water resource, not only governs the financial strength and functionality of the community resources but PRI success in managing the community source is also affected by the functionality of the community owned resource. Factors such as location and design of community source affect the functionality of community resource which in turn affects the financial sustainability of the PRI in managing the community resource. Further, the strength of the institution in managing the resource is also affected by the representation of the poorer and weaker section of the society who largely depends on the community resource for their livelihood. This calls for policy intervention in scientific planning and designing the community resource apart from strengthening the institution through ensuring proper representation of sections of society directly affected by the community resource.

Speaker
Biography:

Ikechi Agbugba attended University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) where he bagged B.Sc and M.Sc degrees in Agricultural Economics from 1998-2008. He has successfully presented his PhD Research findings seminar over a year ago from the same University. He will be examined soon alongside his PhD thesis. He is 34 years. He has engaged in several agricultural-based research works as researcher, senior researcher, as well as lead researcher during his masters and doctoral degree programmes between 2005 till date. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and serving as the Head, Human Resouces Department of Technologies Platform business Resources Limited, a software developing company at Ikoyi Lagos State of Nigeria.

Abstract:

The study was carried out with four objectives. The first objective included a description of socio-economic features of crop farmers using informal sources of finance in the study area; the second ascertained the effects of the respondents’ socio-economic features on the amount of informal finance they are able to secure; the third identified the different sources and features available to farmers; and the fourth determined the roles and uses of informal financial sources in climate change adaptation. Random sampling was adopted in the selection of 6 out of the 9 communities in the study area. From each of these selected communities, 10 crop farmers were randomly selected giving a total number of 60 respondents for the study. Descriptive statistics, Likert scale, and multiple regression analysis were employed for data analysis. The socio-economic features of the study shows that the respondents that made more use of informal financial sources were predominantly male, and had farming as their primary occupation. The regression results show that the socio-economic features of the respondents does not have significant effect on the amount of informal finance the respondents were able to secure. It therefore, suffices that since international funding is not readily accessible to the respondents to finance climate change adaptation, informal financial sources which show a positive prospect could be used as a supportive alternative.
Keywords: socio-economic features, crop farmers, informal finance, climate change adaptation.

Speaker
Biography:

Asis Kumar Senapati is a UGC-SRF Doctoral Research fellow Currently Pursuing PhD on “Risk, Vulnerability in Indian Agriculture Sector and the role of crop insurance in mitigating risk: with special reference to Odisha agriculture” in School of Economics, University of Hyderabad since February, 2010. He has attended and presented research papers at a number of international and national conferences. He has published papers in various journals. His research area of interest is Industrial Economics, Agricultural Economics, Development Economics, Econometrics and Macro Economics.

Abstract:

Sustained growth in agricultural production and productivity through adoption of new technology in form of “Green Revolution” has been the doctor order so as to improve the overall stability of the Odisha economy. The nature of technology that became available to the various states and regions have reinforced huge variations and hence followed an uneven path and wide gaps have developed in productivity between different geographic locations across the country. In the context of variability of agricultural production due to certain weather induced variables, the proposed study made an attempt to examine the growth, instability and Sensitivity of crop output to weather particularly rainfall of major crops both at the aggregate and disaggregate level of Odisha. The present study is based on the hypothesis that instability/Variability of various crops augmented during Post-Green Revolution phase in Odisha and there has been negative association between instability and growth of crop production. Sensitivity of crop output to the rainfall variability has been noticeable in almost all crops in the 2nd period as compared to the initial phase of green revolution for all districts except for few crops. In other words, crop output in various districts of Odisha is highly vulnerable to the climate variability.
Keywords: Agriculture Growth, Production Variability, Weather Uncertainty.

Amit Saha

National Dairy Development Board, India

Title: Dairy development in Maharashtra state, India and internal trade
Speaker
Biography:

Amit Saha has completed his PhD from National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal and postdoctoral studies from Federal Agriculture Research Center, Germany. He is worked with FAO as a consultant in the PPLPI project in smallholder dairy development in Asia. He is presently serving as manager of NDDB, a premier Dairy Development organization which started the Operation Flood programme to lead to White Revolution in India. He has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and serving as a referee in Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Mumbai, India.

Abstract:

Milk production in Maharashtra at 239.3 LKGPD in 2012-13, places at 7th position in India. With average annual growth rate of 3.5% during 2001-2010, milk production is growing with almost an equal contribution by population and yield growth. With a boom in economic growth, rising urbanization and increase in income, it is estimated that milk and dairy consumption demand will be 352 LLPD in 2020. To meet the demand through local production, will mean increasing the growth rate of milk production to 5.2% from existing 3.5%. With the existing situation of high feed and fodder deficit, increasing milk production by increasing the population of bovine animals does not seem to be a sustainable solution. Hence, the onus lies in increasing the milk yield growth rate from existing 1.4% to 5%. The present dairy services scenario is not that promising to able to achieve this feat. The coverage of breedable population is only 17% and this has not changed significantly since a decade. Milk production in Maharashtra is clearly demarcated in terms of Milk production zones, Milk deficit zones and Milk consuming centres. This kind of imbalance, could serve as an impetus for intra-state transfer of products, technologies and services.

Biography:

Phineas K Chauke completed his Phd in Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Venda, South Africa.

Abstract:

This study was prompted by conflicting views held by various scholars regarding public sector intervention into trading activities of survivalists. It was conducted in the Capricorn Distinct Municipality (CDM) of Limpopo Province in South Africa. The study focussed on contested variables such as biographic characteristics but went further to include traded items and trading localities. All the 566 survivalists in the records of the CDM were consulted for the survey. Data were collected through questionnaires and analysed through the SPSS programme. The findings of the study were that most survivalists had acquired secondary education and above and were dominated by women with substantial youth participation. It recommended for concerted training in general, technical and financial management skills. Training programmes needed to employ differentiated strategies for urban and rural based areas and special programmes needed to be directed at youth development. Slack periods of trading should be targeted for training.
Keywords: survivalist, biographic characteristics, second economy, fungibility, enterprise.

Josily Samuel

Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture (CRIDA), India

Title: Analysis of growth and instability in production of major rainfed crops in Andhra Pradesh
Biography:

Josily Samuel has completed her M.Sc and PhD from University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad and recipient of Junior Research Fellowship (ICAR). She is working as a scientist (Agricultural Economics) at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad (ICAR). She has published 5 papers in reputed journals and one book chapter.

Abstract:

Agriculture sector is exposed to a variety of risks, particularly crop production is characterised by high variability of production outcomes or production risks. Though there is a need to increase agricultural production and growth, the increase in instability accompanied is of concern. The instability in production leads to risk in farming and affects famer's income. The farmers face risks like production risk, price risks, technology risks, weather aberrations, pest and diseases, etc. In this context this paper attempts to examine the risk in major rainfed crops of Andhra Pradesh. The study has estimated the district wise growth and instability of major dryland crops for the period 1990 onwards. The crops selected for the study include groundnut, cotton, maize, sorghum and castor. The analysis is confined to those districts which account for 80 per cent of area under the crop. The instability in area, production and yield were computed using instability index. Further, the production risk, measured in terms of variance was decomposed into different components. The decomposition of production variability into area and yield variability shows that fluctuations in yield have been a dominant source of production variability. Improvements in yield largely arise out of adoption of better technologies from time to time. The production of maize increased from 1990s with growth rate more than 9 percent while sorghum showed decline. There was a fall in production of ground nut and castor. The production of cotton increased with expansion in area and the change in area was 12.03 per cent, the instability in cotton productivity was higher (27.57) during early period while in later period production instability was the highest. The risks due to instability in production needs to be managed by some informal measures like avoiding risky crops, diversification and other formal mechanisms like insurance, minimum support price, contract farming, futures, etc.
Keywords: Instability, growth, variability, rainfed crops, groundnut, cotton.

Shiv Kumar

National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research (NCAP), India

Title: Prevailing standards and dimensions governing sanitary and phyto-sanitary compliance in Indian black pepper
Speaker
Biography:

Shiv Kumar is an agricultural economist and public policy analyst at National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research (NCAP), Delhi, India with research and teaching and national and international projects responsibilities. After completing degrees at Haryana Agricultural Universities, Hisar, and getting Agricultural Research Service in 1998, he began work as Scientist at Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Pusa, New Delhi and have been there for 9 years and five years at NCAP, New Delhi as Senior Scientist. Research has focussed on developing decision support system on Agricultural Market Outlooks on food grains and oilseeds for India besides food safety issues, institutional change and governance to match the current requirements of evolving contemporary issues of regional and global significance. He is the author of over 35 refereed journal articles and book chapters. He is recipient of National Award for Underground Water Augmentation in the year 2011 by the Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India.

Abstract:

Sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS) compliance in agricultural trade has received considerable attention from policy makers, agribusiness firms, exporters and researchers for its perceived ability to contribute towards production and development of safe and quality agri-products for domestic and international markets. This paper examines prevailing standard practices and major dimensions governing SPS compliance along the black pepper supply chain in India. It was found that knowledge generation and dissemination in food safety aspects is indispensable to fill gaps and deficiencies in domestic food safety standards as to comply with the international standards. The important dimensions include application of GAP, GMP, GHP and Hygiene practices besides physical and financial infrastructures along the supply chain. An important policy implication of this study is the efforts and investments should be targeted towards promotion of important dimensions governing SPS compliance along the supply chain.

Biography:

Dwaipayan Bardhan is Assistant Professor in Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, with over nine years of teaching and research experience in the field of livestock economics. He did his Masters in Veterinary Economics and PhD in Agribusiness Management. He has published 2 books, 43 research papers in reputed national and international journals, 24 semi-technical/policy papers, 3 chapters in books and presented 15 papers in international and national conferences.

Abstract:

The paper aims to analyze the cost efficiency of farm households in milk production and their intensity of market participation in the hills of Uttarakhand state of India. A farm typology study has been used to classify groups of farm households with similar farm and socioeconomic characteristics as typology constitutes an essential step in any realistic evaluation of the constraints and opportunities that exist within farm households. The objective is to evaluate the cost competitiveness and level of commercialization of different groups of milk producing households, as identified by typology study. The study was carried out in three Tehsils in each of two hill districts of Uttarakhand state, viz. Nainital and Almora. A total of 120 households constituted the ultimate sampling units for the study. Farm household typologies were constructed by using two multivariate statistical techniques, viz., Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA). PCA was used to transform linearly an original set of 23 variables, representing farm and socioeconomic characteristics, into a smaller set of uncorrelated variables (factors) that represents most of the information in the original set. The factors retained from the PCA were used for cluster analysis. Four homogenous groups (clusters) were obtained. Cluster I (37%) was defined as small herd-sized households with low farm family labour employment. Cluster II (12%) was defined as female headed households with low level of education. Cluster III (13%) was defined as full farm households with large scale of production and high intensity of market participation. Cluster IV (39%) was defined as low income households. Stochastic frontier cost analysis and descriptive analysis were carried out, respectively, to estimate the cost efficiency in milk production and evaluate market participation behaviour across different clusters of households. Some policy suggestions are given in favour of improving farm households’ cost competitiveness and level of commercialization.

Biography:

Wilson Chivenge is a professor from University of Venda, South Africa.

Abstract:

Post- independence South Africa have instituted low investments, limited access to financial resources and its resultant lack of agricultural productivity and low incomes on rural emerging farmers to be a result of collateral shortages, poor credit records, poor communication and inadequate business systems. All these are endorsed as shortcomings that emanated from the former apartheid rule during pre-independence era. Emerging farmers in rural South Africa remain poor with a continuously limited access to farm credit resources and are seen as heroic entrepreneurs caught in an impasse of dead capital. While these emerging farmers are only new entrants into the agribusiness value chain, servicing their investments needs is being met with limited success. Seemingly, financiers are not well-informed of the determinants of farm credit access. This has resulted in a severe breach which this paper seeks to close by identifying the determinants of access to farm credit, in order to provide informed advice to emerging farmers, financiers and policymakers. This paper identified the key determinants of farm credit access in rural South Africa using the logistic regression modeling approach, as notion to pave inroads for improving access to micro credit resources. This paper recommended maximum youth participation, upgrading of agricultural credit markets and employing enhanced extension services for effective learning and training for the emerging farmers.
Keywords: Access to Credit, Emerging Farmers, Logistic Regression, Model, Determinants, South Africa.

Speaker
Biography:

Abdul Rehman has completed his PhD at the age of 30 years from University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Pakistan) and serving as Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy University college of Agriculture University of Sargodha. He has served as head of department about two years. He is working as director Students affairs and Chairman Sports committee at the same college since last three years. He has published more than 12 papers in reputed journals and one book. He is running one research project granted by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. He has designed a drill for intercropping in sugarcane.

Abstract:

Sugarcane has great value to provide sugar for more than half of the global population. World population is increasing day by day worst and the cultivated land is decreasing rapidly due to urbanization, road construction and land deterioration. This crisis demands alternate research to increase productivity and maximum economic returns per acre to feed the gigantic population. Intercropping in sugarcane has received much attention due to long duration and late return from sugarcane crop and may become popular among farmers, if it is properly managed. Intercropping has the potential to encourage the farmers to get maximum economic return per acre per annum. For intercropping gram, wheat, potato and soybean was used as an intercrops in spring sown sugarcane. Triple row strip planting geometry of sugarcane with four intercropped (Gram, Wheat, Potato and Soybean) and check with alone sowing of sugarcane method was planted during September 2011 at research area University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Results showed that intercropping significantly gave higher economic return over sugarcane planted alone. Total biological yield, total leaf area index and economic return compared with sugarcane planted alone were significantly higher while no. of tillers, cane diameter, crop growth rate were significantly higher in sugarcane planted alone over intercropped sugarcane. Intercropping significantly showed maximum net returns and benefit cost ratio then alone.
Keywords: World population stress, Sugarcane, intercropping, economic return and benefit cost ratio.

Speaker
Biography:

Timothy Manyise completed his Master of Science in Agricultural economics and agribusiness at the University of Venda in 2013. His vision is to become a research in the field of agricultural investment in developing countries. Not only is he involved in school higher degrees student matters but also has been a lecturer assistant and student mentor in agricultural economics for the past two years.

Abstract:

Governments in developing countries are often faced with expenditure needs that often outstrip the resource envelops. In trying to respond to regional and the international calls to increase and redirect resources to agricultural development for the achievement of 6% annual growth by 2012 and meeting Millennium Development Goals number one by 2015, efforts by governments are affected by a 'dearth' of information about which type of public investments to prioritize. This study set to trace and analyse the size, quality and impact of various public expenditures on agricultural growth and crop productivity for the period of 30 years on South Africa. Using the Classification of functions of government to obtain time series data, the study employed Cointegration and Error Correction methodology to analyse the impact of various expenditures on growth and found out that the economic composition of public expenditure matters for accelerated growth alongside a favourable policy environment. However, current expenditure was found to be growth retarding for the agricultural sector if its increase is at the expense of capital expenditure. Non agricultural expenditures were found to be positively related with agricultural growth during the 1981-2011 period, with a speed of adjustment to the equilibrium of 50.3%. Finally, the study recommends the need for increasing capital expenditures for the agricultural sector. Further, it is also necessary to increase public expenditures on the agricultural sector but with priority being given to productive enhancing investments that induce growth if food security is to be a success story in the region.

Biography:

Prabhat Kumar Pal is an Associate Professor & Head Specialization in Agricultural Extension and communication Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, India.

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken in the backward villages of Cooch Behar –II block of Cooch Behar district, West Bengal, India to assess the performance of the Gram Panchayets in respect of different development activities undertaken by the same. After the inception of Panchayeti Raj Institutions (PRI) in India and as a consequence of different constitutional amendments undertaken time to time to empower and authorize PRI, the overall development of the rural areas is mostly taken care of by this institution in an integrated manner. The present paper assesses the performance of the PRI through an index developed specially for this study. The index was developed taking different development indicators like transport and communication facilities, health and sanitation status, success status of government development programmes undertaken by PRI, literacy and employment scenario of the villages, agricultural development status etc. Some proxy indicators like villagers’ opinion regarding performance of the PRI have also been taken for assessment. The study reveals that the development status of the studied villages is on the lower side and concluded that the performance of the panchayets is not so impressive in the study areas in respect of different rural development aspects.
Keywords: PRI, Performance Assessment, Development Indicators.

Ruchi Singh

Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University, India

Title: Community approach in rural development: Changing paradigms
Speaker
Biography:

Ruchi singh has completed her M.V.Sc. at the age of 27 years from Lalalaj Pat Rai University of Veterinary Science, Hisar, in Veterinary Extension Education. She is Assistant Professor, Department of Vet. Extension. She has published about 8 Papers in reputed Journals, 12 Articles in local language.

Abstract:

Rural development has always been an important issue in all discussions pertaining to economic development, especially of developing countries. The socio-economic disparities between rural and urban areas are widening and creating tremendous pressure on the social and economic fabric of many developing Asian economies. These factors, among many others, tend to highlight the importance of rural development. Community Projects are of vital importance not merely for material achievements, but much more so because they seek to build up the community out the individual, and to make the latter a builder of his own village centre and also in the larger interest India too. The aim of Community Development was to bring about economic and social changes in rural areas specially of poor by increasing all round production, and improvements in agriculture, dairy, animal husbandry and related industries, health, education, transport, communications and more important than these is the change in outlook of the people and developing the capacities of individual so that he may master matters of himself etc. Community Based Rural Development is a participatory approach to reducing rural poverty. It promotes collective action by communities by putting them in control of development projects and programs. Community-based organizations generally consist of a number of individual members who organize around a common interest or need. Some are women's associations, self-help groups and rural youth organized to gain access to credit and other services. Community-based rural development grew out of the checkered past of rural development projects and interventions undertaken by the World Bank and other international development institutions since the 1950s. The paradigms related to rural development have been adjusted according to the economic policies, contemporary challenges and the political ideologies. After 1991, the country adhered to the agenda of liberalization, privatization and globalization. Thus a synergy between the three actors (government, market and civil society) is envisioned in order to accelerate the pace of rural development in the post reform era. The thrust in the post reform era is to move towards decentralization and making democracy more engaging by evoking people's participation at all levels. Thus Public Private Partnership (PPP) model should change to Community Public Private Partnership (CPPP) model. The recent incident of Nandigram has further accelerated the need to incorporate this approach in rural development. Thus keeping in mind the interests of the present generation as well that of the forthcoming generations the concept of sustainable rural development has gained wide acceptance.

Biography:

Seidu Moro worked in the Department of Agricultural Economics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana. He is a member of Suame Magazine, Kumasi-Ashanti, Ghana.

Abstract:

Trade liberalization and its related policies affect yam producers both positively and negatively by bringing opportunities and pressures to domestic suppliers to innovate and improve their competitive position. Using a cluster analysis [Artificial Neural Network Assessment (ANN)] and data on 510 yam farm households in Kpandai district the paper estimate the effects of trade liberalization and its related policies on yam innovation in yam production and the categories of farm households that are directly affected by the impact of open trade. The results of the cluster analysis revealed that among innovation adopters, trade liberalization, and its related policies had positive and greatest impact on cluster 2 followed by cluster 4. Moreover, the impact leads to farm households being average adopters of yam production innovations. The study therefore recommended that policies should be focused on increasing farm household population in cluster 2 and 4 especially the former in order to increase the likelihood of innovation adoption by farmers. Moreover, in order to further increase the impact positively on the levels of innovation adoption the various categories of farm households should be important in policy drawing and implementation process.
Keywords: cluster analysis, innovations, households, Artificial Neural Network.

Speaker
Biography:

Shaker A. Abd EL-Latif has completed his Ph.D. at the age of 33 years from Minnisota and Minia Universities through Channel system. He has published more than 52 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of using dietary distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at different levels (0, 5, 10 and 15% of DDGS) incorporated with a commercial enzyme (Avizyme1500) at levels of (0 and 1gm/kg diet) on growth performance, digestibility and economical efficiency. Two hundred fifty sex, one- day old Arbor acres broiler chick were randomly distributed into 8 treatment, with 4 replicates of 8 birds each. Body weight and feed intake were recorded however, feed conversion was calculated weekly. At the end of the experiment (6 weeks of age), four birds from each treatments were sacrificed for studying some carcass characteristics. Other four birds were kept for the digestible trial. The economical efficiency of dietary treatments was calculated. The obtain results reveled that, in spite of enzyme addition, at the end of the experiment (6 weeks of age) birds fed dietary DDGS recorded the greatest level (P<0.01) of body weight, body gain compared with control diet. In general, chicks fed dietary DDGS either with or without enzyme recorded the best (P<0.05) body weight, body gain, feed intake and the absolute weight carcass and giblets compared with the control. Feed intake was enhanced (P<0.05) when chicks fed diets had no enzyme addition compared with dietary enzyme during all experimental periods except from 2 to 4 weeks of age. The highest (P<0.01) feed conversion efficiency was noticed during the periods (4 to 6 and 0 to 6 weeks of age) for birds fed diets supplemented with enzyme compared with others fed diets without enzyme. Birds fed dietary DDGS at all levels presented the best (P<0.01) feed conversion compared with control diet during the entire period of the experiment. The lowest (P<0.05) dressing percentage was calculated for birds fed control diet compared with others fed dietary 5% DDGS. In general, adding enzyme did not effect (P>0.05) on crude protein or ether extract digestibility. The highest values of economical efficiency were calculated for chicks fed diets contain 10% and 15% DDGS with enzyme compared with other dietary treatments.
Keywords: distillers dried grains with solubles, enzyme, performance, broilers.

Tai Deokate

Mahatama Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, India

Title: Yield gaps analysis of Sugarcane in Maharashtra (India)
Speaker
Biography:

Tai Deokate completed her completed his PhD at the age of 29 years from Mahatma Phule Agricultural University Rahuri, Ahmednagar and postdoctoral studies from Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research. She is the Junior Research Assistant at MPAU. She has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt the yield gaps analysis in different planting types of sugarcane in Maharashtra. Primary data were collected from 250 sugarcane cultivators using random sampling technique. Data collected during 2011-2012 were analyzed using the IRRI methodology on yield gaps, multiple linear regression and tabular analysis. Results reveal that the magnitude of yield gap-I was higher, which implies that, the technology developed at research station cannot be duplicated on demonstration plots to exploit the full potential of sugarcane. This gap was attributable to environmental differences and non transferable component of technology. The orthodox practices being followed on farmer's field lead to yield gap-II .The farmers usually do not adopt a technology as a package but take up individual practices suitably trimmed to fit into their budget and skills (management and operational) which lead to the variation in the adoption of cultural practices and consequently to the yield gaps. The yield gaps cannot be completely eliminated, but can be minimized by efficient and effective resources management.
Keywords: Sugarcane, trends, yield gaps analysis.

Biography:

Rajendra Uprety is a PhD candidate at Wageningen University, The Netherlands and study rice intensification process and livelihood dynamics of rice farmers in Nepal for his PhD study. He is the senior agriculture officer of Department of Agriculture, Nepal where he has been working since 1991. He has published more than 15 field based research papers in different national and international journals, proceedings of international conferences, magazines. At present he is working as Irrigation Specialist (International UN Volunteer) in Zambia with UNDP and his main responsibility is to promote innovative Asian agriculture technology is Africa.

Abstract:

Rice is main staple food crop for the people in Nepal. Intensification of rice cultivation is an objective of the Nepalese government to create food self-sufficiency. In Nepal promotion of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is considered to contribute to this strategy. This paper analyses if and how such national objectives coincide with farmer practice. We studied diversity of livelihood strategies of these farmers. We used a factor analysis to find out how various livelihood attributes correlate and how this pattern results in a typology of different livelihood strategies. We observed four major livelihood strategies. Farmers with relatively smaller plots appeared most productive. These farmers (group one and four) invest in new techniques for agricultural intensification, including machinery, to reduce production cost and increase crop yield. In group one; consisting of owner-cultivators, rice is the dominant crop for home consumption. Group four mainly consists of younger farmers, hiring land and now increasingly buying land where they grow vegetables for income and cultivate rice as a second source of income. Farmers in the other two groups grow rice but are less productive and engage less in intensification as their main income source is either from off-farm labour or non-agriculture occupation. For the majority of farmers’ families, rice farming is neither a main activity nor the main source of income. Our analysis raises important questions on how new technologies like SRI are likely to fit with overall agricultural development and with farmers preferences of crop choice and farming strategies.

Etaferahu Takele

University of California, USA

Title: Growing Avocados in California, USA
Biography:

Etaferahu Takele is the County Director/Area Advisor Farm Management/Agricultural Economics in the division of agriculture and natural resources, university of carlifornia. She completed M.A in Economics, University of California Riverside as well as M.S in Agricultural Economics from North Dakota State. Her specialty include Area Advisor - Farm Management /Agricultural Economics - Production economics, decision-making at the farm level, integrated input management, risk management Subtropical Fruit Crops (Citrus, Avocados) Vegetable crops.

Abstract:

There is a growing concern that the fast expanding and globalized competitive world market is causing decline in grower returns and expansion of urban development and environmental regulations causing production cost increases and challenging the viability and sustainability of producing these crops in California. It has been over 10 years since we developed a cost study for avocados in California. The establishment and production costs and profitability analyses have been the fundamental tool that growers and investors use for investment analyses and decisions, conducting business transactions, and risk management strategies. In this study, we provide up to date costs of establishment and production and profitability; benchmark indicators for evaluating the viability and sustainability of avocado production by region and by production (conventional vs organic). This study is based on assumptions of orchard establishment and production practices that are considered typical in the growing regions and is based on a 20 acres orchard. Data regarding production practices, inputs and prices was collected from growers, the University of California Cooperative Extension (UCCE) farm advisor, agricultural institutions, and supply and equipment dealers. While this study makes every effort to model a production system based on typical, real world practices, it cannot fully represent financial, agronomic, and market risks, which affect the profitability and economic viability of all producers.

Speaker
Biography:

Lawrence O Oparinde is a young researcher who completed his first and second degree in Agricultural Economics from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State and Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State both in Nigeria with First Class Division and 4.30/5.00 CGPA respectively. He is currently on his PhD programme in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria where he is a lecturer. He has carried out studies on technology adoption, market participation, artisanal fish marketing etc. Oparinde has about 3 publications in reputable Journals and Conference Proceedings.

Abstract:

Telfairia occidentalis (Ugu) is one of the important vegetables that help in maintaining human good health because of the minerals and vitamins contained in it. It is also a good source of protein which can be used as substitute for animal proteins in the diets. It is against this background that this study assessed the commercial production of Ugu vegetable in Akure Metropolis of Ondo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed in selecting 70 respondents. Descriptive statistics, Gross Margin Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis were used to analyse the data collected. The study revealed that Ugu production is profitable in the area as the profit per producer was N18,007.00 per cropping season. The result further indicated that years of farming experience, cost of seed, labour cost, pests and diseases as well as transportation costs were the significant factors that influenced the production of Telfairia occidentalis. Some of the constraints identified by the respondents are pests and diseases, lack of capital, flooding, high cost of fertilizer and poor market infrastructure. Therefore, Telfairia producers should be encouraged to form co-operatives societies which will serve as a means of providing credit to the producers through regular contributions. This will enable them to gain access to lending schemes of financial institutions. Also, flood control measures should be put in place so as to solve the problem of flooding in the area.
Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis, Ugu, Gross Margin, Production, Cropping Season, Commercial.

Biography:

Kalu U. Ifegwu is currently a PhD student in the Department of Agricultural Economics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. He holds an M.Tech Masters’ Degree in Agricultural Economics, in addition to a Post Graduate Diploma in Financial Management from Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. He presented a paper on “Hedonic Analysis of Consumer Preference in the Choice of Cowpea in Nigeria” at an international conference in South Africa in 2011. The same paper has been accepted by a reputed journal for publication. He has more than 5 papers awaiting presentations and subsequent publication.

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to apply the Stochas¬tic Frontier Analysis technique in order to asses technical inefficiency effects in Africa’s agricultural production through time. The Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) is an analyti¬cal approach that utilizes econometric (parametric) techniques whose models of production recognize technical inefficiency and the fact that random shocks beyond producers’ control may affect the output. The inefficiency model, in which the efficiency differences are simultaneously estimated from the stochastic frontier and explained by further variables, incorporating tests that choose between functional forms and between frontier and traditional models were applied. This approach differs from the normal practice of predicting country-level inefficiencies and then regressing these upon various factors in a second stage of modelling. The data used for the estimation of the production function model were drawn from the Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics (FAOSTAT) of the United Nations for the period 1961-2009 on twenty-six African countries. Variables considered for the inefficiency effects model include annual rainfall and life expectancy rate obtained from the Word Bank Indicators published by the World Bank. The results show that rainfall and life expectancy rate were associated with higher technical efficiency of agricultural production. This suggests that provision of irrigation facilities and improved health services are key factors necessary for policy consideration.

Biography:

Seidu Moro worked in the Department of Agricultural Economics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana. He is a member of Suame Magazine, Kumasi-Ashanti, Ghana.

Abstract:

Trade liberalization and its related policies affect yam producers both positively and negatively by bringing opportunities and pressures to domestic suppliers to innovate and improve their competitive position. Using a cluster analysis [Artificial Neural Network Assessment (ANN)] and data on 510 yam farm households in Kpandai district the paper estimate the effects of trade liberalization and its related policies on yam innovation in yam production and the categories of farm households that are directly affected by the impact of open trade. The results of the cluster analysis revealed that among innovation adopters, trade liberalization, and its related policies had positive and greatest impact on cluster 2 followed by cluster 4. Moreover, the impact leads to farm households being average adopters of yam production innovations. The study therefore recommended that policies should be focused on increasing farm household population in cluster 2 and 4 especially the former in order to increase the likelihood of innovation adoption by farmers. Moreover, in order to further increase the impact positively on the levels of innovation adoption the various categories of farm households should be important in policy drawing and implementation process.
Keywords: cluster analysis, innovations, households, Artificial Neural Network.

Astghik Zaveni Pepoyan

Armenian National Agrarian University, Armenia

Title: Factors affecting sales of dairy products in Armenia
Speaker
Biography:

Astghik Zaveni Pepoyan has completed her PhD in 1990 and D.Sc in 2002 at the Institute of Biochemistry at NAS RA. She is the head of the Food Safety and Biotechnology department at Armenian National Agrarian University. She is also President of the International Association for Human and Animals Health Improvement. She has more than 150 publications in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:

It is known that the main factors affecting sales of dairy products are the general dynamics of the market, the legislation, the commodity range, the personnel and activity of the company in the market, seasonal dynamics of sales, competitors, pricing, clients and sales channels.
The investigations carried out in Shirak region of Armenia showed that the consumers in different ages prefer to use milk products, generally matsun (Caucasian yogurt) from the local "Igit" and "Ashtarak kat" firms. At the same time, the young people in the age of 18-25 prefer to use raw milk, although they understand the danger coming from it. The main explanation of the use of raw milk as well as milk products from the own domestic production is an "avoiding" of food additives of dairy products.
Keywords: dairy products, sales, food additives.

  • Track 3: Plant Biochemistry and Physiology
Speaker

Chair

Mohammad Pessarakli

University of Arizona, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Zhilong Wang

Hunan Agricultural University, China

Session Introduction

P S Neharkar

Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, India

Title: Effect of some insecticides and botanicals on predatory ladybirds (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) in cotton
Biography:

P S Neharkar is currently working as Associate professor at Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, India. He is serving as an editorial member of several reputed journals.

Abstract:

The study was carried out at Agriculture College Farm, ANCA, Warora to evaluate the effect of some insecticides & botanicals on pests of cotton & their subsequent effects on natural enemies like Predatory ladybird beetles. The departmental research trials were conducted during the year 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. The plot size was 10 * 5 m., with three replications in Randomized Block Design. The observations were recorded on 10 randomly selected plants in each plot. The numbers of predatory lady bird beetles on aphids in cotton field were counted and average was calculated. Among the different treatments NSKE at 5% (4.70 LBB/ plant), Neemark 5% (4.60 LBB/ plant), Dashparni ark 5% (4.50 LBB/ plant), Emamectin benzoate 5 SG (3.70 LBB/ plant) were observed. The predatory ladybird beetles population in insecticidal plots was found as Dimethoate 30 EC 0.03% (1.5 LBB/ plant), Acephate 75% sp 0.03% (0.70 LBB/ plant), Phosphamidon 40 Ec at 0.04% (0.60 LBB/ plant), Quinalphos 1.5% dust (0.50 LBB/ plant), Methyl parathion 2% dust (0.40 LBB/ plant). Results reveal that significantly more number of predatory ladybird beetles was observed in the plots with botanicals than insecticidal treatments.

Biography:

Sunitha Vaidya completed M.Sc. (Biosciences specialization in Biotechnology) and MPhil (Biosciences) from Sri SathyaSai Institute of Higher Learning, Puttaparthi, India. She had received Smt. Eshwaramma Gold medal for excellence in MPhil in 2010 and currently pursuing Ph.D. (Botany) in Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad registered under Osmania University.

Abstract:

Five groundnut (Arachis hypogea.L) cultivars- Jl-24, ICGV91114, Narayani, Abhaya and Dharani were evaluated under ambient (390 ppm) and elevated (550 ppm) CO2 in OTCs during 2013 Kharif. Observations were recorded on leaf area, biomass accumulation at flowering (30 DAS) and pegging stages (45 DAS) and photosynthetic rate (Anet), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) on pegging stage (39 DAS). Elevated CO2 enhanced the total biomass of all the genotypes at both sampling points. Improvement in total biomass due to elevated CO2 was higher (34%) with ICGV 91114 and Narayani at 30 DAS, with JL-24 at 45 DAS. At 550 ppm CO2, Dharani recorded highest root length, shoot length and leaf area at 30 DAS and Jl-24 at 45 DAS. The response of leaf biomass and specific leaf weight of ICGV 91114 at elevated CO2 was highest at 30 DAS. The allocation of biomass was not similar with all genotypes, at elevated CO2 more biomass was allocated to stem in JL-24 whereas to roots in ICGV 91114 and not influenced in Dharani. The Anet increased with enhanced CO2 in all the genotypes ranging from 21% (Abhaya) to 42% (Narayani) where as reduced gs and Tr was recorded with Abhaya and Dharani. JL-24 had the highest per se value for leaf level intrinsic WUE at 550ppm with 41% advantage due to enhanced CO2 condition. It is evident that the response of groundnut crop to elevated CO2 is cultivar, growth stage and component specific.

Speaker
Biography:

Mohammad Pessarakli has completed his PhD at the age of 32 from University of Arizona and postdoctoral studies from the same University, Soil and Water Sciences Department. He is a Research Professor in the School of Plant Sciences, same University. He has published over120 papers in reputed journals, 20 book chapters, 4reference books: Handbook of Plant/Crop Stress (1993, 1999, 2010), Handbook of Plant/Crop Physiology (1994, 1999), Handbook of Photosynthesis (1997, 2005), and Handbook of Turfgrass Management/Physiology (2007), and serving as an Editorial Board member of Plant Nutrition Journal, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, and Crop Science Book Advisory Committee member.

Abstract:

Desertification is one of the greatest challenges facing mankind. Particularly, in arid regions, the rate of desertification is frighteningly high and crop production is alarmingly at high risk. In such circumstances, initiatives should be undertaken to prevent further desertification processes. A wide range of measures, including various reclamation techniques for reducing soil salinity, runoff barrier (i.e., vegetation strips) are developed to prevent further desertification progresses. Among these measures, re-vegetation of the lands, using plant species that are more adapted to the harsh and stressful desert conditions is probably the most effective practice.Halophytes are particularly effective in this regard by reducing soil salinity via removing salts or by utilizing saline waters for their growth. Seashore paspalum and Bermudagrass, true halophytic species, were used in this study to reduce salinity levels of the growth medium by absorption and secretion of the salts from their leaves. Four replications of each salt treatment were used in a RCB design in this experiment. The growth responses of the plants in terms of biomass production were measured under the salinity stress conditions. Results showed both of these plant species, particularly, Seashore paspalum, substantially reduced the salinity levels of the culture medium. Therefore, these species can be recommended for production under arid regions that are characterized with highly saline soils and low quality/saline waters. Consequently, these plant species can effectively prevent further desertification processes in arid regions or in similar regions that are vulnerable and are at high risks of desertification, therefore, biologically combating desertification processes.

Anoop Kumar Shrivastava

National Research Centre for Citrus, India

Title: Nutrient dynamics in Citrus: Recent developments
Speaker
Biography:

Anoop Kumar Shrivastava after having received PhD in 1988 from famous Banaras Hindu University has been working on citrus nutrition over last 24 years. He has contributed significantly on various aspects of soil fertility and plant nutrition of citrus viz., development of soil-plant nutrient diagnostics, geoinformatics-based nutrient constraints analysis, microbial consortium and nutrient dynamics, fertigation scheduling, orchard efficiency modeling, and site specific nutrient management. He is the fellow of 7 academic societies. He has authored 110 papers in peer reviewed journals, authored book on Advances in Citrus Nutrition by Springer-Verlag, Netherlands and member, editorial board of many internationally reputed journals.

Abstract:

Occurrence of nutrient constraint at any phonological growth stage on multi-nutrient deficient soils could jeopardize the possible incentives through balanced fertilization in highly diversified nutrient demanding citrus cultivars. Development of microbial consortium exploiting the native microbial synergisms is one of the popular methods of providing the desired dynamism to fertility transformations within the rhizosphere. Development of nutrient norms using different plant parts need a thorough revisit at an orchard level and field validated. The major point of discontent still remains to be warded off with respect to whether nor not different nutrient norms are required as per cultivar within the same variety. Non-redressal of spatial variation in soil fertility is still a major bottleneck to soil test-based recommendations. Geoinformatics linked site specific nutrient management strategy has offered an easier method of combating the pivotal factor driving to reduced fertilizer use efficiency. Sensor-based technology has further added a new dimension in providing the nutrient supply as per canopy size in time domain manner using multi-channel fertigation in addition to non-destructive diagnosis of nutrient constraints using multi/hyperspectral analysis. Application of open field hydroponics is the starting point to adopt such improvised production technology. However, it remains to be seen that in different citrus cultivars, is there a necessity of maintaining different nutrient levels vis-à-vis critical growth stages so that a complete cropwise nutrient logging studies ease out so called complexity in understanding the nutrient dynamics, the subject that remained an under-focussed issue for so long time.

Speaker
Biography:

Saurav Saha has completed his Masters (2010) and Doctoral studies (2010 - 2012) in the discipline of Agricultural Physics, from the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. Presently he is working as a Junior Scientist in the ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hill Region, Umiam, Meghalaya. He has so far 2 publications, one each in Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment and Agricultural and Forest Meteorology journals. His future goal is to serve the Indian agriculture with his best scientific inputs.

Abstract:

An open top chamber experiment was conducted at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the response of kabuli chickpea (Pusa-1105) towards atmospheric CO2 enrichment (560±20 ppm) with subsequent changes in canopy structure and other plant biophysical characteristics for two consecutive years 2010-11 and 2011-12. Peak value of leaf area index (LAI) was amplified by 22.6%, with a significant reduction in canopy extinction coefficient (k) by 18.5% under elevated CO2. In spite of increased LAI, there was no significant difference in cumulative radiation interception (IPAR) by the crop; however, the efficiency of radiation conversion into biomass was 85% higher under elevated CO2. No significant change in cumulative root water uptake was observed, although the crop water use efficiency was 73.5% higher under elevated CO2. The specific leaf area significantly reduced under elevated CO2 with an increased in area per unit leaf, indicating the possibility of occurrence of thicker leaf lamina due to elevated CO2 exposure along with increased specific leaf nitrogen and wider leaf C:N ratio, especially during anthesis. Increase in efficiency for biomass accumulation, due to increased leaf photosynthesis along with 20% increase in the harvest index, were the major contributors for improved resource use efficiency of chickpea under elevated CO2. Results from the study will help in modifying the crop growth models to account for the elevated CO2 induced change in resource utilization in chickpea.

Speaker
Biography:

Zhilong Wang has completed his PhD from National University of Singapore and postdoctoral studies from NIA/NIH and NCSU in USA. Now, he is a professor from Hunan Agricultural University, China. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of ACST.

Abstract:

Chaling wild rice grows in Chaling, Hunan Province, one of the two most northern distribution sites for wild rice in China. It displays cold tolerance and resistance to rice blast. To identify abiotic and biotic stress tolerance genes from Chaling wild rice, we sequenced the genome using Hiseq 2000. The sequence data contain 6,803 Mb and showed mapping rate 91.93% and coverage ratio 92.94% to the Japonica Nipponbare genome (IRGSP), and mapping rate 88.95% and coverage ratio 84.47% to the Indica 9311 genome. A total of 1,160,685 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) were identified between Chaling wild rice and Nipponbare, with a ratio of 71.25% transition and 28.3% heterozygosity. A total of 1,773,410 SNPs were identified between Chaling wild rice and 9311, with a ratio of 70.83% transition and 22.25% heterozygosity. In addition, 56,801 SVs (Structure Variation) were identified between Chaling wild rice and Nipponbare, with a ratio of 97.31% INSs (Insertion) and DELs (Deletion), and 72,987 SVs (Structure Variation) were identified between Chaling wild rice and 9311, with a ratio of 97.47% INSs and DELs. Further analysis of abiotic and biotic stress tolerance genes from Chaling wild rice is in progress. Our results suggest that Chaling wild rice is more closed to the Japonica Rice Nipponbare in evolution and provide a basis to utilize stress resistance genes for rice breeding.

Biography:

Agata Tyczewska completed her PhD from Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry PAS in Poznań, Poland in 2008 where she was working on the identification of human Dicer inhibitors. She then joined Matzke Lab at Gregor Mendel Institute of Plant Molecular Biology in Vienna, Austria where she spend nearly two years working as a postdoc on RNA-directed DNA methylation. After her return to Poznań in 2011 she became interested in herbicide resistance in maize varieties. She received a patent from Polish Patent Office, is a co-author of several patent applications and published 14 papers (experimental and review) in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Herbicides, commonly known as weedkillers, are compounds used to destroy or inhibit the growth of plants, especially weeds. The most popular weedkillers, widely used in the maize fields, are nonselective, which means that they affect not only weed populations but influence all plants that are growing in the sprayed area. Organisms constantly exposed to environmental stimuli establish mechanisms of protection and adaptation and because of sedentary lifestyle they require efficient short-term strategies. Therefore to guarantee their survival under adverse conditions plants have developed exquisite adjustments to stresses at all levels (anatomical, morphological, cellular, biochemical and molecular).
Years ago it has been observed that some maize lines show higher sensitivity to herbicide spraying than others but molecules determining such heightened resistance remains unknown to this day. Therefore our goal is to identify molecular basis of plant's increased/decreased resistance to herbicides and identify a molecular marker that can be used as an indicator of plant's resistance to herbicides. First, we chose two maize lines that differ significantly in susceptibility to herbicide RoundUp, then analyzed gene expression (microarrays) and alternative splicing events (NGS) and identified hundreds of genes with changed expression profiles between tested lines. We also detected differences in small RNA populations and identified several new microRNA candidates (NGS). Since it was recently shown that abiotic stresses cause long-term regulation of gene expression, mostly conferred by epigenetic gene regulatory mechanisms we decided to track changes in epigenome. Using MSAP we identified more than a hundred sequences that show different methylation profiles.

Biplab Saha

National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, India

Title: Environmental impact analysis of production of jute towards eco-labelling
Biography:

Biplab Saha is working as a Principal Scientist in National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, India. He holds a Ph.D degree in the field of agricultural physics. His area of specialization are carbon footprint of jute and jute products, Applications of agro-textiles for improvement of soil health, Participatory natural resource management using Geo-informatics.

Abstract:

The emergence of environmental awareness among consumers world over has led to the growing demand for goods and services that are environment friendly and attempts are being made to find out ways to consume natural resources in a sustainable/green(er) manner. In this context of Green Consumerism, environmental labeling has assumed greater significance to develop confidence in the buyers about the goods and services used by them. Ecolabel generally represents a holistic judgement, giving an overall assessment of a product's environmental quality relative to other products in the same category. In other words it is a claim which indicates the environmental aspects of a product or service. Environmental labels operate as informative and voluntary market instruments. Eco-labelling has offered immense opportunities for promoting domestic jute products, particularly in the developed countries. Ecolabeling can be done through Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of Jute. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of jute production system presents the emissions and extractions of nutrients to and from the soil and water as well as some important biogases to the air considering inputs and outputs to and from the production system boundary to the environment. Keeping in view of the above, Jute production system as a whole were assessed for the environmental consequences. Amount of N, P and K were estimated from fibre, sticks and leaves as percentage of total dry weights of products. Percentage of N varied from 0.19% in dry stick to 2.7% in dry leaves. P2O5 varied from 0.07% in dry sticks and K2O varied from 0.68% in dry sticks to 2.26% in dry leaves. Input and output nutrients and their emissions to soil were estimated. It was estimated that out of 1200kg cow dung per ha 9.15kg/ha N, 8.0 kg/ha P2O5 and 12.75 kg /ha K2O was emitted to soil (Table 2). About 50% of N from Urea, 25% of P2O5 from Triple Super Phosphate and 50% of K2O from Muriate of Potash was emitted to soil. Among outputs highest amount of N was emitted to soil from leaves followed by sticks and fibre. P2O5 emission to soil from the fibre, leaves and sticks were negligible. K2O emission was found to be highest from sticks followed by fibres and leaves.

Biography:

Arvind Arya is a professor in Department of Biotechnology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract:

Anthropogenic release of heavy metals into the environment has continuously increased soil contamination. Heavy metal toxicity in the environment is of great concern because of its effects on growth and development of plants. Heavy metals may cause deleterious effects on human health due to the ingestion of plants (food grain) grown in contaminated soils. The day by day emerging problems of heavy metal pollution in wheat fields have attracted more and more attention towards wheat to be taken as the experimental plant. Excess concentration of cadmium and lead may exhibit detrimental effect on wheat (Triticumaestivum L.). An effective technique for assessing the response of wheat varieties to excess concentration of heavy metals is required to create high yielding tolerant varieties. The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Cd and Pbon physiological and biochemical parameters on the sample of 12 wheat varieties including germination percentage, length of seedlings, number of lateral roots, total protein content, total carbohydrate content and amount of pigments. The experiment included control and six treatments of cadmium and lead each at different concentrations. On an average, significant differences have been found among the varieties. Increasing Cd and Pb levels lead to several disruptions of wheat varieties, which are reflected by reduction in germination percentage, growth, protein, carbohydrate, chlorophyll content. However, number of lateral roots in treated plants increased with increasing level of heavy metals. Decrease in stomatal frequency was also observed with metal stress in comparison to the control Wheat varieties. The effect of lead toxicity was more pronounced at 200 μM whereas the effect of cadmium toxicity was more pronounced at 100 μM. Cd was observes to be more toxic than Pb.

Biography:

Sreedevi Shankar K has obtained her PhD from Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh., She is Senior Scientist (Food Science) Division of Crop Science, Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (ICAR), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Hyderabad. She has published/presented more than 20 papers in reputed journals and seminars. Area of work/ interest, Nutritional quality analysis of edible Dryland crops, biofortification of rain fed crops to improve essential nutrients in the crops and processing of Dryland crops.

Abstract:

Spinach with a scientific name Spinacia oleracea belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. Spinach with its delicate texture and jade green color provide more nutrients than any other food. It is low in calories, and is a good source of vitamin C, pro-vitamin A, and minerals, especially iron. Spinach leaves that look fully vibrant and vital have greater concentrations of phytochemicals much of nutritional importance. In order to deliver enhanced nutrition within a food-based system, it is necessary to increase the nutritional value of the food crop itself. By enhancing nutrient dense crops, severe deficiencies can be eliminated in developing countries. Hence, one of the possible ways by which this goal can be achieved is through natural method, possibly with organic farming and biofortification with vegetable crops. In this experiment, spinach crop was given 6 treatments, they were 1. Farmyard Manure (FYM); 2. Farmyard Manure and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (FYM+PSB); 3. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria alone (PSB); 4. Farmyard Manure, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Citrate (FYM+PSB+C); 5. Recommended Dosage of Fertilizers (RDF) and 6. No Chemical (Control). After 5 weeks of cultivation, spinach was harvested and analysed for different physical and phytochemical estimations. Physical parameters include different traits, i.e., total biomass, growth and yield of the crop. Chemical parameters include vitamin C, β-carotene and minerals. In results, FYM + PSB treatment was found to be good for biofortification, as the nutritional value was enhanced with less anti nutrients such as, oxalates and phytates in the crop.

Speaker
Biography:

Aravind Babu Chilukuri is an MA(Eng), MPhil (PHD); MBA with 8 years in academics and 6 years in the industry along with teaching, training, counseling students, youths making them fully equipped in language skills, soft skills and behavioral skills to sustain them in any professional environment. He has worked as Assistant Professor in Business communication and Soft Skills and also worked as an executive in the US based company. He has given Presentations in the National and International Conferences in Management, English Language, literature, culture, Spiritual Science, environment and Soft Skills. His articles are published in the National and International Conference journals. Presently, he is writing a book on culture. His core competencies include Adaptability, Creativity, Sincerity, Lateral Thinking, Presentation and Organizational Building.

Abstract:

A society's cultural and spiritual foundation of environmental responsibility for sustainable conservation and protection of basic elements of life in farming can be a solid source of strength as well as an advantage to the society. Currently, the pollution has been increasing rapidly-water, air, soil as it is affecting everyone. Unless drastic changes are made and implemented in action, the future of any nation will be in danger.
The ancient Indians valued rivers, trees and the ecology as a part of the divine. The worship of rivers, mountains, animals, trees, and the earth has been existed since times immemorial. The ancient Indian wisdom reminds that the Divinity is omnipresent and takes infinite forms and the universe encompasses basic elements of life; Air, water, Space, fire, and earth. Hence, the five elements are essential for all lives on earth to exist as they are the foundation of a unified web of life.
The early literature and scriptures say that it is one's responsibility to care for the earth. It also means that pollution must be controlled by making the person aware of its importance. There is something called space pollution. If there is a constant enmity and hatred in the space there will be a disturbance and similarly a positive space or sacred space can be built by some methods. The author, here, shares his personal experience on this idea.
Keywords: Environment, conservation, basic elements, responsibility.

Speaker
Biography:

Hyginus Ogbuehi is a Lecturer in the Department of Crop Science and Biotechnology at the Imo State University, Nigeria where he has been a faculty member since 2008. Hyginus completed his PhD at Imo State University and his Undergraduate/Postgraduate Studies at University of Port-Harcourt River State, Nigeria. His research interest lies in the area of Plant Physiology, Stress Physiology and Environmental Pollution. He has authored over 20 peer-reviewed journal publications.

Abstract:

Field trial was carried out in 2010 Cropping Season to determine Biomass parameters in plants (Glycine max L., Vigna subterranean L. verdc. and Zea mays L.) as influenced by diesel oil pollution in sandy loam soil at Teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State University, Owerri. The experiment was a split-plot design based on Randomized Complete Block design and least significant difference was used in separating the means. The crop plants constituted the main plots and the diesel oil pollution levels (0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 litres) constituted subplots and each treatment was replicated five times. Results showed that diesel oil pollution at different levels (0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 litres) significantly affected the performance of Glycine max L., Vigna subterranean L. verdc. and Zea mays L. The result obtained showed that the test crops exhibited dose-dependent response to the diesel oil polluted soils. Reduction in root relative growth rate, shoot relative growth rate, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and shoot-root ratio due to effect of high dose (2.0 litres) of diesel oil pollution was significantly different (P<0.05) compared to their control. The Result on Relative Growth Rate showed that Vigna subterranean L. significantly recorded higher shoot relative growth rate at all treatment levels than Zea mays L. and Glycine max L. Also, Zea mays L. plant showed the highest shoot dry weight in all treatment levels compared to the Glycine max L. and Vigna subterranean L., Vigna subterranean L. recorded higher root relative growth at early stage compared to Glycine max L. and Zea mays L., whereas at mature stage, Zea mays L. crop performed better than Glycine max L. and Vigna subterranean L. This study has demonstrated that diesel oil pollution has a significant effect of reducing the biomass parameters of the test crops, thereby disrupting metabolic activities of these plants leading to poor synthesis of carbon and its subsequent fixation in the matrix of plant tissues.

Speaker
Biography:

Muhammad Shahbaz has completed his PhD from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan and postdoctoral studies from Sammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He is the working as an Assistant Professor in Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan. He has 10 years experience of postgraduate teaching and research in plant stress physiology. He has produced more than 225 post-graduate students as major supervisor or committee member including two Ph.D. students. He has more than 42 publications including 2 review articles in well reputed ISI indexed impact factor journals with citation index over 326.

Abstract:

To assess modulation in growth, oxidative defense mechanism and mineral nutrients of canola by foliar-applied triacontanol (TRIA) under salt stress, a greenhouse experiment was performed on canola cultivar RBN-3060. Plants were grown in full strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution for 56 days under non-saline condition, after which time, they were subjected to saline conditions (0 (control), 100 and 150 mM NaCl). Three levels of TRIA (0, 0.5 and 1 mg L-1) were applied as foliar spray. Root-growing medium salt stress significantly decreased shoot and root dry weight, seed yield and activity of POD, shoot and root K+ and Ca2+ while increased the activity of SOD and catalase, accumulation of proline and GB and shoot and root Na+ and Cl-. Foliar-applied TRIA enhanced growth and yield under non-saline conditions, accumulation of proline and GB and oxidative defense system under both saline and non-saline condition. Overall, TRIA application was effective in alleviation of salt induced adverse effects on canola by increasing accumulation of proline, GB, K+ and Ca2+.

Speaker
Biography:

"Zafar Iqbal completed Ph.D.at National College of Business Administration & Economics,in Statistics in the year 2013.He was a Visiting Professor University of Sargodha, Gujranwala Campus, Pakistan October 2013 to present .His intrest in teaching as Applied Statistics to M.Phil Management Sciences and data Analysis through SPSS and EVIEWS to M.Phil Management Sciences. "

Abstract:

The present studies were undertaken to study the variability amongst isolates of Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum collected from Western Australia. The effect of different concentrations of Nitric oxide (NO), salicylic acid (SA) and Methyl jasmonate (MeJ) on P. digitatum causing green mould on Washington navel orange was also investigated. Four isolates of P. digitatum and P. italicum prefixed as PD-1, PD-2, PI-3 and PI-4 were tested on three different media including citrus peel agar (CPA), Potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Malt extract agar (MEA). PI-4 proved to be fast growing showing 56.15 mm radial growth as compared to PD-1, PD-2 and PI-3 which exhibited 44.07, 40.48 and 52.85 mm, respectively. CPA proved to be the best medium for the growth of P. digitatum and P. italicum showing overall radial growth of 59.25 mm in contrast to PDA (48.33 mm) and MEA (37.58 mm). Treatment of Washington Navel fruit with SA (0.1, 1.0, 2.0 mM), MeJ (0.1, 1.0, 2.0 mM) and NO (5, 25, 50 µl) revealed that NO 50 µl inhibited the colony growth of P. digitatum on artificially inoculated Washington navel fruit by 43.90% compared to SA 2.0 mM (34.08%) and MeJ 2.0 mM (27.57%). NO 50 µl also proved successful to inhibit the wound rotting incidence by 63.56%. The present study suggests that the control of green mould of citrus is possible by use of NO or natural elicitors.
Keywords: Washington navel, Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, isolates, elicitors, Nitric oxide.

Biography:

Habib-ur-Rehman Athar has completed his PhD at the age of 34 years from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Pakistan and postdoctoral studies from University of Manchester, UK. He is Assistant Professor of Botany at Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan. He is working on uncovering mechanism of salt tolerance. He is also working on inducing salt tolerance in important crops using plant extracts, hormones, osmoprotectantas and antioxidants through seed priming and foliar sprays. He has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Salinity is one of major constraints for agricultural production world-wide. To acclimatize salt stress, plants generally accumulate various organic compatible solutes such as proline, glycinebetaine, trehalose or up-regulate antioxidant system. Furthermore, it has been found that salt tolerant cultivars accumulate more these osmoprotectants more than those in salt sensitive cultivars. Likewise, salt tolerant cultivars have more efficient antioxidant system compared with that of salt sensitive cultivars. Thus, it is suggested to breed or genetically engineer crops for salt tolerance using these osmoprotectants or antioxidants. However, breeding for salt tolerance is a long way to improve crop salt tolerance. Secondly, the low efficiency of this approach is due principally to the difficulty of recovering elite genotypes with salt tolerance traits. Alternatively, exogenous application of these osmoprotectants and antioxidants as a foliar spray or through seed soaking is one of the possible suggested means to induce salt tolerance. Comparative effect of exogenous applications of osmoprotectants and antioxidants in inducing salt tolerance has been discussed. Since among compatible solutes, glycinebetaine is studied extensively on its role in maintenance of osmotic potential and photosynthetic capacity, how glycinebetaine affects photosynthesis that results in improved salt tolerance is also discussed. In view of the reports available in the literature, major limitations to use it on large scale are also thrash out for future implications.

Shabir Hussain Wani

Sher-e- Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, India

Title: Genetic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants
Speaker
Biography:

Shabir Hussain Wani, completed his Ph.D. in Plant breeding and Genetics on “Transgenic rice for abiotic stress tolerance” from the Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana India in 2009. After PhD he worked as Research Associate in Biotechnology Laboratory, Central Institute of temperate Horticulture, Rangreth Srinagar India for two years up to October 2011. Since November 2011 he joined the Krishi Vigyan Kendra Senapati as Programme Coordinator (i/c) of KVK-Senapati (Farm Science Centre) Senapati Manipur. Now he is appointed as Assistant professor/Scientist at Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SKUAST-K, Srinagar, Kashmir since May 2013. He has published more than 65 papers in journal of international repute. He has also edited several books on current topics in crop Improvement. His Ph.D research fetched the first prize in North zone at National level competition in India. He got Young scientist award from the society of Promotion of plant sciences Jaipur India in 2009. He is the fellow of Society for Plant Research.

Abstract:

Abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, water stress, extreme temperatures, submergence, and heavy metals are the most common causes of low crop productivity worldwide. Many efforts have been made by researchers to mitigate these stresses and to increase crop productivity under unfavourable environments. Conventional plant breeding programmes have contributed appreciably to the development of abiotic stress-tolerant plants, but the practice is relatively time-consuming, costly and hindered by the multigenic nature of this trait. With the advancement in the field of plant molecular biology it has been possible to modify plants for growth under these stressed environments. Genetic engineering is one of the tools being used to develop crop plants which are tolerant to these stresses. Numerous attempts have been made to unravel the molecular mechanisms behind the complex abiotic stress trait. Among these are the metabolic pathway engineering and development of transgenic plants over expressing compatible solutes like proline, glycine betaine, trehalose and mannitol. These compounds are generally considered as multifunctional stress adaptor molecules and a direct connection has been revealed between their enhanced intracellular levels and plant abiotic stress tolerance in many studies. Many efforts have therefore been made to increase the biosynthesis of these multipurpose compounds in plants by transferring genes associated with their metabolism for developing abiotic stress tolerant transgenics. Biotech crop area has increased in the world from 1.7 million hectares to 170 million hectares in 2012. This is only possible because farmers have found these biotech crops as beneficial and profitable.

Biography:

Venkatesh Devanur is a PhD from Allahabad Agriculture University and undergraduate and post graduate in Agricultural Sciences from UAS, Bangalore. He is the founder and CEO of Agri Life and has an experience of over 30 years in the area of crop nutrition and crop protection. Agri Life manufactures BioPesticides and BioFertilizers and other inputs approved for organic agriculture.

Abstract:

Silica is an essential element in plant nutrition and development. Silica forms the backbone of plants which gives the cells its structure. Agri Life has screened, isolated and tested a particular strain of silica bacteria to impart drought tolerance and stress tolerance to plants. The microbe was cultured to obtain the biomass which was formulated in a suitable carrier. Seed treatment and soil application formulations were developed and tested on plants. Treated plants exhibited even upto 75 days of drought tolerance without water indicative of the microbe's ability of solubilize silica from soil and making it easier for assimilation by plants. Improved silica availability imparts resistance to drought factors which is an economically important factor in the context of water scarcity.

Pinky Raigond

Central Potato Research Institute, India

Title: Profiling of Indian Potato cultivars for major 5’ nucleotides
Biography:

Pinky Raigond has completed her PhD at the age of 26 years from Punjab Agricultural University. Pinky Raigond is a Scientist in the division of Crop Physiology and Post Harvest Technology in Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla (H.P). She joined the Institute in 2010.

Abstract:

Potato flavor depends on the level of umami compounds and volaties. Major umami compounds present in potato are 5’ nucleotides (adenosine 5’monophosphate and guanosine 5’monophosphate) and amino acids (aspartic acid and glutamic acid). Presently the level of these compounds in Indian potato cultivars is not known. Therefore, umami 5’ nucleotides were estimated from raw and microwave cooked tubers of forty four Indian potato cultivars through HPLC. Level of these nucleotides was correlated with dry matter and texture of the cultivars. The level of AMP and GMP was low in raw tubers and increased to appreciable amount in microwave cooked tubers. In raw tuber tissue concentration of 5’-nucleotides ranged from 1.70µg/ g FW (Kufri Jawahar) to 6.68 µg/ g FW (Kufri Muthu). After microwave cooking 5’-nucleotide content ranged from 2.97 µg/ g FW (Kufri Jawahar) to 9.22 µg/ g FW (Kufri Muthu). In large number of cultivars AMP and GMP content almost doubled after microwave cooking. Cultivars such as Kufri Khasigaro, Kufri Muthu, Kufri Sherpa, Kufri Surya and Kufri Sutlej contained highest AMP and GMP content before as well as after microwave cooking. No correlation was reported between the level of AMP + GMP content and dry matter as well as texture of the cultivars. Food flavor is of great interest because consumers have preferences for better-tasting food. Therefore, complete knowledge on the level of umami compounds in Indian potato cultivars can be utilized to find out better tasting cultivars for product development and to develop products with less added salt.

Speaker
Biography:

Dragana Bozic has completed her PhD at the age of 34 years from University of Belgrade-Faculty of Agriculture. She is Assistant Professor of Weed Science. She has published more than 10 papers in reputed international journals and many papers in national journals. She was participant on 6 scientific projects in the past and now she participates on 1 national and 4 international project.

Abstract:

Fitness of tribenuron-methyl resistant (Rsu) and susceptible (S) sunflower hybrids was investigated in 2008 and 2009. Tribenuron-methyl applied at two-three pairs of leaves at amounts 0, 11.25, 22.50 and 33.75 g a.i. ha-1. Plant height, fresh weight, leaf area and relative chlorophyll content were recorded four times (2008: 0, 15, 29 and 48 days after herbicide treatment (DAHT); 2009: 0, 16, 32 and 50 DAHT) on 16 plants. The sunflower seed yield was also measured and seed germination tests were done in Petri dishes at 25oC. Each experiment was conducted twice.
Based on the results it was found that application of tribenuron-methyl to Rsu hybrid did not cause visible changes in the fitness (plant height, fresh weight, leaf area and relative chlorophyll content, yield, seed germination, seedlings length and weight) of the treated plants. Herbicide application has affected the leaf area and relative chlorophyll content, only. The highest rate of tribenuton-methyl reduced leaf area 2-8% depending on year and time of measurement, while herbicide application mainly increased relative chlorophyll content in comparison with untreated plants of Rsu hybrid. Although herbicide application affected leaf area and relative chlorophyll content, there is no impact on the yield, which confirms the high resistance level of Rsu hybrid to tribenuron-methyl. Contrary to effect on Rsu, tribenuron-methyl caused significant damage (> 70%) of S hybrid. Therefore, statistically very significant (p<0.01) differences between Rsu and S plants were confirmed for all measured fitness parameters.

Biography:

Agbor Reagan Bessong is currently doing his PhD in Environmental Biotechnology, University of Calabar. Currently, he is Lecturer in the Department of Genetics & Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Nigeria. He has published 26 papers in reputable Journals.

Abstract:

Investigations were made on the effect of Bonny light crude oil on stem sprouting of Talinum triangulare. Five concentrations of crude oil viz, 2.5mls, 5.0ml, 7.5ml, 10.0mls and 12ml were applied to 7kg of dry soil in perforated polyethene bags. The experiment was carried out on a completely randomized design (CRD) and replicated 6 times. Data on the number of days to sprouting, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf area and plant height were collected. It was observed that the different concentrations of crude oil significantly (p<0.05) affected the number of leaves. Although there was no significant difference (p> 0.05) for number of days to sprouting, plant height and number of branches between the plants in the treated soil and control group, there were physical effect of stunted growth and death of plants. The concentrations of crude oil, however significantly affected soil properties like Ca, Mg, ECEC, soil PH, available phosphorus and Total hydrocarbon content.

Speaker
Biography:

Afwa Thameur has completed her PhD in Biology at the age of 30 years from Tunis El Manar University and postdoctoral studies from Szeged University. During the last ten years she was working at the Institute of Arid Regions of Medenine, Tunisia, and had the opportunity to work in research teams in Spain, Portugal and Hungary. Dr. Thameur is an experienced scientist in various areas of plant biology and acquired particular skill in plant physiology, biochemistry, and biostatistics. She participated in many international conferences and was a panelist in scientific seminars. She has published more than 5 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Water stress is one of the most limiting factors for the survival of plants in Mediterranean climate which restrict growth, and limit crop productivity. We have studied the behaviour of barley genotypes under drought stress and identified biochemical adaptation mechanism to improve drought tolerance by quantifying ABA and ABA GE content. The morphological study showed that the cultivars Ardhaoui and Pakistan reduced notably their leaf area. The physiological study demonstrated that the genotype Ardhaoui presented high values of the relative water content (RWC) and Manel had the lowest values. The cv. Ardhaoui, cv. Pakistan and var. Roho showed similar reductions of the net assimilation rate. The biochemical study identified that with the exception of cv. Ardhaoui that reduced its content of the conjugated abscissic acid (ABA-GE), water deficit led to increased synthesis of this metabolite in the other genotypes. These results argue for ABA-GE hydrolysis in cv. Ardhaoui and de novo synthesis of ABA in the other genotypes. Antioxidant enzyme response was observed mainly through an increased activity of catalase (CAT). The leaves of the five genotypes were enriched with 13C compared to the control. The carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) is positively correlated with the net assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci). The treatment improves the water use efficiency related to biomass (WUEbiomass) on the average by 58% for the cultivars Ardhaoui and Pakistan.

Speaker
Biography:

Sajid Mahmood Nadeem has completed his PhD from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan and postdoctoral fellowship from University of California, Riverside, USA. He is working as Assistant Professor in Soil & Environmental Sciences at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. His area of interest is plant growth under stress conditions with special reference to microbial inoculation. He has more than 20 research papers published in well reputed impact factor journals. He has also been awarded Research Productivity Award 2012, by Pakistan Council for Science & Technology on his research achievements.

Abstract:

Seed treatment with insecticides may adversely affect nitrogen fixation by affecting the bacterial infection to root hair and nodule formation. In this study, first bacterial survival under recommended as well as above and below recommended dose of imidacloprid was examined and then the efficacy of insecticide resistant strains was evaluated for improving chickpea growth. Rhizobium survival on the basis of the number of viable bacterial cells through plate count was examined. Among four rhizobium spp. (CRI14, CRI20, CRI34 and CRI35) two species (CRI20 and CRI35) showed resistance against insecticide. CRI35 was able to tolerate insecticide concentration above the recommended dose however CRI20 showed relatively less growth at high concentration. The efficacy of these two strains was evaluated by conducting a pot trial. Chick pea seeds were treated with recommended dose of imidacloprid and then inoculated with respective strain. Un-inoculated treated and untreated seeds were also used for comparison. The pots were arranged according to complete randomized block design in two sets having three replications each. At flowering, plants from one set were uprooted and data regarding nodulation was recorded, whereas data regarding growth and yield parameters was calculated from other set at maturity. The results showed that inoculation not only improved nodulation but also caused a significant increase in growth and yield components of inoculated plant. Rhizobium strain CRI35 performed better than other might be due to its better growth promoting traits. It can be concluded that such strains can be used effectively for improving plant growth of insecticide treated seeds.

  • Track 6: Tissue Culture and Plant Biotechnology
Speaker
Biography:

Shweta Chouhan has completed her Ph.D. at the age of 29 years from Barkatullah University, Bhopal in Microbiology. She is working as Project Officer in Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology, the M.P. Council of Science and Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India a government organization with 7 years of research experience. She has published more than 12 research papers in national/international journals and 14 abstracts. She has submitted 16 unique DNA sequences of plants in NCBI Databank. In regular practice, has a good command on analysis of sequences, gene prediction and annotation, molecular diversity assessment using DNA sequence and dominant markers mostly by frequent population genetic softwares like DnaSP, Arlequin, Popgene, MEGA, GeneAlEx, PICcalc etc.. She is actively involved in creation and authentication of DNA barcode for identification of medicinal plants. She is also engaged in the organization of more than 37 institutional training programs on various subjects like molecular biology, microbiology, DNA fingerprinting, molecular diversity, HPTLC, plant tissue culture, microbial analysis of herbal drugs, water and soil.

Abstract:

Genetic diversity assessment was conducted for authentication of DNA sequences of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region as a DNA barcode for identification of economically important medicinal plant Cullen corylifolium. ITS region of five accessions were amplified with two sets of ITS primers (ITS 1-4 and ITS 5-4) and sequenced. Gene annotation of obtained sequences was done and submitted in NCBI Gene Bank (Gene Bank ID: KF921457 to KF921461). Genetic diversity was evaluated among 5 accessions of Cullen corylifolium, among and within 36 accessions (31 accessions downloaded from gene bank) and 6 populations of 22 accessions (17 accessions downloaded from gene bank) of genus Cullen for authentication of DNA sequences of ITS region as a DNA barcode for identification at species level. The studied 6 populations included the accessions of species C. corylifolium (our samples), C. corylifolium, C. australasicum, C. tenax, C. discolor and C. patens (downloaded from gene bank). Higher nucleotide diversity, molecular diversity and overall mean distance (π=0.052, θ=0.052 and D=0.054) was observed in the 5 sequences of C. corylifolium compare to 36 accessions (n=0.026; θ=0.046 and D=0.024) and 22 accessions (n=0.023; θ=0.017 and D=0.027). These outcomes conclude that the sample taken for sequencing in this study have sufficient genetic variation, while low overall mean distance, nucleotide and molecular diversity among 36 and 22 accessions show higher similarity in the accessions of Cullen genus. Low molecular diversity, nucleotide diversity, genetic distance and percent of polymorphic sites (PPS) were observed within all 5 species of Cullen with very low relative differentiation and higher gene flow. Wide range of pairwise FST and Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) illustrated lowest percentage of variation (Pv=0.06, ΦST=0.94464*) among both populations of C. corylifolium, while maximum (Pv=94.41, ΦSC=0.00985) in among 5 species of Cullen. This result show adequately discrimination among all 5 species with higher similarity among and within the both population of C. corylifolium (downloaded from NCBI and our samples). The both population of C. corylifolium creates a separated cluster from other species, in addition to accessions of C. australasicum and C. tenax arrange in their respective cluster, which conclude that ITS region of this species are suitable for identification at species level and this sequences may be used as DNA barcode.

Speaker
Biography:

Shiv Kant Shukla has done his MSc and PhD in Biotechnology and possesses more than 14 years of diversified experience in biotechnology sector. Currently he is the Assistant General Manager in BCIL (a company established and promoted by the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India) and managing various programmes such as Entrepreneurship Development Programme (EDP), Biotech Park/Incubator, NCS-TCP etc.

Abstract:

Traceability of end products is very important in any production facility particularly in life science industry where final products are living material or its part. This can be achieved through implementation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), maintenance of effective records for inputs, process, material movement and labelling of intermediate as well as end products. This concept has been standardized in commercial micro-propagation under the unique quality management system known as National Certification System for Tissue Culture Raised Plants (NCS-TCP). Data for mother plants/stock culture used for mass propagation through tissue culture are recorded. The origin material is tested for all the known viruses and allotted a unique 20 digits stock registration number. This tested material forms a batch and processed in such a manner to get the batch wise end products i.e. tissue culture plants. SOPs developed for Tissue Culture Production Facility guides on various procedures and internal records. Sampling strategy has been adopted for testing and certification of the batch of tissue culture plants derived from initial tested material which was allotted a unique 20 digits stock registration number. Samples are tested for genetic fidelity using ISSR primers and presence of any known viruses through ELISA or PCR. If plants are found free from viruses and uniform, certification is given with 40 digits batch registration number which includes additional 20 digits added on the 20 digits stock registration number. Certification labels including barcode are issued against each certified batch of tissue culture plants which provides complete history of plants. This labelling and entire concept not only provides effective mechanism of quality assurance by the tissue culture companies but also instils a higher level of confidence among end uses/farmers.

Biography:

M. Mercedes Rivero, biologist specialized in agrobiotechnology, completed her PhD from Buenos Aires University. She has worked at Buenos Aires University for 15 years in the Plant Biology-Biodiversity and Physiology-Molecular & Cellular Biology Departments. She is an expert on plant genetic transformation as she has been trained at very well-known Argentinean and international centers on Plant Biotechnology as the International Center of Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and the Plant Transformation Facility of Iowa State University (PTF; ISU). She has participated in several projects on applied agro biotechnology and worked in research at the Inst. of Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biology (CONICET) from 2000 to 2007 as responsible an consultant professional on several national and international projects on plant transformation. Her project on potato genetic transformation has been recently renowned by the Argentinean Minister of Science and Technology (MiCyT) for the innovative concept of her research. For the last 6 years she has became the Head of the Plant Transformation Laboratory of the Institute of Agro-biotechnology (INDEAR) located in Rosario, Argentine. She has published several scientific papers and contributed in different book chapters on agro biotechnology concepts. In recent she leads several projects on soybean and alfalfa transformation at INDEAR.

Abstract:

Solanum tuberosum plants were transformed with three genetic constructions expressing the Gallus gallus lysozyme, Nicotiana tabacum AP24 osmotine and Phyllomedusa sauvagii dermaseptin and with a two-transgene construction expressing the AP24 and lysozyme sequences. Re-transformation of dermaseptin-transformed plants with the AP24/lysozyme construction allowed selection of plants simultaneously expressing the three transgenes. Potato lines expressing individual transgenes or two- and three-transgene combinations were assayed for resistance to Erwinia carotovora using whole-plant and tuber infection assays. Resistance levels for both infection tests compared consistently for most potato lines and allowed selection of highly resistant phenotypes. Higher resistance levels were found in lines carrying the dermaseptin and lysozyme sequences, indicating that these proteins are the major contributors to antibacterial activity. Similar results were obtained in tuber infection tests conducted with Streptomyces scabies. Plant lines showing the higher resistance to bacterial infections were challenged with Phythophtora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. Considerable levels of resistance to each of these pathogens were evidenced employing semi-quantitative tests based in detached-leaf inoculation, fungal growth inhibition and in vitro plant inoculation. On the basis of these results, we propose that stacking of these transgenes is a promising approach to achieve resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens.

P. Sudha

Avinshilingam University, India

Title: Studies on encapsulation of green tea catechins
Biography:

P. Sudha has completed PhD in Food Agricultural Process Engineering. She is the Associate Professor in the Department of Food Processing and Preservation Technology, Avinashiligam University, Coimbatore, India (employed since 1999). She has completed 2 funded projects and 5 international publications in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of reputed Indian Journal, Journal of Tropical Agriculture. She has recently developed a machine for soan papdi making, a traditional sweet of India and few other countries where the process is done so far manually.

Abstract:

Green tea is rich in polyphenols and other phenolics that have been widely reported to have beneficial health effects. However, dietary polyphenols are not completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and are metabolized by the gut micro flora so that they and their metabolites may accumulate to exert physiological effects. The aim of the study is to develop functional food by incorporating the tea catechins and probiotics bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus culture. The crude catechin is extracted from green tea leaves, prebiotic activity is analyzed for crude catechin which inhibits the growth of E.Coli, Salmonella enteritis and enhances the growth of the probiotics bacterium. The catechin and probiotic bacterium is encapsulated using the technique of emulsification with sodium alginate and calcium chloride and the microcapsules are dried using spray drying and freeze drying techniques. The storage studies of dried micro capsules were conducted in accelerated conditions (40C, 370C and 450C). The results conclude that the encapsulated catechin and lactobacillus acidophilus micro capsules are more stable in freeze dried form and have prolonged shelf life stored at 40C compared to spray dried powder.
Keywords: Catechin, Lactobacillus acidophilus, encapsulation, spray drying, freeze drying, storage studies.

Biography:

Pramod Sairkar has submitted his PhD thesis at the Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur in Biotechnology. He is working as Technical Assistant in Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology, the M.P. Council of Science and Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India a government organization with 12 years of research experience. He has published more than 13 research papers in national/international journals and 15 abstracts. He has submitted 18 unique DNA sequences of plants in NCBI Databank. Under his regulation, creation and authentication of DNA barcode for identification of medicinal plants is in progress. In regular practice, has a good command on analysis of sequences, gene prediction and annotation, molecular diversity assessment using DNA sequence and dominant markers mostly by frequent population genetic softwares like DnaSP, Arlequin, Popgene, MEGA, GeneAlEx, PICcalc etc.. He is actively involved in the organization of more than 50 institutional training programs on various subjects like molecular biology, microbiology, DNA fingerprinting, molecular diversity, HPTLC and plant tissue culture.

Abstract:

Sustainable genetic diversity is an important issue for forest restoration more willingly than low genetic diversity is suitable for commercial forestry for their economic importance and value. Viable diversity upholds in platelets generated through clonal propagation and horticulture is slightly difficult and this may be created genetic drift. Low genetic diversity among five cultivated populations of Terminalia arjuna was revealed using DNA fingerprints generated by ten commercially available random (RAPD) primers i.e. RPI01 to RPI10. Out of ten primers, eight primers generated total 79 bands with 69 polymorphic bands and 87.34 percentage of polymorphism, while primer RPI02 and RPI08 did not show amplification. Applied all 8 primes having a good polymorphic informativeness among the populations (mean PIC=0.355±0.032 and Ho=0.463±0.018). Higher genetic variation, gene diversity (H), Shannon’s Information index (I) and Percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) among populations (H=0.290±0.162, I=0.440±0.221 and PPB=87.34%) was observed compared to within populations (maximum H=0.165±0.212, I=0.239±0.304 and PPB=39.24%, minimum H=0.026±0.104, I=0.038±0.150, PPB=06.33%). Low average gene diversity (π=0.075±0.062) within population, higher pair wise Fst (ranged from 0.498 to 0.844) among the population and Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) shown adequate genetic variation among population (Percentage of variation Pv=75.57) but serious low genetic variation within populations (Pv=24.43, ΦST=0.756). Among the populations of T. arjuna the higher relative differentiation (GST=0.7843) with restricted gene flow GST (Nm)=0.1375 was observed. Unbiased measures of genetic distance and phylogram revealed that all locations have their once genetic identity and they arranged in their respective clusters. Lowest distance was showed by accession collected from JNKVV and TFRI Jabalpur.

Speaker
Biography:

Susmita Shukla has completed her PhD in Biotechnology from Pt Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur. She is an Assistant Professor, in Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida (U.P). She has teaching experience of more than ten years, published papers in reputed national and international journals. She is actively involved in micropropagation/clonal propagation of elite medicinal and economical important plants for mass multiplication, raising hybrid variety of economical important crops through tissue culture techniques.

Abstract:

Forests constitute an important part of the social life of tribal groups who are entirely or partly dependent on forests for their livelihood. Forest trees have direct and indirect impact on economies, food security and health. India is endowed with rich and diverse forest resources. Dashmula is one of the best known health care products of Ayurveda, which is a combination of ten medicinal plants. In Dashmula principally roots are employed in compounding of Ayurvedic formulations. Dashmula invariably means ten roots comprising of 5 trees and 5 smaller plants. Each of the plants is endowed with medicinal properties and act synergistically in combination. Dashmula is collectively used in pacify vitiated tridosha, pain, arthritis, fever, cough, bronchitis, general weakness, neuropathy, nervine weakness, urinary tract diseases, boosts immune power, colic pain, intermittent fever, respiratory disease and as an expectorant. These medicinal plants are highly demanded for preparation of Ayurvedic medicines. Stereospermum suaveolens is one of the tree species used in preparation of Dashmula. S. suaveolens is also one of the ingredients used in formulation of Chyawanprasha. Due to the indiscriminate collection, over exploitation and uprooting of such plants for their roots, these valuable plants have become vulnerable in various places and becoming endangered in India. To overcome this, tissue culture offers potential solution for in-situ and ex-situ conservation as well as large scale propagation. In vitro propagation of S. suaveolens as well as status of tissue culture intervention in other species of dashmoola will be presented and discussed.

Biography:

Manju Modgil is a professor at Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry – Solanin dept, of Biotechnology. She holds a Ph.D degree in cytogenetics and she specialized in plant biotechnology. She has a more than 18 years of research experience and published a number of national and international papers as well as ornamented with a lot of awards.

Abstract:

The improvement of apple cultivation in India is dependent on the supply of healthy and quality planting material of rootstocks and improved varieties of scions. Therefore, in this study, micropropagation using axillary buds /shoot apices have been applied successfully for the production of quality planting material of clonal rootstocks of apple. The mother plants were indexed for virus and found free from apple mosaic and tobacco streak virus. Different sized explants were excised and initiated to shoot proliferation on MS medium supplemented with BA, GA3, with or without auxin. Following establishment phase, the small shoots emerged from clean explants were subcultured on multiplication medium. Shoot multiplication was influenced by cytokinin type, its concentration and genotype. Of the cytokinins tested, BA was found superior to others. For rooting, vigorously growing shoots were either given a short pretreatment in auxin containing medium or exposed to auxin throughout rooting phase. Rooted plantlets were hardened under controlled conditions. Nurseries were raised at different locations of the university and distributed to farmers for the production of high quality nursery plants. The methods standardized are commercially feasible and have provided the basis for rapid bulking up of plants. Therefore, cultures were provided to user agencies under Horticulture Technology Mission.

Speaker
Biography:

Kailash N. Gupta has completed his PhD at the age of 35 years from JMI, A Central University, New Delhi. He is the Assistant Professor cum Scientist of Plant Pathology in Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur-482004, India. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed national and International journals and 25 abstracts, 10 technical bulletin and 25 popular articles.

Abstract:

Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is important ornamental and medicinal plant of India. The plants flower is of great important to India system of medicine and pharmaceutical industries. During December 2007, Phytoplasma infected Sample was received from Karnataka (India). Typical diseases include phyllody, little leaf, dense clusters of highly proliferating branches with shortened internodes. Plant samples were collected and stored at -80 0C. Symptomatic leaf midrib were used for extraction of DNA using DNeasy Plant Mini kit (Qiagen, Gmbh, Hilden,Germany) and Healthy leaf midrib also used for DNA extraction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using universal primer P1 and P7, for amplification of 16s, 16/23s intergenic spacer of phytoplasma spp. An amplicon of approximately 1800 bp was obtained. The size of the PCR product is similar to that amplified from candidatus phytoplasma. However, no amplification was found in healthy samples. The PCR product was purified PCR purification kit and the PCR purified product was sequenced and sequence was BLAST, in NCBI. Sequence analysis showed that the phytoplasma associated with the phyllody disease on periwinkle occurring in India, confirmed that presence of a phytoplasma belonging to aster yellow 16SrI group of pytoplasma. The presence of phytoplasma disease in present a new threat to the Periwincle in Karnataka.

Biography:

J Sai Prasad is an assistant professor at Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, India. He has take part in many national and international conferences. Her training and research is based on importance of Agricultural microbiology. He has published research articles on the importance of PGPR as beneficial bacteria for the plant growth.

Abstract:

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize plant roots and enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. Here, we have isolated, screened and characterized the PGPR from the rhizosphere / non rhizospheric soil. Soils samples were collected from different areas of Rangareddy district in Andhra Pradesh, India. Twenty four (24) isolates of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. were isolated and identified based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics using standard methods and 2 isolates were collected from Guntur district. These test isolates were screened in vitro for PGPR properties like phosphate solubilization, siderophore, IAA, HCN productions, antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and compatibility with commonly used pesticide molecules. The results revealed that all the Pseudomonas isolates positive for IAA production, 76.9% for phosphate solubilization, 92.3% for ammonia, 88.46% for siderophores and 80.76% for HCN productions. Out of 26 Pseudomonas isolates 8 isolates viz., CBuP2, CRpP2, SBuP1, SRuP1, ABpP1, ARuP2, AmaP1 and AmaP2 showed inhibition potential against both Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. The maximum per cent inhibition against Rhizoctonia solani was showed by ABpP2 (37.75%). The maximum per cent inhibition against Sclerotium rolfsii was showed by AmaP2 (42.40%). The isolate that showed maximum inhibition potential against Rhizoctonia solani was also inhibitory to Sclerotium rolfsii to a lesser extent based on per cent inhibition and vice versa. Hence it can be inferred that the Pseudomonas isolates CBuP1, CBpP1, CBpP2, SBuP2, ABuP1, ARpP2 and AmaP1 could be considered for their bio control activity. Among the pesticides tested Azoxystrobin (fungicide), Flubendiamide (insecticide) and Pretilachlor (herbicide) were found to inhibit Pseudomonas at recommended / half recommended dosage. However other fungicides, insecticides and herbicides were compatible with all the isolates tested. Out of the 26 isolates tested for their compatibility with the four each of the fungicides, insecticides, herbicides and based on their PGPR attributes and antagonistic activity, the isolate of Pseudomonas isolate ARuP1 showed potential as PGPR.
Keywords: Pseudomonas, biochemical characterization, phosphate solubilization, Ammonia, IAA, HCN, Siderophore productions, Antagonistic activity and compatibility with pesticide molecules.

DAK Deborah

Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, India

Title: Association mapping for grain size traits in Rice
Speaker
Biography:

DAK Deborah has completed her M.Sc. (Ag) in the major field of Plant Molecular Biology & Biotechnology from the Institute of Biotechnology, Acharya N G Ranga University in 2011. She is pursuing her doctoral studies in the same university as an INSPIRE Fellow. She has participated and presented in the “International Dialogue on perception and prospects of Designer Rice”, ICRISAT, 2011 on ‘confirmation and fine mapping of major QTL for grain size in basmati rice

Abstract:

Introduction
Grain size, an important quality trait of rice is affected by length, breadth and length-breadth ratio influenced by multiple genes. Association mapping is a powerful tool for genetically dissecting complex traits controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In the present study, an attempt was made to identify markers associated with kernel size, kernel weight, grain size and grain weight by candidate gene based association mapping.
Methodology
In all, 96 rice genotypes were used for recording grain size traits viz., length (L), breadth (B), L/B ratio and grain weight for both kernel and polished rice and for screening with molecular markers associated with the grain size QTLs/genes from previous reports. Association mapping was done using GLM and MLM models of TASSEL 2.1.
Results Of the markers used, the locus RM18616 explained maximum phenotypic variance (14.6%) followed by RM430 (10.42%). The locus RM18582 linked to the major QTL for grain size on chromosome 5 was found to be associated with all the grain size traits and grain weight both in kernel and polished form of rice with a phenotypic variance range of 2-10%. The markers linked to the known genes viz., GW5, qSS7, qGW8 and SRS5 also showed association with the majority of the grain size traits but with low phenotypic variance ranging from 2.0-8.44%.
Discussion and Conclusion From the present study, RM18582 and RM18616 loci found to be strongly associated with grain size and have the potential to be used in marker assisted breeding of grain size traits.

Biography:

Vishal Sharma completed his PhD at the age of 27 years from Panjab University(Chandigarh) .He has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and serving as an Associate Professor in Post Graduate Government college for Girls-11,Chandigarh (Panjab University).

Abstract:

Tissue culture technique has added new dimensions to commercial exploitation of economically important plants. It is particularly useful in outbreeders like orchids which generate a great deal of heterozygosity in the progenies. Orchids represent a diverse group of geologically young plants, still in evolutionary flux. They have outsmarted their counterparts due to their long lasting flowers of myriad shapes, sizes and colours.
Morel (1960) demonstrated the possibilities of using apical meristems for micropropagating a variety of orchids. The technique is, however, detrimental to the growth and development of mother plant, as it requires the sacrifice of the entire new growth or the only growing point. It is, thus desirable to develop an alternate and equally effective multiplication system by activating adventitious meristems in organs, whose excision does not endanger the survival of source plant. In order to meet this objective, regenerative competence of Pseudobulb explants is used for initiating in vitro cultures of endangered species Coelogyne cristata Lindl.(Orchidaceae), an important foliar herb. It grows luxuriantly along Himalayan ranges from Garhwal eastwards to Arunachal Pradesh (1700-2300m). The foliar extract is favourite of the herbalist for its bone healing properties (cf.Lawler, 1984).Besides this, its free fertility with related genera offers exiciting possibilities to progenate floriculturally significant hybrids.
The regeneration competence of the pseudobulbs seems to be markedly influenced by physiological age of the mother plant, position of donor and growth stimulus in the nutrient pool. Juvenility of the tissue emerged as the major factor since the response was more pronounced to the proximal segments due to the fact that the younger tissues with less rigid cell walls are physiologically &biochemically more active and shoe better morphogenetic potential in harmony to earlier reports(Vij& Pathak,1989; Basker and Bai,2006;Sungkumlong and Deb,2009).
The regeneration eluded the explants from well developed 1 yr old peudobulbs(>3cm long), whereas, meristematic activity could be selectively initiated in those from the freshly formed daughter pseudobulbs(<3cm long) depending upon their position in the source organ. The explants from central segments (PS2), invariably turned brown and perished soon after inoculation, whereas, those from the proximal (PS3) and distal (PS1) responded to regeneration. The regenerative pathway and differentiation varied with quality and quantity of PGRs. In present studies, a treatment with KN(10 mg/l),promoted direct development of shoot primordial (Basker and Bai,2006;Sungkumlong and Deb,2009). An additional treatment with NAA and AC in KN treated cultures proved in effective but in BAP treated ones it favoured a switch in the regenerative pathway; the pathway was punctuated by Plb phase of development (Vij& Pathak,1989;Basker and Bai,2006).Among the different combinations tried in the present study, BAP(10mg/l) and NAA(5mg/l) were most effective for plantlet development. The synergistic effect of BAP & NAA is in compliance with earlier reports (Sunitibala and Kishor, 2009; Herrera et al., 1990; Basker and Bai, 2006).
Addition of Activated Charcoal (AC) in the initiation media proved beneficial in maintenance of cultures (Deb and Temjensangba, 2006; Sungkumlong and Deb, 2009).

Biography:

Amit Dhingra worked for his PhD at the University of Delhi South Campus and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey supported by University Grant Commission, India and Rockefeller Foundation, USA. After his post-doctoral training at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, University of Central Florida and University of Florida, he joined Washington State University in 2006 where he is currently an Associate Professor of Genomics and Biotechnology. He is a graduate faculty in Molecular Plant Sciences and NIH Protein Biotechnology Graduate training programs and is a founding tutor of the International PhD program on Genomics and Molecular Physiology of Fruits based in IASMA, Italy. He has published more than 40 peer-reviewed and refereed papers in highly reputed journals including Nature Genetics, PNAS, Plant Cell, Plant Physiology and he serves on the editorial board of two international peer reviewed and refereed plant biotechnology journals. Additional information can be obtained at www.genomics.wsu.edu

Abstract:

The plastid is an extremely important organelle primarily for the photosynthetic activity in green tissue but also for myriad biosynthetic processes. Plastids play a large role in fruit color and the synthesis of phytochemicals beneficial to human health, organoleptic properties, and tolerance to abiotic stress. The majority of plastid-localized proteins that comprise its proteome are encoded in the nucleus and imported into the plastid. Characterization of plastid-targeted proteomes remains limited to a few model systems such as Arabidopsis and maize primarily in the photosynthetic context. We performed an in-depth computational analysis predicting the plastid-targeted proteome of apple, a representative of Rosaceae. The analysis workflow was extended to an interspecific comparison between six published genomes: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Prunus persica, Populus trichocarpa, Fragaria vesca, and Solanum lycopersicum. Comparative analysis revealed significant subsets of genes exclusive to each species and identification of homologs that may be alternatively targeted either to the chloroplast or the cytosol depending on the species. In addition, morpho-developmental characterization of fruit plastids at 11 developmental time points was performed across three diverse genotypes in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). An overall increase in plastoglobule number and size was observed in epidermal plastids along with an overall increase in starch size throughout fruit development. It was observed that apple presents a unique plastid developmental model as its fruit possess some unique plastid transition stages not previously documented.

Speaker
Biography:

Hameedunnisa Begum obtained her PhD in 1989 from G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. She has 20 years of research experience in fruits and vegetables. She has published more than 20 research articles in reputed journals.

Abstract:

The production, productivity and quality of spine gourd (MomordicadioicaRoxb.) is highly variable across the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, owing to the utilization of locally available wild plantings because of the non-availability of planting material of the improved cultivar(s). Through an exploration survey covering North-costal region of the state, 36 female and 9 male lines were collected. The genotypes were evaluated in a randomized block design with 2 replications on trellis system at spacing of 2.5 x 1.0m. The morphological characterization revealed considerable variability among the 36 male and 9 female accessions. Of these, 9 promising female lines and 9 male lines were identified. Of the 40 RAPD primers (OPAE, H, and F) validated only 24 RAPDs amplified and produced 1047 distinct bands. The number of bands ranged from 2 to 11 with an average of 3.7 per primer. The polymorphic information content ranged between 0.72 (OPF-8) and 0.99 (OPA-18) with an average of 0.88. The highly polymorphic RAPDs like OPA-7, OPF-2, OPF-4, OPF-11, OPAE-17 and OPAE-18 could be highly useful in discriminating the genotypes under study. The Jaccard's similarity co-efficient ranged between 0.28 and 0.75. This indicates the existence of a wide range of genetic diversity to the tune of 25 to 72% among the accessions under study. The dendrogram generated based on unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average showed 6 major groups of accessions, wherein male and female accessions could not follow clear cut separation. RAPD markers have proven useful in assessing genetic diversity of spine gourd.

Biography:

Nitish Kumar is a plant biologist and has been working on Plant Tissue Culture, Molecular markers Development and Transgenic Technology. Recently he has started working on Microbial Biotechnology focusing on Bioremediation. He obtained Masters Degree in Agricultural Biotechnology from Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur and PhD Degree in Botany from Bhavnagar University and worked at CSIR-Central Salt & Chemical Research Institute, Bhavnagar as a JRF/SRF during his PhD tenure.

Abstract:

Jatrophacurcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel crop. A simple and reproducible protocol was developed for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated stable genetic transformation of J. curcas using leaf explants. Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404harbouringthe binary vector pCAMBIA 1304 having sense-dehydration responsive element binding (S-DREB2A), β-glucuronidase (gus), and hygromycin-phosphotransferase (hpt) genes were used for gene transfer. A number of parameters such as preculture of explants, wounding of leaf explants, Agrobacterium growth phase (OD), infection duration, co-cultivation period, co-cultivation medium PH, and acetosyringone, were studied to optimized transformation efficiency. The highest transformation efficiency was achieved using 4-day precultured, non-wounded leaf explants infected with Agrobacterium culture corresponding to OD600=0.6 for 20 min, followed by co-cultivation for 4 days in a co-cultivation medium containing 100 µM acetosyringone, PH 5.7. Co-cultivated leaf explants were initially cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.27 µM thidiazuron (TDZ) for regeneration of shoot buds, followed by selection on same medium with 5 µg ml-1 hygromycin. Selected shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 µM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 µM6-benzyl aminopurine (BA), and 5.5 µMα-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for proliferation. The proliferated shoots were elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 µM BA and 8.5 µM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The elongated shoots were rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 15 µMindole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 5.7 µM IAA, 5.5 µM NAA, and 0.25 mg l-1 activated charcoal. GUS histochemical analysis of the transgenic tissues further confirmed the transformation event. PCR and DNA gel blot hybridization were performed to confirm the presence of transgene. A transformation efficiency of 29% was achieved for leaf explants using this protocol.
Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Genetic transformation, Jatrophacurcas, Leaf explants