Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences Radisson Blu Plaza Hotel, Hyderabad, India.

Day 1 :

  • Track 5: Agronomy and Soil Sciences

Session Introduction

John Ryan

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria

Title: Soil fertility and crop nutrition in the Mediterranean region: An international agricultural research center’s perspective
Speaker
Biography:

John Ryan is a soil scientist who has spent most of his long career in international agriculture, mainly in the Middle East. An Irish citizen, he holds several degrees from University College Dublin (B. Agr. Sc, PhD, D.Sc) and MS in Agricultural Education from the University of Arizona. After being Fulbright Scholar and Research Associate at the University of Arizona, he served as Professor of Soil Science at the American University of Beirut, Professor of Agronomy at the University of Nebraska (based in Morocco), and as Soil Scientist at ICARDA. He has produced over 300 publication (refereed articles, books, book chapters) and about 200 abstracts, and has lectured extensively in many countries around the world. He has served as Commission Chair in the International Union of Soil Scientists and Chair of International Agronomy in the American Society of Agronomy (ASA). In recognition of his scientific achievements, he has been recognized as Fellow of ASA, Soil Science Society of America, and the Crop Science Society of America, and has received the international awards in all three societies. In addition, he has received the Soil Science Distinguished Award, the IUSS Honorary Member Award, the J.B. Benton Jones Award, Distinguished Citizen Award from the University of Arizona, and Fellow of the American Society for the Advancement of Science, IFA Crop Nutrition Award and the IPNI Science Award. He is currently based in Ireland.

Abstract:

Never in the history of mankind has the issue of feeding and clothing the earth's burgeoning population been so urgent. To achieve this goal in a sustainable manner without destruction of the resource base and the environment poses one of the greatest challenges we are faced with, and is one that calls for scientific ingenuity, allied to enabling policies and social considerations. Given the population and land use pressures are greatest in the developing, or less developed, world, that is where development efforts will necessarily be focused. The international agricultural research centers have been in the vanguard of efforts to improve food production and livelihoods in vast areas of the underprivileged world. The Middle Eastern or Mediterranean region, despite its antiquity in terms of agricultural evolution and civilization, is a vast region with a harsh climate and limited land and water resources and where few countries achieve food self-sufficiency. The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), based in Aleppo, Syria, was established to address the urgent biophysical and social constraints to agricultural production; its mission was to collaborate with the national agricultural research programs of the various countries of the Mediterranean region. A pivotal aspect of the Center's research and development strategy has been soil management, mainly soil fertility, and plant nutrition. Over the past 4 decades, considerable strides were made in identifying the major crop nutrient deficiencies, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus and more recently micro-nutrients, especially zinc and boron. Much has been learned about diagnosing nutrient deficiencies, establishing a rational basis for fertilizer use, and for increasing nutrient use efficiency. While the presentation makes a comprehensive and integrated synthesis of the achievements in soil and crop nutrient research, it endeavors to provide a critical analysis of the agricultural sector in the region and the challenges that lie ahead. Given the prognosis of increasing drought in the region in the future, the implications will inevitably have social and political consequences.

Speaker
Biography:

Wan Arfiani Barus belongs to Department of Agrotechnology, Amir Hamzah University, Indonesia and speaker at Agri-2014 conference 2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, main research intrests on Plant Physiology, Plant Biotechnology, Plant Environmental Stress Physiology, Abiotic Stress Tolerance, Plant Tissue Culture, Plant Molecular Biology Plant Breeding.

Abstract:

Rice growth and development are adversely affected by salinity; it was a major environmental stress that limits agricultural production. “Paluh Merbau” is a village in “percut Sei Tuan District that had saline soil, It has EC = 6,8 mmhos. Aim of this research is to get the best variety in growth and adaptability under salinity stress. Research was undertaken in Paluh Merbau village, Percut Sei Tuan Sub-District, Deli Serdang District, North Sumatera, Indonesia) by using randomized block design non factorial with three replications. Response of growth and adaptation were tested of 10 genotype respectively were observed and classified by the criteria: sensitive, moderate, tolerant and very tolerant by using a scoring method (salt injury score). Observation of growth and adaptability showed that genotype IR 42 (in 2012 had the best growth and adaptability as compared with other genotype.
Keywords: Rice, Salinity, Adaptation, Growth.

Speaker
Biography:

Shrikumar V. Mahamuni has completed his PhD at the age of 39 years from Pune University. He is the Assistant Professor in Microbiology, at the Pune University affiliated Shardabai Pawar Mahila College, Malegaon Bk., Baramati. He has 18 years of teaching experience and published 03 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Soil fertility is coupled with number of microorganisms present and their activities in soil. In the present investigation, a pot culture experiment with factorial completely randomized design (FCRD) was performed to evaluate the impact of a lignite based bioinoculant (VIMP) containing consortium of four phosphate solubilizing species of Burkholderia viz., Burkholderia cenocepacia strainVIMP01(JQ867371), Burkholderia gladioli strain VIMP02 (JQ811557), Burkholderia gladioli strain VIMP 03 (JQ867372) and Burkholderia species strain VIMP 04 (JQ867373) isolated from sugarcane and sugar beet rhizosphere, on enzyme activities, CO2 evolution rate and available phosphorus in sterile and nonsterile soil along with or without sugar beet. The highest soil acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were recorded on 90 DAS while the highest soil urease and dehydrogenase activities were recorded on 30 and 60 DAS respectively. Soil microbial activities were recorded at the highest level by the treatment of nonsterile soil + VIMP + sugar beet in combination where the level of available phosphorus was found to be increased substantially by 87.63% and 115.14% as compared to sterile soil alone and nonsterile soil alone control treatments, respectively. Effects of graded levels of phosphorus fertilizer viz. 50%, 75%, 100% RDF with or without bioinoculant VIMP on yield and phosphorus uptake of sugar beet under field trial were also studied using factorial randomized block design (FRBD). The yield and phosphorus uptake of sugar beet recorded by the treatment 75% P2O5 + VIMP were found at par with results of treatment 100% P2O5 + VIMP.

K. A. Gopinath

Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture (CRIDA), India

Title: Influence of organic and integrated crop management systems on crop productivity and soil fertility
Speaker
Biography:

K.A. Gopinath holds a PhD in Agronomy from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India. His main research interests include organic farming, integrated farming systems and weed management particularly in rainfed production systems. His research contributions have been recognized at the national level and he is the recipient of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Team Award for Outstanding Multidisciplinary Research (2005-06), Lal Bahadur Shastri Young Scientist Award (2007-08) of ICAR and Young Agronomist Award (2007) of Indian Society of Agronomy. He has published 35 papers in reputed journals and is serving as an editorial board member of 'Indian Journal of Dryland Agricultural Research and Development' and 'International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management'.

Abstract:

Organic agriculture is one of the fastest growing sectors of agricultural production, and is reported to have both climate change adaptation and mitigation potential particularly in rainfed agriculture. A field experiment was conducted during 2010-2012 at research farm of the institute to evaluate the performance of sunflower, sesame and pigeonpea under organic and integrated crop management systems. During a two-year conversion period, conventional management gave higher yield of all the three crops compared to organic management. In 2010, the yield reduction in plots under organic production was 13.2% in sunflower, 24.7% in pigeonpea and 18.9% in sesame. Similarly in 2011, the yields of organically grown crops were reduced by 11.4% in sunflower, 5.8% in pigeonpea and 14.5% in sesame. In general, the yield of all crops was less during 2011 due to scanty and uneven distribution of rainfall. During third year, the yield reduction in plots under organic production was 11.1% in sunflower and 9.5% in green gram (grown in place of sesame). However, pigeonpea produced similar seed yield (1520-1537 kg/ha) under both organic and integrated management. Among different production systems, plots under organic management had slightly lower bulk density (1.44 Mg/m3) than other treatments. However, soil PH and organic C were similar under both organic and integrated production systems. The latter treatment had higher content of available N, P and K compared to other treatments. The soil moisture content was 2-3% higher in the plots under organic management. Similarly, the soil temperature was lower under organic management by 0.20C compared to other treatments.

Speaker
Biography:

M. Sudharani is presently working as Scientist (Pl. Br.), Seed Research and Technology Center, ANGR Agricultural University, Hyderabad. She joined as Scientist (Pl. Br.) at ARS, Machilipatnam during 1999 and involved in developing rice varieties with salt tolerance. Later, she involved in development of gall midge tolerant varieties (2 Nos) at RARS, Warangal. Presently her work is involved in Seed Research of different crops particularly in the area of safer storage of seed, development of seed testing strategies in various crops and DUS testing of maize, Greengram and blackgram varieties for protecting them under PPV&FR Act. Also actively involved in guiding P.G. students and so far she had guided two students. And she has 15 research publication and 15 popular articles at her credit s as on date.

Abstract:

During kharif 2009, staggered sowings of eight selected parents (RP Bio-226, Swarna, CSR-27, CSR-30, CST-7-1, CSRC(S) 7-1-4, SR26B and CSRC(S) 5-2-2-5) were taken up at Rice Section, ARI, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. Parents were crossed in a diallel fashion without reciprocals to generate F1 seed of 28 crosses. This diallel set along with eight parents were sown during kharif, 2010 under both normal and coastal saline soils of Agricultural Research Station, Machilipatnam. The saline soils were of sandy loam in texture with an average electrical conductivity of 6.3 dS m-1 and PH of 7.9 while the normal soil had an E.C of 2.3 dS/m and PH of 7.2. The source of irrigation was canal which was normal. The same set of diallel was also transplanted under normal soil condition during the same crop season to compare the effect of salinity on various yield attributing parameters. From each replication, observations were recorded on 15 randomly selected plants from each of parents and F1s and the data were recorded on ten yield attributes.
The heterotic trends in rice among 28 F1 hybrids under saline and normal soil conditions revealed that there was severe reduction in number of heterotic hybrids and the range of heterosis of all types under stressed environment than that observed under favourable soil environment. Further, the hybrid Swarna x CSRC(S) 7-1-4 manifested significant heterotic expression over mid and better-parents for number of filled grains panicle-1 and grain yield plant-1 besides showing high specific combining ability and mean performance for these traits. Similarly, the hybrid RPBio-226 x CSR-30 was also found to be heterotic over mid and better-parents for number of total tillers plant-1, number of productive tillers plant-1, panicle length, panicle weight and test weight along with desirable per se and combining abilities. These promising rice hybrids identified from the present study for yield and its component characters could be utilized further for commercial exploitation under saline soil conditions.

Speaker
Biography:

Rafi Qamar has completed his PhD at the age of 29 years from University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. He has remained visiting scholar in The Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon, USA. During his stay, he has learned numerous techniques of soil biological, chemical, and physical properties related to tillage operations and fertilization management. He is Assistant Professor in University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. His areas of interests are tillage system, soil properties, cropping system and mulch materials. He has published more than 08 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:

Zero tillage along with application of mulch is an important strategy for soil conservation to maintain sustainability of agricultural system, maximize crop yield and quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Seher 2006), and reduce production costs. A randomized complete block design in split plot arrangement was used with four tillage methods [conventional tillage (CT); deep tillage (DT); zero tillage with zone disk tiller (ZDT); and happy seeder (HS)] in main plots and five mulch materials [no mulch (M0); rice straw (MRice); wheat straw (MWheat); plastic sheet (MPlastic) @ 4 t ha-1, and natural mulch (MNatural)] in subplots during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Results showed that DT significantly decreased soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and volumetric moisture content when compared with CT, ZDT, and HS. However, wheat yield parameters such as germination count, fertile tillers, grain yield and water use efficiency were significantly higher in HS compared with other tillage treatments while root length and grain protein were higher in DT. Plant height remained non-significant during 2009-10, while in 2010-11 it differed significantly and was higher in HS than other tillage treatments. In both growing seasons, 1000-grain weight and biological yield were non-significant. Wheat yield parameters were significantly higher in MPlastic at 4 t ha-1 than other mulch materials. Germination count, plant height, 1000-grain weight, total and grain yield, water use efficiency and grain protein of tillage and mulch interaction remained non-significant while fertile tillers, root length and penetration resistance showed significant response during both the years of study.
Keywords: Bulk density, penetration resistance, grain yield and grain protein.

Speaker
Biography:

Pravukalyan Panigrahi has completed his PhD in “Water Science and Technology” from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. He is a Scientist working at “Directorate of Water Management”, Bhubaneswar, India. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed National and International journals. He has expertise on soil and water conservation, micro-irrigation and citrus water management.

Abstract:

Availability of irrigation water is a major constraint to Kinnow mandarin cultivation in northern India. Drip irrigation is found as a potential water saving technique over traditional surface irrigation methods in Kinnow. Deficit irrigation (DI) is a recently proposed water saving technique in irrigated agriculture. The present study was planned with a hypothesis that drip irrigation scheduling with DI technique could save a substantial amount of water over full irrigation, without affecting the yield significantly. The experiment was conducted for 2 years during 2010 and 2011, with drip-irrigated Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) plants budded on Jatti Khatti (Citrus jambhiri Lush) rootstock at IARI, New Delhi. The crop responses to DI scheduled at 50% and 75% full irrigation (FI, 100% ETc) were compared with that under FI. DI at 75% ETc produced marginally lower fruit yield (10-12%), with lower vegetative growth of the plants in comparison to that under FI. However, the irrigation water use efficiency and water use efficiency under DI at 75% ETc was observed to be 47% and 53% higher, respectively, over that under FI. The heavier fruits with better quality (higher TSS, ascorbic acid, total sugar and reducing sugar, and lower acidity) were harvested in DI at 75% FI compared to FI. The plant water status (relative leaf water content, leaf water concentration, leaf water potential, stem water potential) was superior with fully-irrigated plants. Likewise, under FI, the plants registered maximum rate of net-photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration in leaves. However, the plants under DI at 75% ETc exhibited the highest leaf water use efficiency (photosynthesis rate / transpiration rate). The leaf nutrient (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) analysis revealed that the concentration of all the nutrients was observed to be higher with fully-irrigated plants, which was associated with higher availability of such nutrients in soil under this treatment. However, P and Cu did not show any significant (P < 0.05) response to irrigation. Yield prediction employing principal component-regression, taking leaf-N, leaf-K, stem water potential stress index, stomatal conductance and water band index as the predictors, gave satisfactory result. Overall, these results reveal that DI at 75% ETc under drip irrigation saves 25% of irrigation water producing better quality fruits, without affecting the fruit yield significantly compared to fully-irrigated Kinnow mandarin in a semiarid climate.

Speaker
Biography:

Selvaraj Shanmugaraj completed his PhD degree in Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry in University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka (India). Presently he is working as SRF in TNAU, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract:

The study was undertaken with a view to assess the distribution Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) status with other soil chemical and physical parameters in banana growing tracts of Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu. In this the task of assessing the SOC status, related physico - chemical properties, the study was carried out with the major objectives of geospatial distribution and preparation of thematic maps. Totally, 238 geo-referenced soil samples covering the entire five blocks of banana growing tracts of Thoothukudi district were collected randomly at three different depths of 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm by adopting the standard procedures of soil sample collection. The GPS data (Latitude ºN and Longitude ºE) of located soil sampling sites distributed over the entire banana growing tracts of the district were recorded from Garmin GPS 76CS model instrument.
The result of the present study shows that the organic carbon content varied from low to high (0.26-0.87 per cent) status at 0-15 cm depth of soil. It decreased low to medium (0.04 -0.65 per cent) at 15 - 30 cm and low (0.01- 0.34 per cent) at 30-45 cm depth of soil respectively. The study thus clearly indicates that, the distribution of SOC was found to be low in Alwarthirunagari block was recorded 24, 93.8 and 100 per cent at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depth of soil respectively. Karungulam block was recorded 20.4, 97.9 and 100 per cent at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depth of soil respectively. Srivaikundam block was recorded 8.16, 91.8 and 100 per cent at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depth of soil, respectively. Tiruchendur block was recorded 34.6, 97.9 and 100 per cent at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depth of soil, respectively. Thoothukudi block was recorded 35.7, 100 and 100 per cent at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depth of soil respectively. The overall data on distribution of SOC status of banana growing tracts of Thoothukudi district suggest that soils are medium distribution of SOC at surface soil. As the soil depth increases, the distribution of SOC decreases. Thus the above investigation of findings out the geo spatial distribution of SOC status will provide valuable information towards sustainable banana farming with the interaction of residue management in Thoothukudi district (India).

Speaker
Biography:

Fatai Olakunle has just completed his PhD Thesis programme but awaiting the final defense of the project anytime from now at Nigeria prestigious and the premier University (University of Ibadan, Department of Geography). He also holds a masters degree in Geographic Information System from University of Lagos in 2002. He teaches Biogeography and Soil science at the Department of Geography and Planning, Lagos State University, Ojo Lagos Nigeria. He has published more than 40 papers in reputable well indexed journal in soil and plant biodiversity and other environmental related issues.

Abstract:

Teak plantation has assumed prominence as a silvicultural practice of meeting the local and regional demands for increased wood production and ensuring environmental conservation. Previous studies principally focused on the effects of teak (Tectona grandis) on soil nutrient fluxes in comparison with natural forest, but the effect of soils derived from different parent materials on the growth and nutrient cycling of teak is somewhat novel in the literature of agroforestry practice. This study examined the influence of parent materials on the soil physic-chemical and micronutrients of teak plantation in south-western Nigeria.
Systematic sampling design (systematic line transect) was employed to establish sample plots of 900m2 across plantations aged 37, 40 and 42 yrs. in Ilaro and Olokemeji. In each plantation age of the two study sites, 6 plots were randomly selected out. Hence, at Ilaro, 18 plots of sizes 900m2 across the plantation ages were selected, the same was applied to Olokemeji. In all, 36 plots were selected for soil, plant part and teak biomass sampling. From the sampled plots, 72 soil samples (topsoil and subsoil) were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical and micronutrient parameters.
For the 37-years-old plantation, the results show that the topsoil sand contents were higher in Ilaro plantation soils than in Olokemeji plantation soils, with mean values of 89.96% and 61.98%, respectively and the subsoil’s with mean values of 89.15% and 61.21%, respectively. For the 40-years-old plantation, the results show that the topsoil’s sand contents were higher in Ilaro plantation soils than in Olokemeji plantation soils, with mean values of 91.04 and 60.70%, respectively and the subsoil’s with mean values of 87.31% and 60.03%, respectively .The results also show that the topsoil sand contents were higher in Ilaro plantation soils than in Olokemeji plantation soils, with mean values of 91.04 and 60.30%, respectively and the subsoil’s with mean values of 89.62% and 60.61% respectively for the 42-years-old plantations respectively. Therefore, the conclusion was made that Ilaro soils is sandy.
Though, Olokemeji teak plantation which is on basement complex terrain is more suitable for teak cultivation than Ilaro teak plantation which is on sedimentary formation due to higher proportion of soil nutrients. However, the management practice in Olokemeji plantation should be improved upon to conserve the available soil nutrient for improved teak production while, an intervention is needed for appropriate soil management strategy to boost teak production in Ilaro plantation.
Keywords: Teak plantation, Parent materials, Soil nutrients, Soil properties.

Pushpanjali

Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture (CRIDA), India

Title: Suitability classification for different crops using GIS - A village level approach
Biography:

Pushpanjali is a Scientist in the division of Soil Science at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad. She specializes in the field of Soil Pedology.

Abstract:

A land resource inventory was conducted at NBSS & LUP, Nagpur during 2010-11 to determine the suitability of crops for site-specific database suitable for farm level planning in Bansinghi and Parseoni villages of Parseoni mandal, Nagpur District, Maharashtra, India. Suitable areas for crops were determined using a multi-criteria evaluation approach based on the soil, crop requirements and characteristics of the land. Suitability of soils for major crops was determined by comparing different land qualities with crop requirements (Sys et.al., 1993). The whole area falls under AESR 10.2 and the mean annual rainfall ranges between 1000 - 1300 mm. Parseoni mandal with an area 16,493 ha comprises of 31 villages, out of which two villages covering an area of 1,345 ha was surveyed. Sixty seven profiles were studied and five tentative soil series were arrived. Thematic maps of soil phases, soil depth, slope, soil erosion, drainage, surface soil texture, electrical conductivity, PH, OC, BD, CEC, Ca, Na, AWC, OM etc were prepared. These layers were intercepted and the specific suitability criteria were entered in GIS and the suitability map for crops such as rice, wheat, Cotton, Sorghum , Chilli, Citrus, Sapota, and Sunflower were derived. The Bansinghi village was found to be highly suitable for Sorghum (78% area of the village), moderately suitable for Sunflower (94%) and Citrus (78%) and marginally suitable for Rice (87%), Wheat (94%), Cotton (94%), Chilli (94%), and Sapota (94%) whereas, Parseoni village was highly suitable for Sorghum (40%), moderately suitable for Citrus (44%) and Sunflower (67%) and marginally suitable for Rice(74 %), Wheat (74%), Cotton(74%), Sapota and Chilli (66%). It was found that most of the area was marginally suitable for most of the crops. PH and organic carbon were the main soil properties affecting the suitability of different crops in the study area.
Keywords: soil, GIS, crop suitability.

Speaker
Biography:

R.M. Solanki earned his graduation in agriculture, M.Sc. (Agri.) and PhD in Agronomy from erstwhile Gujarat Agricultural University during 1989, 1992 and 1995, respectively. Dr. Solanki has 17 years of experience in research, teaching and extension activities in Agronomy and worked as Senior Research Assistant, Assistant Research Scientist and joined as Associate Professor of Agronomy in 2012. He has published and presented more than 40 research papers and 25 popular articles in international, national and regional journals. He worked as co-investigator in five research projects and made 35 recommendations for the farmers and scientific community. He has attended, participated and contributed 14 international, national and state level seminar, symposia, conference, congress and workshop related to Agronomy.

Abstract:

In Gujarat, chickpea occupied an area of 2.15 lakh hectares with a production of 2.10 lakh tones with an average productivity of 977 kgha-1, accounts 2.46% and 2.80% area and production of country, respectively (Singh, 2010). But the state’s productivity in comparison with other state’s average productivity is low. The reason for low productivity of chickpea in Gujarat may be due to lack of proper scheduling of irrigation, balance nutrition, weed management etc. Among various factors affecting, proper scheduling of irrigation is the key factor for enhancing productivity of crop, particularly through drip because water is a scare commodity, is key natural resource for any crop production particularly in arid and semi arid regions, where availability of irrigation water posses a serious threat to the sustainability of crop production therefore it is considered as liquid gold. In drip irrigation method, water is applied to the soil from the dripper without any pressure or at extremely low pressure. It is well suited to areas of acute water shortage. Deep percolation, surface runoff and evaporation losses can be minimized. As the water in the soil is maintained at near field capacity all through, plants take water with ease and never subjected to moisture stress.
Organic manures particularly, farm yard manure play a crucial role crop production. It acts on the soil physical properties, promotes formation of soil crumbs, thus makes the soil friable and thereby facilitates the proper movement of air and water as well as absorption of water. It also adds plant nutrients to the soil and organic acids during decomposition which act on the insoluble nutrient reserve in the soil and make the available. Biologically, it provides food for the beneficial soil micro organisms.
Recently high yielding varieties responsive to higher levels of irrigation and nutrients are evolved and therefore, better irrigation and nutrient management has prime importance in chickpea production. Drip irrigation system and integrated nutrient management offer great promise for exploiting the yield potential of chickpea. At present, drip system is preferably installed for widely spaced plantation and cash crop. Such use has great potential for utility of drip system, once installed, all round the year. Keeping this in view, the field experiment was planned to study the judicious use of irrigation water through drip and integrated nutrient management in chickpea.

Speaker
Biography:

V. Girija Veni completed her PhD thesis work and yet to submit her PhD thesis. At the same time, she got posted as scientist in CRIDA, Hyderabad. At present she is working in NICRA (National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture) network project under Dr. S. Dixit and Dr. Ch. Srinivas Rao. She was awarded ICAR JRF during 2007, CSIR (JRF+ lecturership) during 2010 and first rank in ARS (Agricultural research service) during 2010-11.

Abstract:

Cereals are the major energy source for a large proportion of the world population. Consequently, reliance on a high proportion of cereal-based diets is now inducing health problems due to poor grain nutritional quality that is mainly due to low micronutrient content. As a result more than 2 billion people in the world are affected by Micronutrient malnutrition. According to WHO, (2002) Zinc (Zn) deficiency ranks fifth leading risk factor for disease in the developing world. Thus, increasing concentrations of Zn in cereal grains is, therefore, an important global humanitarian challenge. Hence, a study was carried in Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) to enhance the Zn density in the grains of three basmati rice cultivars containing low, medium and high Zn after screening the available germplasm in IARI. Their response to different sources and rate of Zn fertilization was studied in soils of divergent characteristics. The results showed that the three cultivars (CSR 30, Pusa Sugandh-5 and Pusa Basmati-6) differed in Zn accumulation in the grains. The Zn application through ZnSO4 in the form of basal and biweekly foliar application has increased the Zn content up to 30.34 mg kg-1 which is near to have a measurable biological impact on human health.
Keywords: micronutrient malnutrition, Zn deficiency, basmati rice cultivars, divergent soils.

Biography:

Achalu Chimdi is a Assistant professor at Wollega University - ‎Wollega University.

Abstract:

Soil acidity is one of the major limiting factors to acid sensitive crop production like barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The study was conducted on soils of three land uses (forest, grazing and cultivated) in Guto Gida District of the East Wollega areas of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. A greenhouse incubation experiment was employed to assess the effects of lime rates (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 tons ha-1) on selected soil chemical properties, barley P-uptake and its grain yield. Data generated was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS software version, 9.1. The main effects of applied lime rates and interactions effects between lime rates and soils from different land uses significantly (P<0.001) affected soil PH, the concentration of Al saturation, barley P uptake and its grain yield. Greenhouse incubation of soil with100 mesh size lime for 90 days reduced the percent acid saturation from 10 in the 0 t ha-1 to 0.8 % at 10 t ha-1 lime rate in soils of the forest land and for the grazing and cultivated lands. It decreased from 26.7 and 45.8% in the control to 3 and 23.6% for the 10 t ha-1 respectively, in soils of graining and the cultivated land. Maximum grain barley yield in a greenhouse experiment were obtained at 6 t ha-1 of lime rate on the forest and grazing lands followed by 10 t ha-1 on soils of the cultivated land. Thus, incubation of soil with applied lime rate at 10 t ha-1 showed considerable drop of the PAS with an accompanying increase of soils PH, plant p uptake and barley yield on soils of the different land uses of the study area. However, the response pattern of the change in these traits to varying lime rates varied from one land use systems to the other.
Keywords: Acidic soil Exchangeable acidity Barley yield Land use Lime rates.

A. Subba Rao

Indian Institute of Soil Science, India

Title: Future research in soil science with changing needs
Biography:

Subba Rao, Annangi, Former Director Born in Ravulapuram, India on 1 May 1952. Educated at Z.P. High School, Vinukonda, 1962-67; Hindu College, Guntur, 1967-68; Agricultural College, Bapatla, 1969-73 & 1974-76; Indian Agricultural Research Institute 1976-80; B.Sc. 1973; M.Sc. 1976; Ph.D 1980.Director, Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, 2004 to April 2014. Assistant Professor, Agril. College, Bapatla 1980-84; Soil Scientist, Potash Research Institute of India, Gurgaon, 1984-89; Principal Scientist, 1989-97; Project Coordinator (STCR), 1997-2004, and Director, Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, 2004-April 2014.
Awards/Honours: FAI Silver Jubilee Award of Excellence 1989 & 2008; PRII Award 1991; PPIC-FAI Award 1997; IPI-FAI Award 1998; IMPHOS - FAI Award 2003; TSI-FAI Award, 2006; Hari Om Ashram Award, 2008-09. Fellow: Indian Society of Soil Science.
Research Areas: Soil chemistry, soil fertility, soil testing, integrated nutrient management, soil health

Abstract:

Soil Science research in India started in 1898 with the characterization of Indian soils based on geographical information or colour. Since then India has made headway in the different disciplines of soil research including soil fertility, chemistry, microbiology, mineralogy, and soil technology. Green revolution resulted in phenomenal increase in the production of food grain and other crops but it has given rise to some soil related management problems that need urgent attention. This paper deals with the current scenario of soil conditions in India in major production systems. The paper then enumerates some future research areas that have become relevant under the present and future contexts of changing dietary patterns, changing climate, unavailability of labour and expected automation due to India’s growth story.
Even though India’s total food grain production has touched almost 259 million tonnes, the agricultural growth has been unstable and less than expected. In the recent years, a declining trend of total factor productivity and compound growth rates of major crops and low nutrient use efficiency have been observed primarily due to deterioration of soil health. The main reasons for soil health deterioration are wide nutrient gap between nutrient demand and supply, high nutrients' turnover in soil-plant system coupled with low and imbalanced fertilizer use, reduced recycling of organics, decline in organic matter status, reduced biodiversity, emerging deficiencies of secondary and micronutrients, nutrient leaching and fixation problems, impeded drainage, soil pollution, soil acidity, salinization and sodification, etc. Wide spread micro and secondary nutrient deficiencies in soils also lead to wide spread occurrence of mineral deficiency disorders such as anemia, goiter, dental caries, etc. Also, there has been a sea-change in the overall economic development in the country aided by the revolution in the information technology. This means, processes, and technologies that were relevant a decade ago need thorough revision. Some key challenges to be addressed are:
1. Providing food and nutritional security by improving nutrient and water use efficiencies.
2. Harnessing biodiversity and genomics for efficient agriculture and maintaining ecological balance.
3. Self sufficiency in plant nutrient supply through utilization of indigenous mineral resources.
4. Providing clean and safe soil environment through waste recycling.
5. Soil quality/health management for sustainable agriculture.
6. Developing strategies for energy efficient and climate resilient agriculture.
Waste disposal has become a big problem which needs to be tackled. New techniques need to be evolved for the remediation of already contaminated soil sites. Similarly, indigenous mineral and by-product resources need to be tapped for their use in agriculture as country cannot afford to continue heavy subsidy on imported fertilizer materials. Climate change has become a reality and future research need to be oriented in developing climate resilient agriculture. Similarly, efficient use of energy is the need of the hour. New practices like precision agriculture and techniques like nanotechnology and biotechnology are required that are not only labour and cost-effective but also practicable and relevant in the present context of Indian agriculture. Tackling above challenges definitely requires a long term vision that visualizes the upcoming scenario and contains a roadmap to address the above researchable issues as well as that is dynamic to quickly adapt to the foreseeable and unforeseeable changes.

Biography:

S.S. Meena is a Senior Scientist (Hort.) in ICAR-National Research Centre on Seed Spices Tabiji, Ajmer.

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out with an objective to find out the optimum sowing time and crop geometry in dill for realising higher yield and benefit. Fifteen treatment combinations comprising of five dates of sowing viz., Ist October, 15th October, 30th October, 15th November and 30th November in main plots and three crop geometry viz., 40 cm x10 cm, 50 cm x 10 cm and 60 cm x 10 cm spacing in sub plots were taken in split plot design with three replications. The results revealed that sowing of dill on 15th October exhibited significantly higher plant height and number of branches per plant at all the growth stages with maximum number of umbels per plant (60.15), umbellates /umbel (44.10) and seeds /umbellate (57.18). The maximum seed weight (4.89 gm), seed yield (1631.75 kg /ha), net returns (Rs. 107222/ha) with highest benefit: cost ratio (15.32) were recorded in the same treatment. Significantly higher plant height at all the growth stages, yield attributes, seed yield (908.57 kg /ha), net returns (Rs. 56600 /ha) and BCR (8.09) were obtained with sowing of dill at 40 cm x 10 cm spacing over wider spacing. Therefore, sowing of dill on 15th October at 40 cm X 10 cm spacing was found most suitable for realising higher growth, seed yield, net returns and BCR.
Keywords: Dill, Agronomic practices, Seed yield, Profitability.

Biography:

K. Jeevan Rao is a Professor & PI in Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural iniversity, serving in the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (Tirupati). He holds a Ph.D degree and carried out extensive experiments on organic waste recycling in agriculture and clearly brought out the effects of urban solid wastes, Industrial effluents and sewage farming on soil and water pollution and its effects on crop growth and heavy metal fractionation and their bioavailability and food chain aspects in agriculture for the last 30 years.

Abstract:

Food grain production in India has made a quantum jump from a mere 50.8 million tonnes in1950-51 to above 255.4 million tonnes by 2012-13(4th estimate). This was made possible by the introduction of dwarf wheat in 1968, which set in the “Green Revolution”. A parallel increase in the consumption of fertilizers from 69.8 thousand tonnes in 1950 to 27.7 million tonnes (N + P2O5 + K2O) was witnessed by 2011-12. Nutrients in an ecosystem recycle through soil organisms, plants, and grazing livestock. Appropriate management can enhance the nutrient cycle, increase productivity, and reduce costs. Rising levels of gases in the Earth’s atmosphere have the potential to cause changes in our climate. Some of these emission increases can be traced directly to organic wastes. Forms of N (NO-3 and NH+4) which are taken up by plants can be made available for crop production through chemical fertilizers, natural and anthropogenic biological N fixation and through recycling of plant and animal wastes. The National Agricultural Policy envisages annual growth of 4 per cent in agricultural production. Government of India has already initiated concerted action to double the agricultural production by 2025, which means increasing production from agricultural crops, horticultural crops, animal husbandry and fishery sectors. The country will need 301 million tonnes of food grains by 2025 to feed its 1.4 billion population. Crops remove nutrients from soil. However, the soil is not an eternal supplier of nutrients required for crops growing on it. There is always a need to supplement the nutrient supply to crops through external sources like fertilizers and manures. Continuous use of inorganic fertilizers might harm the soil though the nutrients are supplied in adequate amounts. Integrated plant nutrient management is the combined application of chemical fertilizers along with organic manures, green manures, bio fertilizers and other organic recyclable materials for crop production. The INM encourages the use of in house organic wastes, which also helps in keeping environment clean and safe. Integrated nutrient management includes the utilization of bio fertilizers such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and Azosprillum to meet part of nitrogen needs of crops. Use of phosphate solubilizing micro organisms (PSM) helps in more efficient utilization of native P and also absorption of P from difficultly available source like rock phosphate. Use of increasing amounts of reactive N in the form of fertilizers in Indian agriculture and proper management of fertilizer N will remain at the forefront of issues to improve the global reactive N balance over both the short and long term. To achieve the tripartite goal of food security, agricultural profitability and environmental quality in a country like India, improving N use efficiency in agriculture will have to be the top priority.

Biography:

M. A. Muhamman is a professor in Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Nigeria.

Abstract:

Field experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 rainy seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria to study the response of cowpea to Aqueous extract of moringa and Nitrogen rates. The need to increase yield of cowpea becomes pertinent due to it is extensive use in households to meet up with the daily protein needs as an alternative to meat which is beyond the reach of a poor. Moringa shoot were crushed with water (10 kg of fresh material in 1 liter of water) and filtered out. Liquid extract were then diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0%, 3%, 4% and 5%. These treatments with 3 N rates (0, 10 and 20 kg N ha-1) in a factorial combination were tested on cowpea in an experiment laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Foliar spraying of aqueous extract of moringa was done at fortnightly from 2 to 8 weeks after sowing. Data were taken on canopy height, number of branches per plant, LAI, pod length and grain yield per hectare and were subjected to analysis of variance. Results showed a significant effect of treatments with interactions on most of the characters measured. Based on the results, it was concluded that moringa extract can compliment N on the production of cowpea. Thus, 20 kg N ha-1 with 4% aqueous extract of moringa should be adopted.
Keywords: Aqueous extract of moringa, Nitrogen and cowpea.

Speaker
Biography:

Malik Ahmed Pasha is pursuing PhD in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology from University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad. He is working on metagenomic analysis of soils with organic and inorganic farm management. Couple of papers based on the outcome of his research is under process.

Abstract:

The structure and role of microbes in soil is a function of soil type, vegetation and the inputs applied to the soil. Five year old experiment of organic and inorganic farming was selected and its bacterial structure was studied at before sowing, seedling, vegetative, flowering and maturity stages of soybean by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). 16S rDNA was amplified with PRBA338GC and PRUN518 primer and the amplicons were separated in 12% polyacrylamide gel containing 20% to 80% chemical denaturant. The gel image was processed by Syngene gene tool software. Range weighted richness method was followed to study species richness and Shannon index for their diversity. Distribution of species in the sample was analysed by Pareto-Lorenz evenness curve and the shift in community structure during growth stages of soybean was studied by moving window analysis. Both the soils at all the stages showed broad carrying capacity and diversity of bacteria, but it is significantly more in organically managed soil. The Pareto-Lorenz evenness curve indicates the functionality of both the soils is highly specialized. Around 65-70 per cent species remain common at all the growth stages indicating majority of the bacteria are influenced by soil type and inputs applied and are moderately affected by root exudates produced by plants. Though, both the soils are similar in structure but organic soil harbour more and diverse bacterial species and hence it is expected that over a period of time more uniform and balanced community with moderate function will be evolved in organically managed soil.

Speaker
Biography:

B. H. Kumara has completed his PhD at the age of 28 years from CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India under the guidance of Dr. R. S. Antil with very good academic performance. He has awarded Senior Research Fellowship from Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Govt. of India for his PhD programme. Now, he is working as a Senior Research Fellow in the Department of Soil Science on a project entitled ‘GPS and GIS based soil fertility mapping in selected districts of Haryana’. He has published three research papers in reputed journals. He attended and presented in International Workshop on Silicon in Agriculture and published his master degree research work in workshops’ compendium. He had training on Remote sensing (GPS, GIS based techniques), ISRO, Department of Space, Govt. of India.

Abstract:

Long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers is a compromise between food security, soil carbon sequestration and nitrogen use efficiency. A long-term field experiment was initiated in 1967 to evaluate the impact of modes and levels of FYM and fertilizer N on soil organic C stock, and C sequestration and nitrogen use efficiency under pearl millet-wheat cropping sequence. Soil organic C stock, C sequestration and nitrogen use efficiency increased significantly with the application of FYM from 0 to 15 Mg ha-1 and fertilizer N from 0 to 120 kg N ha-1 after 43 cycles of pearl millet-wheat cropping sequence. Highest content of soil organic C stock, and C sequestration and nitrogen use efficiency in soil was observed when FYM was applied in both the seasons (kharif and rabi) compared to applied in rabi or kharif season alone. However, application of FYM was found more beneficial in rabi season as compared to its application in kharif season. Highest soil organic C stock, and C sequestration and nitrogen use efficiency in soil was recorded with combined application of 15 Mg FYM and 120 kg N ha-1. The results suggest that after 43 cycles of pearl millet-wheat cropping sequence with continuous application of FYM in different modes and doses of the intervention and N levels maintained better soil nutrients status, which in turn supports better crop productivity, C sequestration and nitrogen use efficiency and can achieve the positive and balanced soil nutrient budget in soil.
Keywords: Long-term, FYM, Nitrogen, C sequestration, Nitrogen Use efficiency.

Biography:

K. Surekha has completed her PhD from ANGR Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India in Soil Science and has been working as Soil Scientist at the Directorate of Rice Research (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) since 1993. She has published around 40 research papers in reputed Journals, 45 papers in Symposia, 25 popular articles and 6 technical bulletins. At present, she is involved in research, training and extension activities.

Abstract:

Nitrogen is the key nutrient element required by rice and its recovery efficiency is low (25-40%). Varieties differ in their ability to absorb and utilize nutrients and genetic variation in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in rice was reported by many workers. Hence, to understand this genetic variation in NUE and to identify efficient rice genotypes for their responsiveness and use of soil and applied N, 45 genotypes were tested at two nitrogen levels (0 and 100 kg N/ha) in three years under field experiments on a black clayey vertisol soil at the Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India. Different parameters of NUE indices were computed using grain yield and nitrogen uptake data.
Based on three years data on grain yield and several NUE indices, genotypes were grouped into efficient (E), responsive (R), efficient and responsive (ER) and non-efficient and non-responsive (NE, NR) varieties. Accordingly, the ER group comprising Varadhan, Akshayadhan, RP bio 4918-248, RP bio 4919-458, DRRH82 and KRH2 is the most ideal group that can perform well under wide range of soil N availability. Next is the efficient group (Swarna, MTU 1010, RP bio 4919-377- 13), that performs better under low soil N conditions and these varieties can be used directly in N limiting soils. The third is responsive group (Rasi, Aditya, Vikas) which can be used in the breeding programme for the development of efficient cultivars.
Thus, rice genotypes differ in their efficiency in utilizing the soil available N and also in their response to added N which can be explored and further utilized in the development of efficient genotypes for N limiting environments. Some genotypes exhibited superior performance over others due to their inherent efficiency in utilizing the soil available N and also response to added N without depleting the soil reserves.

Biography:

Mahmoud H Hozayn is a faculty bin National Research Centre, Agronomy,Egypt.

Abstract:

Egypt's agricultural sector is facing a major challenge to produce more food with less amounts of water, especially under scarcity of water locally and internationally. Agricultural sciences take an interest not only in the common and valued crop-forming factors, but also in those less expensive and generally underestimated, though more pro-ecological ones, such as ionizing, laser or ultraviolet radiation and magnetic fields. The water treated by the magnetic field or pass through a magnetic device called magnetized water. There have been many investigations on the effects of low frequency electric and magnetic fields on plants. It has been shown that a magnetic field (MF) has effects on the normal functions of living things. A magnetic field was shown to induce seed germination, reproduction and growth of the meristic cells and chlorophyll quantities, plant growth and development, the ripening, yield and quality of different crops. Moreover, data recorded from these studies showed that, decrease of soil alkalinity, increase in mobile forms of fertilizers and reduction of scale in irrigation pipe. So, use of magnetic technology in agriculture is considered to be one of the non-conventional technology, economic, safe healthy and environmentally and promising to improve productivity of various crops and water use efficiency. Therefore, this technology has been developed and subsequently used widely in the field of agriculture in many countries such as (Russia, Australia, USA, China and Japan). Desperate its importance, it is not yet explored in Egypt.
Our experiments whether published or under publication recorded that irrigation plants with magnetic water under field conditions in Nubaria, Wadi El-Natorun and Ismailia regions tended to improve growth, metabolism, quality and productivity of tested crops (wheat - barley and maize as grains, faba bean - lentils - chickpeas � ground nut, soybeans, mungbean as legume, sunflower - flax and canola as oil, sugar beet as one of the sugar crops and potatoes as vegetable crops). These increases ranged from 8.25 to 42.00% in economic yield (ton/fed.) according to the crop. Similar trend was recorded for water use efficiency. As well as, the results showed significant increase in quality attributes (protein, oil, carbohydrates, sugar, macro and minor elements, fatty acids and amino acids contents) according to type of plants. It was also observed significant increases in yield of barley, flax and safflower plants grown under salt stress conditions (either in the water or soil) in the area of Wadi Natroun. In a short preliminary biological study a conclusion emphasized that the magnetic water hasn't any side effects or complications in the biological system.
Keywords: Magnetic water-Field crops- Yield-Quality.

Biography:

R. K. Singh has completed his PhD from G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pant Nagar, Uttarakhand. He is working as senior scientist in Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. He has published approximately 20 papers in National and International journals.

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal to evaluate the influence of crop covers on soil organic carbon, runoff, soil and nutrient losses through runoff and crop productivity in vertisols of Central India. Seven treatments consisted of three sole crop cover viz., soybean, maize and pigeon pea and three intercrop covers namely soybean+ maize (1:1), soybean + pigeon pea (2:1) and maize + pigeon pea (1:1) along with one cultivated fallow (control). Results revealed that among the crop cover treatments, the runoff and soil loss was significantly higher under sole pigeon pea (177mm and 2.15 t ha-1 followed by sole maize (167mm and 1.99 t ha-1), maize + pigeon pea (140mm and 1.60), soybean + maize (135 and 1.48 t ha-1), soybean + pigeon pea (132mm and 1.34 t ha-1) intercrops and lowest was under soybean sole crop (132 mm and 1.48 t ha-1). The highest runoff and soil loss was recorded higher under cultivated fallow as compared to sole as well as intercrops. In relation to nutrient losses, the losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) were lower under sole soybean and its intercrops as compared to sole crops of maize and pigeon pea. However, the losses of SOC and total NPK were the highest under cultivated fallow over sole and inter crops. In term of system productivity, maize + pigeon pea (1:1) and soybean + maize (2:1) as a intercrop are the best options in reducing runoff, soil –nutrient losses and sustaining crop productivity of system in Vertisols of Central India.

Biography:

Soumen Ghosal is a Principal Scientist in Lac Production Division ,Indian Institute of Natural Resins & Gums India.

Abstract:

Lac cultivation is a profitable venture for the farmers of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal etc. Rangeeni strain of lac insect is cultivated mainly on Palas (Butea mononperma) which is found abundantly in the lac growing regions. Lac yield from palas tree is relatively less in comparison to other hosts. An experiment comprising different levels of growth factors like liming (liming as per recommendation and no liming) and potassium (0, 500 and 1000 g/ tree) to make 6 treatment combinations replicated five times was conducted in the research farm of Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Ranchi during 2010-11 to 2012-13 to study the effect of soil fertility on rangeeni lac yield in the summer season (Oct/ Nov to June/July) on medium sized trees. Shoot age was 2.5 years for the first year and 7 months for next two years. Findings of the experiment visualized that Lac yield ratio obtained in liming was 71 percent higher compared to no liming in case of 7 months age of shoots. However, no significant difference in lac yield ratio was observed in case of 2.5 years old shoots. Its effect was also reflected on yield attribute like sticklac weight per 100 g broodlac. Increased soil fertility due to liming might have supplied better nutrition to the host and the host in turn could supply better nutrition to the insect. Lac yield increased significantly (4 to 7 times) if rest period is increased to 2.5 years for medium sized trees. Interaction effect of liming and potassium was found to be significant in case of 7 months old shoots. Effect of potassium application was observed in the absence of liming and the highest dose could increase lac yield 2.8 times than that of control on 7 months old shoots. Similarly, liming in the absence of potassium application proved to be the best treatment and response of liming decreased steadily with increase in level of potassium. Applied potassium might have facilitated host to support nutrition of lac insect in a better way which ultimately increased lac yield.
Keywords: Income, Lac yield, soil fertility, shoot age.

Biography:

R .Mahendra Kumar Senior Scientist inDepartment of Agronomy Directorate of Rice Research Rajendranagar.Area of Specialization in Management of rice and rice based cropping system.Active Field of Work in Developing suitable SRI Methodology for wide scale adaptability in India. Major Achievements : Worked in Japan for a period of 9 months on rice cultivation technology.cultivation technology. ‘P’ management in rice and rice based cropping system. Development of leaf color chat for ‘N’ management in rice. Agro technology for hybrid rice cultivation .Package of practices for SRI cultivation.

Abstract:

Rice productivity will get affected due to climate change induced higher temperatures which will increase crops water requirements and further every 10 C increase in mean temperature results in corresponding 7% decline in rice yield and sustainability. Hence, there is a need to identify and popularize suitable technologies for promoting sustainability especially in rice which consumes more than 50% of the total irrigation water for agriculture in India. Experiments were conducted at Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India during 2008-10 (4 seasons) to assess the potential of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in comparison to standard normal transplanting (NTP) under flooded condition. Long term studies clearly indicated that grain yield was significantly higher in SRI-organic + inorganic (12-23% and 4-35% in Kharif and Rabi seasons, respectively) while in the SRI-organic, the yield was found higher (4-34%) only in the Rabi seasons over NTP. Sustainable yield indices (SYI) were computed based on the 4 years of grain yield recorded over the years clearly indicated the superiority of SRI (inorganic + organic) over Normal transplanted with similar inputs. Further SRI method is more stable interms of the sustainability (0.56) over NTP with similar inputs (0.52). By taking in to account all the factors that determine the adoption of SRI such as proper locations, soil conditions, water control facilities etc., it may be possible to cover about 10% of total rice area (about 4.0 m ha) in India which can bring about tremendous benefits for the country in terms of input use efficiency and sustainability. There could be enormous saving in seed (80,000 tonnes of seeds annually equivalent to RS.200 crores per season) and the system also helps us to save about 30% water which is equivalent to 2200 million m3 besides, soil health improvement which would be a biggest bonus in adopting SRI.

Speaker
Biography:

M L Dotaniya is presently Scientist at Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, India, under the ministry of agriculture, New Delhi. He had obtained M. Sc. in Soil Science from GBPUA&T, Pantnagar on Crop Residue Management in rice-wheat cropping system, and PhD degree in Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry from IARI, New Delhi on Phosphorus Dynamics in relation to Organic Acids. Presently he is working on heavy metal interaction and, soil & water pollution. He has published more than 15 research papers/reviews in National and International Journal/ symposium/ conference of repute.

Abstract:

With the growing competition for water and the declining freshwater resources across the globe, utilization of marginal quality water for agriculture has posed a new challenge for environmental management. The continuous application of tannery effluent for crop production, build a significant amount of heavy metals specially chromium and alter the physio -chemical properties of soil. In recent years, contamination of the environment by chromium has become a major concern. It is unique amongst the heavy metals found in tannery and industrial waste water and sewage and sludge. Keeping in the above view, Geo referred effluent, soil and ground water samples were collected from the Kanpur region. Physico-chemical properties (pH, EC, organic carbon) and toxic metals viz. Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, As and Cd in soil and tannery effluent were analyzed. Soil pH was slightly in the alkaline range at source point and field. Among the total heavy metals Cr concentration was 0.77 to 2.16 and 252.4 to 971.7 ppm in effluent and soil, respectively. In few locations, toxic metals concentration was found higher than the permissible limit of irrigation and drinking water. Higher amount of organic matter in the effluent buildup significant amount of organic carbon (0.72-1.52%) in soil. Continuous use of tannery effluent for irrigation purpose, also affected heavy metal concentration, pH and EC of ground water.

Speaker
Biography:

T. N. V. K. V. Prasad is now Senior Scientist and in-charge of Nanotechnology laboratory at Institute of Frontier Technology Tirupati, and recognized as "National Resource Person in Nanotechnology", India. He got his PhD in Physics with Material Science specialization from Andhra University, India. Dr. Prasad has awarded Endeavour Research Award from the Government of Australia in 2010 for his post doctoral research. He introduced the concept agri-nanotechnology (Applications of nanotechnology in agriculture and allied science) and filed two patents. So far, published more than 65 research papers in peer-reviewed journals and authored two book chapters and coined the term “Phyconanotechnology”. Dr. Prasad has visited several universities as a high-level delegate and as visiting scientist including Johns Hopkins University, USA, University of Kentucky, USA, Kansas State University, USA, Tuskegee University, USA, and University of Florida, USA, University of South Australia, Australia. Currently, Dr. Prasad's research focus is on the development of agriculturally beneficial nanomaterials and their applications in agriculture and allied sciences.

Abstract:

Systematic prioritization of application of nanotechnology has revealed interesting challenges in biology, agriculture in particular. Agriculture has long been dealt with improving the efficiency of crop production, food processing, food safety and environmental consequences of food production, storage and distribution. Nanotechnology provides new tools to pursue these historically relevant goals in agriculture and allied sciences. Conceptual designing and synthesis of the target specific nanomaterials is been an interesting task to scientific community. A specially designed nanoscale zinc oxide particles enhanced the productivity of peanut at field scale to an extent of 30 percent compared to the existing productivity levels. Nano scale calcium oxide particles are effective in the remediation of sodic soils compared to the existing materials. Aloin coated green synthesized silver nanoparticles showed novel antimicrobial activity against bovine mastitis. Phytogenic silver nanoparticles from maize leaf extract exhibited novel toxic properties to control aflotoxin contamination in broilers. Plant extracts of different crops are proved to be potential biosources to produce metallic nanoparticles. Nanoparticle encapsulated natural food colours lasted in relatively longer periods of time when they are mixed in the food. Thus, rapid growth in nanotechnological applications in agriculture and allied sciences lead to the development of an inter-disciplinary conceptual approach, agri-nanotechnology.

Speaker
Biography:

MK Jatav has completed his PhD at the age of 30 years from Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur (Rajasthan) 313001. He is Senior Scientist of Soil Science in Crop Production Division at Central Institute for Arid Horticulture (ICAR), Bikaner (Rajasthan), India, a premier Arid Horticulture institute/organization. He has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Effectiveness of potato seed inoculation with Azotobacter for improving potato yield was assessed in field experiments under graded doses of nitrogen application viz 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg N/ha. The data revealed that Azotobacter inoculation significantly increased the tuber yield with graded doses of nitrogen compared with control. Application of 120 kg N/ha along with Azotobacter inoculation gave highest tuber yield (211.72 q/ha) which was 6 q/ha higher yield and statistically at par with 120 kg N/ha (205.75 q/ha). Application 120 kg N/ha was statistically was at par with 90 kg N/ha + Azotobacter (201.56 q/ha). Higher mean of yield, nitrogen uptake, nitrogen use efficiency and apparent nutrient recovery were observed from seed inoculation with Azotobacter as compared to without seed inoculation with Azotobacter. This study indicates the beneficial effects of Azotobacter inoculation on tuber yield and 12.5 to 18.8 kg/ha nitrogen can be saved with the seed inoculation by Azotobacter for yield target ranges from 150 to 200 q/ha. It may be concluded that combined application of nitrogen fertilizer along with tuber inoculation with Azotobacter can be effective in reducing the nitrogen fertilizer dose by approximately 19 kg /ha. Besides saving fertilizer, this treatment also showed increased nitrogen use efficiency, apparent nutrient recovery and per cent yield response.

Biography:

B. Sreedevi is a Principal Scientist (Agronomy) at Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. She is working on agronomic aspects of different rice establishment methods and involved in Agronomy program of All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Program. She has published 12 papers and 11 popular articles in reputed journals and magazines, one Book, three Technical Bulletins.

Abstract:

The great global challenge for the coming years will be how to produce more food with less water. Of all the crops grown under irrigation, more than 50-60% of the irrigation water is used for rice, the staple food for nearly half the world's population. Water scarcity will be a threat to food security in Asian region, since > 90% of the world's rice is produced and consumed in this region. Rice is unique that grows well both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic rice is grown on dry but irrigated soils like other irrigated dry crops like wheat and barley with the aim of minimizing the water requirements of rice, but at the same time retaining the high yielding ability and input responsive characteristics of irrigated lowland varieties. Results of the experiments conducted at DRR Research Farm showed that Hybrids or High Yielding Varieties of mid early, medium duration, drought tolerance & weed competitiveness are suitable for dry seeding in lines of 20 cm, one week before/immediately after the onset of monsoon. Fertilizer schedule of normal transplanted rice is sufficient with Nitrogen in 3/4 splits and partial substitution of Nitrogen, Phosphorus by biofertilizers viz., Azospirillum, Phosphorus solubilising bacteria @ 5 kg/ha for 20-25% chemical fertilizer requirement. The yields of aerobic rice are close (around 10%less) to those irrigated lowlands, but with water savings of around 40%. Weeds, one of the major constraint can be managed with preemergence application of pendimethalin and post emergence application of bispyribacsodium at 2-5 leaf stage of weeds.

Biography:

Dubey was born on Dec. 23, 1955 in Dist. Siwan (Bihar). He obtained M.Sc. degree in Biochemistry from Banaras Hindu University in 1976 standing 1st in order of merit and Ph.D. degree in Biochemistry in 1980. He possesses over 37 years of experience of research and over 31 years experience of teaching. He served as Scientist S-1 in Indian Council of Agricultural Research for 4 years (during 1978-82), Lecturer at Banaras Hindu University for 8 years (during 1983-1991), Reader for 8 years (from 1991 to 1999) and Professor of Biochemistry at Banaras Hindu University for 15 years. At Banaras Hindu University he has served in various capacities in educational administration such as Head of the Department of Biochemistry for 9½ years (for 4 terms) during 1992-1995, 1997, 2002-2004 and 2011-2013; Professor-In-Charge of BHU Library for over 2 years (September 6, 2006 to December 20, 2008), Coordinator of Hindi Publication Board of BHU for over 6 years (2002-2008) and Coordinator of Alumni Cell of BHU for 2 years (from May 8, 2009 to Nov 4, 2011). He has served as Member in different authorities of other universities such as Member of the Academic Council of Central University of Rajasthan, Member of the Academic Council of Central University of Himachal Pradesh and Member of the Court of North Eastern Hill University, Shillong being nominated by Government of India. Twenty six students have received Ph.D. degrees under his supervision. He has published 138 scientific research articles in national and international peer reviewed journals including 22 Chapters in books. His research interests have been focused in the areas of Stress Metabolism in Crop Plants, Bacterial Enterotoxins and Enzyme Technology. His research contributions have been widely cited by more than 3,800 authors (with h-Index 29 and i-10 Index 60) in various Scientific Articles, Reviews, etc., as evidenced from Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com/citations?user=S76rQVEAAAAJ). He has been recognized as one of the TOP-TEN MOST CITED AUTHORS by ELSEVIER publications for the years 2003-2008 for his work published in the journal Plant Science. He has completed 6 major scientific Research projects funded by national funding agencies like ICAR, MOEn, UGC, DST, etc. He is recipient of Banaras Hindu University Medal in 1976 for securing 1st rank in M.Sc.(Biochemistry) examination, Young Scientist Award by Indian Science Congress Association in 1982. After receiving Swedish Institute Fellowship in 1989 he worked at University of Gothenburg, SWEDEN for one year. He was nominated by Indian National Science Academy (INSA, New Delhi) under INSA-DFG (German Academy of Science) exchange programme for three terms of 3 months each and worked in GERMANY at Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research Institute, Gaterslaben in the year 1997 and at Institute of Plant Nutrition, Hannover during 2003 and 2007. He was awarded the prestigious JSPS (Japan Society for Promotion of Science) Fellowship and worked at Kyushu University, Japan during May 1998-March 1999 and at the Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University, Japan during May 16-July 14, 2005. At Banaras Hindu University as Organizing Secretary, he organized 2 International and 3 national Seminars during 1995-2010. He is Life Member of many Indian Professional Scientific bodies like Indian Science Congress Association, Society of Biological Chemists (India), Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Indian Chemical Society and Indian Society of Agricultural Biochemists. He has served as Member in Executive Committees of Indian Society for Agricultural Biochemists and Society of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology. He is a Fellow of Indian Society of Agricultural Biochemists (FISAB), Biotech Research Society (FBRS) of India and Bioved Research Society of India.

Abstract:

Elevated levels of the metals like Cd, Pb, Ni, As, Al in the soil are major challenges in achieving sustainable food production. Industrial activities, waste disposal practices, smelting, alloy processing, indiscriminate use of pesticides and fertilizers add several metals at high levels into the soil environment. Using rice as a model crop we have examined the effects of increasing concentrations of the metals Cd, Pb, Ni, As, Al in the growth medium of rice plants on growth parameters, key metabolic alterations with special reference to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radical, H2O2, induction of oxidative stress marked by lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, the levels of antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione, activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase as well as proteomic changes in rice plants in sand cultures and hydroponics. Our studies have revealed that oxidative stress is a major contributor involved in metal toxicity induced damage in rice plants. The extent of oxidative injury caused by the individual metals to protein thiols, lipids, and nucleic acids, the role of various isoforms of antioxidative enzymes in combating the oxidative injury, and the specific proteins which are induced under metal toxicity and which could be correlated with metal tolerance have been examined. A unique role of Fe-dependent superoxide dismutase in conferring Al tolerance has been established. Using proteomics approaches, we have identified metal toxicity induced differential expression of many novel proteins such as under-expressed, over-expressed and newly synthesized metal-specific proteins in tissues of rice plants, differing in metal tolerance. Further, the possible alleviation of metal toxicity using salicylic acid and extracts of various plants has been examined. The biochemical parameters associated with tolerance to these metals could be used to engineer metal tolerant crop plants and these parameters would also serve as effective markers for selection of stress tolerant lines in breeding programmes.

Biography:

Rajeshwar Malavath has completed his PhD from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore. He has around 10 years of experience both as Mandal Agricultural Officer for about 2 years and in Research and Transfer of technology in Agricultural University for about 8 years. He has consistently good academic record and has Attended 5 training programmes and presented paper at 10 national conference/ workshops. He was also awarded the best extension officer award by the Department of Agriculture and best scientist award during sankranti puraskaralu. He has published 15 research articles in reputed journals. In addition he has published 22 popular articles for the welfare of farming community. At present he is actively involved in teaching a P.G and U.G courses in agriculture besides getting actively involved in offering advisory services through soil health care laboratory.

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted both in black cotton and red chalka soils during kharif 2008-09 and 2009-10 seasons in Adilabad District of Andhra Pradesh at six different locations through farmers participatory mode to find out the response of BG-II cotton hybrids under two different spacings in rainfed conditions. These experiments were carried out by the District Agricultural Advisory and Transfer of Technology Center, Adilabad in collaboration with ATMA project functioning at Adilabad. Three cotton hybrids viz., Mallika BG-II, Rasi BG-II and Paras Brahma BG -II which are most popular among the farmers were sown under two different spacings in different soils. The data revealed that, hybrids did not differ significantly in plant height, number of sympodial branches/plant, number of bolls/plant, boll weight and kapas yield in both the years of testing and also in both the soils. But, spacings had significantly influenced number of bolls/plant, boll weight and kapas yield. However, interaction effect was significant only for plant height. Closer spacing of 60 x 60 cm in red chalka soils (2033 and 2253 kg ha-1) and 90 x 60 cm in BC soils (2300 and 2450 kg ha-1) gave significantly higher kapas yield than wider spacing of 90 x 90 cm (1500 and 1863 kg ha-1) and 120 x 90 cm (1767 and 1983kg ha-1) during both the years of investigation respectively. Thus it is concluded that Bt hybrids need to be planted with higher plant density to realize good yields.
Keywords: Bt Cotton Hybrids, plant population, Rainfed Condition Red sandy Soils and Black Cotton Soils.

Biography:

Umesh Rangappa is working as Assistant Professor at University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, India.

Abstract:

Crop biomass and yield is a product of conversion of radiant flux into energy through photosynthesis. Extent of utilization of this energy by the crop plants in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) reflect on the yield. The success of component crops in crop mixture mainly depends on use of radiant energy available at lower layers of the crop canopy. The study was hypothesized that altered crop geometry could enhance the space for component crop to harness more solar radiation. A field trial was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station, Raichur, Karnataka, India in 2012 rainy season. Treatments consist of different planting geometries and fertilizer application rates laid out in RCBD with three replications. Geometries were altered intra row spacing by putting 2, 3 and 4 number seeds/hill to adjust changed spacing and uniform inter row spacing compared with recommended spacing and paired rows. Light interception was measured at different intervals using ceptometer. Results of the study indicated that fertilizer applied at 225-112.5- 56.25 kg N-P-K/ha in three splits was better than blanket application. A graded fertilizer application rate was required for clumped plants due to increased competition between plants. When fertilizes applied in three splits have the advantages of available nutrients during later part of the crop growth. Maize plants are grown in clumps at 60 x 40 cm spacing with 2 seeds/hill found effective in achieving higher grain and stover yield than equidistant plant. Reduced biomass production indicated by lower LAI in clumps during vegetative stage may helpful in conserving soil moisture and utilize for later part of the season. Clump planting will be a useful strategy in maize production for achieving maximum utilization of solar radiation in crop combinations.

Speaker
Biography:

R. Gopinadh is working as Assistant Professor at GITAM University, India. He has published many paper on  Downstream Processing, Industrial Biotechnology, Bioprocess Engineering.

Abstract:

Citric acid is the most important organic acid produced in tonnage and is extensively used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It is produced mainly by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger and alternative sources of carbon such as agriculture raw materials have been intensively studied showing great perspective to its production. Citric acid is produced from Mahua flower by submerged state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger MTCC 282. There is a great worldwide demand for citric acid consumption due to its low toxicity when compared with other acidulates. Other applications of citric acid can be found in detergents and cleaning products, cosmetics and toiletries. Global production of citric acid has reached 1.4 million tones and there is annual growth of 3.5-4.0 % in demand/consumption of citric acid. As a result of the adverse market conditions, only big producers have survived. Any increase in citric acid productivity would be of potential interest and hence there is an obvious need to consider all possible ways in which this might be achieved. The production by submerged fermentation is still dominating. A cost reduction in citric acid production can be achieved by using less expensive substrate. The use of Mahua flower as support in submerged fermentation is economically important and minimizes environmental problems. Mahua (Madhuca indica), a member of the family sapotaceae, is an Indian subtropical tree, grown throughout India. Mahua is valued much for its flowers, fruits and seed. The mahua flowers are rich in sugars, varying from 21 to 25% in fresh flowers and 55 to 58% in dried flowers. The flowers are also rich in vitamins (Vit A and Vit C), minerals and calcium and are regarded as cooling tonic and demulant. Mahua flowers can be utilized in different food preparations, alcohols, bakery products, vinegar and syrup. Spent flowers (after fermentation) can be used as a cattle feed. The Mahua fruit is berry-like and egg shaped, highly rich in sugars and is utilized for making the absolute alcohol. A mature Mahua tree can produce around 200kg of seeds annually. Seeds are much valued for its edible oil. The major unsaturated fatty acid found in mahua oil is linoleic acid, which has therapeutic use in reducing the cholesterol content in the blood serum and is therefore recommended to heart patients. While Mahua seeds are used for soap manufacturing, its oil is used in lubricating grease, candles, medicine for skin diseases, rheumatism, headache and laxatives. Mahua seeds may also be used for the preparation of defatted flour, which has greater potentiality in bakery products. Seed cakes obtained after extraction of oil constitutes fertilizer and it has also an insecticidal properties.

Sukiasyan Astghik

State Engineering University of Armenia (Polytechnic), Armenia

Title: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress
Biography:

Astghik Sukiasyan is Doctor of Biology (Candidate of science) from Yerevan State University. During her stay, she has learning different biophysical and biochemical properties related to metabolism and growth of plant. She is Assistant Professor in State Engineering University of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia. Her areas of interesting is antioxidant properties, accumulation of heavy metals and other adaptation to abiotic stress of plant. She has published more 50 papers in National and International Journal.

Abstract:

Bulking obsidian has a high porosity, water absorption, and high enough water retention. This prevents soil compaction, increases the filtration and ventilation of deep root systems of plants, and promotes root development, the growth of plants in the root zone to keep enough water. We as aerator soil to stamp out the toxic effect of heavy metals to be used obsidian expanded. Obsidian is an undesirable material for the production of crushed stone, sand lithoidal pumice and perlite. In this obsidian becomes waste. The volcanic glass is obsidian, the amount of water that does not exceed 1%. Bulking obsidian fractions 5 ... 20 mm occurs at 1050 ... 11500C for 3 ... 10 min. In this case, a lightweight porous material with an average density is 180 ... 350 kg/m3. Study of physico-mechanical properties of the bulked obsidian showed that the compressive strength of 4.5 ... 9.9 MPa, the porosity is in the range 80 ... 89%, water absorption is 10.8 ... 15.5% (wt.). The pores in the bulked obsidian generally with each other and one-way open, interconnected pores consist of 10 ... 25%, and the number of double-sided open pores (capillaries) 8 ... 20% of the total number of pores. It was bulked experimentally that the addition of bulked obsidian in the amount of 0.5-2.0 g per 1.0 kg of clay and gray-meadow soils have a positive effect on the growth of barley: the stalk of the plant is increased from 170 to 200%, root length by 180 to 210%, and the dry weight from 215 to 300%. Water retention after 20 days of 25-32%, 40 days 13,5-22%, after 60 days of 5-13%. Thus, bulked obsidian has high porosity sufficiently high water retention and water absorption. In this aerator prevents soil compaction high number of heavy metals. When impregnated that bulked obsidian special solutions of which will be located in the pores and hold out in ground water, gradually, as necessary give them to the plants. Thus bulked obsidian reduce rates of fertilizer will reduce the amount of heavy metals in products, groundwater pollution, the need for frequent watering and save water consumption.
Keywords: bulking obsidian, soil aerator, water retention, plant.

Biography:

Umesh Rangappa is working as Assistant Professor at University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, India.

Abstract:

Crop biomass and yield is a product of conversion of radiant flux into energy through photosynthesis. Extent of utilization of this energy by the crop plants in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) reflect on the yield. The success of component crops in crop mixture mainly depends on use of radiant energy available at lower layers of the crop canopy. The study was hypothesized that altered crop geometry could enhance the space for component crop to harness more solar radiation. A field trial was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station, Raichur, Karnataka, India in 2012 rainy season. Treatments consist of different planting geometries and fertilizer application rates laid out in RCBD with three replications. Geometries were altered intra row spacing by putting 2, 3 and 4 number seeds/hill to adjust changed spacing and uniform inter row spacing compared with recommended spacing and paired rows. Light interception was measured at different intervals using ceptometer. Results of the study indicated that fertilizer applied at 225-112.5- 56.25 kg N-P-K/ha in three splits was better than blanket application. A graded fertilizer application rate was required for clumped plants due to increased competition between plants. When fertilizes applied in three splits have the advantages of available nutrients during later part of the crop growth. Maize plants are grown in clumps at 60 x 40 cm spacing with 2 seeds/hill found effective in achieving higher grain and stover yield than equidistant plant. Reduced biomass production indicated by lower LAI in clumps during vegetative stage may helpful in conserving soil moisture and utilize for later part of the season. Clump planting will be a useful strategy in maize production for achieving maximum utilization of solar radiation in crop combinations.

Biography:

Shmulik Friedman has completed his PhD at the age of 35 years from Hebrew University of Jerusalem and postdoctoral studies from Cambridge University. He is a senior research scientist in the department of Environmental Physics and Irrigation of the Israeli ARO. He has published more than 60 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

The DIDAS software package was developed for the purpose of assisting irrigators in the design of drip irrigation systems and in irrigation scheduling. The program performs computations based on analytical solutions of the relevant linearized water flow and uptake problems. Water flow is described by superposition of solutions for positive sources (on-surface or subsurface emitters) and negative sources (plant root systems). Steady water flow is assumed in the design module and unsteady flow is used in the irrigation scheduling module. The design tool is based on a new, relative water uptake rate (RWUR, ratio between water uptake rate and irrigation rate) criterion suggested for deciding upon the distances between emitters along drip lines and between drip lines. The maximum possible RWUR is evaluated assuming no soil-plant-atmosphere resistance to water uptake. Namely, the plant roots apply maximum possible suction and the water uptake is determined just by the capability of the soil to conduct water from the sources (emitters) to the sinks (rooting zones). The computations of the RWUR requires only a minimum number of three parameters describing the soil texture, the size of the root zone and the potential evaporation, in the few cases when it is important to account for also evaporation form the soil surface. The irrigation scheduling optimizing tool is based on a relative water uptake volume (RWUV, ratio between daily water uptake volume and daily irrigation volume) criterion. The computations of the diurnal patterns of the water uptake rates and the daily RWUV for a given irrigation scenario require additional information on the diurnal pattern of the plant resistance to water uptake and on the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. DIDAS was programmed in DELPHI and it runs on any Windows operating system-PC, with no further software requirements. The construction of the drip irrigation scenario is performed via few GUI windows, which contain also a library of the required input parameters, and several best-fitting procedures. The computed RWURs and RWUVs are displayed graphically and the tabulated output results can be exported to e.g., Windows Excel for further processing. A beta version of the DIDAS freeware package can be downloaded from the web site of the Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, ARO.

Asit Mandal

Indian Institute of Soil Science, India

Title: Soil microbial diversity in relation to climate change
Speaker
Biography:

Asit Mandal has completed his PhD at the age of 29 years from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. Presently, he is the working as scientist, IISS, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, a premier institute of Natural Resource Management of ICAR. He has developed expertise in the field of soil biodiversity and bioremediation. He has also more than 7 research papers in the international journals and received two awards and gold medal from the soil science society. He has memberships in many scientific societies like Indian Society of Soil Science, Soil Conservation Society of India and Indian Science Congress Association.

Abstract:

Climate change and global warming can have significant impacts on all the soil biodiversity and biological activity and soil ecological function. These impacts can be directly or indirectly linked to the alteration of the most important climatic parameters (e.g., temperature, humidity). Soil biodiversity is more extensive than any other environment on the globe when all living forms are considered. The soil biota contains representations of all groups of microorganism like fungi, bacteria, algae and viruses, as well as the microfauna such as protozoa and nematodes. Today, disturbance regimes are changing drastically under the combined effects of climate change, biological invasions and direct human modifications of the environment. However, it remains very difficult to assess and predict how soil communities will respond to these disturbances. Environmental variability is an integral part of the dynamics of ecosystems, and some disturbances are unavoidable. Climate change may intensify these seasonal disturbances, stretching the limits more towards those of extreme events. Climate change is likely to have significant impacts on soils that may affect all of the services provided by soil biodiversity; indeed the quantification of these impacts is needed. In any case, all mitigation and attenuation measures taken to limit global climate change are expected to have a beneficial impact on soil biodiversity preservation, soil functioning and associated services.

  • Track 1: Crop Breeding and Genetics
Speaker

Chair

Nnadozie Oraguzie

Washington State University, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Sanjay Singh

Directorate of Wheat Research, India

Biography:

K. L. Mary Rani has completed her Ph.D. in Computer Applications from Sri Padmavathi Mahila Viswa Vidyalayam and is presently working as Scientist at Directorate of Oil Palm Research, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract:

Oil palm requires adequate irrigation, as it is a fast growing crop with high productivity and biomass production. It is also a heavy feeder and demands a balanced and adequate supply of macro, secondary and micro - nutrients for its growth and yield. Fertilizer requirement under irrigated conditions is being studied under fertigation to standardize the fertilizer dosage and improve nutrient use efficiency. Also, the water requirement using the drip and micro irrigation methods is being studied to standardize the water-use efficiency. For these studies, the palm-wise data needs to be compiled and analysed to know the performance of the crop for various fertilizer and irrigation levels. Requirement analysis was done to identify the input output characteristics of the experiments. Database modules were designed and developed in MS Access using the Visual Basic for Applications to record the palm-wise data on different characters and to retrieve information in the form of various reports for the selected period of various duration like day, month and year. User friendly screens were designed for this purpose. The software enables to retrieve the data on treatment means for various parameters and export it to Excel format for further analysis using any statistical software. The software was tested for its function and is implemented.

Biography:

V.Prakasam is currently working as Scientist of Plant Pathology at ICAR-Directorate of Rice Research (DRR), Rajendra Nagar,Hyderabad,India. 

Abstract:

Sheath blight (ShB) in rice is an important soil-borne fungal disease (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn) causing up to 50% of yield losses. Sheath blight pathogen survives from one crop season to another through sclerotia and mycelia in plant debris and also through weed hosts in tropical environments. Use of resistant variety is always a farmer's and environment friendly method of managing the disease at less cost without any harm to our environment. Breeding for ShB resistance has been difficult, mainly because of the lack of identified resistant donors in cultivated varieties. To date, no rice variety has been found to be immune to R. solani, although cultivars with low levels of resistance have been reported. Presently, no strong genetic sources of resistance are reported against rice ShB disease. Hence, management of this disease can be done effectively with the help of available chemicals. The experiment was conducted with an objective to evaluate some new and commercially available fungicides against sheath blight of rice during kharif-2012 and 2013 at Directorate of Rice research (DRR), Hyderabad. Among the six treatments trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50 % (Native 75 % WG) @ 0.4 g/l reduced the disease severity (21%) as well as incidence (25%) compared to check (DS - 54.1%). It was followed by azoxystrobin 25 SC (@ 1ml/l is reducing the sheath blight disease severity. Grain yield in the experimental plots were recorded, all the treatments increased the grain yield compared to check (1637 Kg/ha). Highest yield was recorded in the plots received trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50% @ 0.4g/l treatment (4868 Kg/ha) followed by azoxystrobin 25 SC (4741 Kg/ha).

Speaker
Biography:

Nnadozie Oraguzie received his PhD in Plant breeding and genetics at Lincoln University, New Zealand and worked for a year as a Post-Doctoral researcher at Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand, before joining Plant and Food Research (PFR) Institute, New Zealand as Research Scientist in 1998. At PFR, he was the Manager of the national pome fruit germplasm collection and an Objective Leader in the Pome fruit breeding consortium program. With the help of a fellowship from the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan in 2001, he led an international collaboration including PFR, Hirosaki University and the National Institute of Tree Fruit Science, Morioka, Japan, that first linked an allele of the Md-ACS1 gene to fruit softening in apple. He was also the recipient of an Invitation Fellowship from the Japan Ministry of Science and Technology in 2006. He joined the faculty of Washington State University (WSU) in 2008 as Associate Professor. He has authored over 40 peer-reviewed journal publications and a book, and currently serves on the editorial board of two journals.

Abstract:

Marker-assisted breeding (MAB) holds the promise of improving breeding efficiency, delivering superior new cultivars to industry with expenditure of fewer resources and in less time. However, there are few cases of routine implementation of MAB in tree fruit breeding. A gap exists between genomics research that identifies marker-trait associations and its practical application to aid breeding decisions. Sweet cherry lags behind in genomic and genetic resources unlike other Rosaceae fruit crops including apple, peach, strawberry and pear. More recently, a SNP genome scan including a 6K Infinium array was developed in sweet cherry. The SNPs were chosen to be evenly spaced over the genome, anchored to the peach whole genome sequence. The germplasm comprise 600 pedigree-linked individuals including the Crop Reference Setand the Breeding Pedigree Set representing founders, important breeding parents, advanced selections, and seedling populations. The pedigree structure of cultivated cherry spans only 5-6 generations with very few missing ancestors and low genetic diversity, facilitating our identity-by-descent approach to detect and characterize valuable QTLs for many fruit attributes. Many of these marker-locus-trait associations are described while only MAB for fruit size and self-fruit-fulness will be illustrated with utility for providing knowledge on fruit size genetic potential and self-(in) compatibility of prospective parents to aid crossing decisions, and as tools for culling seedlings predicted to have small fruit before field planting.

Speaker
Biography:

Homero Ramirez has completed his PhD from Bristol University, UK, and has made an extensive contribution in production systems design for developing countries. He is the delegate of MEXICO for ISHS, a well-known world-wide horticulture organization. He has directed over 100 research thesis for undergraduate and postgraduate students and has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of several reputed scientific plant physiology and horticulture journals.

Abstract:

Prohexadione-Ca (P-Ca) is a growth retardant which has extensively been used in decidous fruit species; particularly in apple trees. This chemical is a plant bioregulator that is primarily used to reduce excessive vegetative growth; increase fruit set and improve fruit quality. However expertise of this compound on vegetables crops is scarse. Therefore, its effect and mode of action on this line may contribute to extend the uses of this growth retardant in horticulture. The present research was conducted with the purpose of learning on the effects of prohexadione-Ca on final plant height, yield and fruit quality in tomato, husk tomato, jalapeno pepper and wild pepper. The growth retardant was sprayed to experimental plants when reached 10 true leaves, 50% blossom and/or 20 days later. The concentration dosages of P-Ca were 0, 125, 175 and 200 mg.L-1. Results showed that prohexadione-Ca reduced final plant height. This effect was related with a reduction in the synthesis of gibberellins A1, A4 and A7 in shoot tips of tomato plants. Yield was increased with the growth retardant. The content of lycopene in tomato fruits showed a remarkable increment in ripen fruits from P-Ca treated plants. Similar effects were also found on capsaicin content in fruits from jalapeño and wild peppers. The activity of catalase and peroxidase increased in tomato fruits treated with P-Ca; whereas this effect was seen only for catalase in husk tomato.

Biography:

Xicun Dong has completed his PhD at the age of 35 years from Chinese Academy of Sciences University. He is the director of plant breeding group. He has published more than 40 papers in journals.

Abstract:

It is well known that heavy ion irradiation is characterized by a high linear energy transfer and relative biological effectiveness, which is expected to increase mutation frequency and mutation spectrum. So far a variety of mutants induced by heavy ion beam such as high yield mutant in wheat, leaf color mutant in wandering Jew and an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum, have been reported at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which is an institute making important contributions to basic research as well as the applications of heavy-ion physics and nuclear techniques. Aiming at the scientific front and strategy demand on modern agriculture, the researchers of IMP has been carrying out mutagenic improvement on high plant since in the middle of 1990s. Long Fu No. 2, the new variety of spring wheat, was successfully bred by heavy ion beam mutation breeding techniques at IMP, which has extended the planting filed of 5.5×105 ha during the past several years with excellent agronomic characteristics. White-flowered wandering Jew is a perennial evergreen herb. However, the mutant induced by carbon ion irradiation has been seasonally exhibited green or pink-variegated leaf and maintained by vegetative propagation since 2007. Sweet sorghum is a potential useful energy crop characterized by a high photosynthetic efficiency and a high biomass- and sugar- yielding crop. After irradiation by heavy ion beam, an early-maturity mutant was acquired and the growth period had stably shortened for around 20 days in sweet sorghum, which is expected to solve the difficult problem of earlier frost during industrialization plant for bio-ethanol production using sweet sorghum as feedstock in the northwest region of China. To date, IMP has established industrial chain based on circular economic to develop yeast products and good fodder for sweet sorghum. In addition, a large number of mutants were isolated by heavy ion beam irradiation from maize, cotton, castor, violet and pelargonium, respectively. In the future, our research will be further focused on mutagenic mechanism of heavy ion beam on high plant at the molecular level.

Biography:

Prashant Vikram has completed his PhD in 2011 from International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. Previously, he worked at two ICAR institutions- Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur and National Research Center for Plant Biotechnology, New Delhi. He is worked as Visiting Scientist at IRRI after completing his PhD for two years. He is working in the area of drought molecular breeding in rice.

Abstract:

The major paradigm shift through green revolution was achieved through introduction of semi-dwarfing- gene, sd1 into the locally adapted low yielding, low fertilizer responsive and lodging prone tall traditional rice and wheat varieties. Green revolution rice and wheat varieties became popular among farmers and led to a gradual replacement of the landraces and traditional varieties. Landraces and traditional varieties grown in the rainfed areas have immense genetic potential for adaption in drought prone environments. Their morphological, physiological, and phenotypic characterization for drought stress is an important pre-requisite. A total of 70 Indian rice cultivars including varieties, landraces as well as traditional donors were subjected to the genetic diversity analysis. Genotyping was carried out using a set of thirty six SNPs involving three SNP per chromosome. There were two genetic clusters, one with mostly 'aus' cultivars and other with 'indica' germplasms. These cultivars were phenotyped for drought related traits as well in dry and wet seasons of 2010. Genetic diversity analysis was also performed with three major drought QTLs published so far. One of them (qDTY1.1) harbors the green revolution gene sd1 as revealed in several reports. These germplasms were analyzed for the sd1 gene also. Most of the well known drought tolerant landraces, traditional varieties or breeding lines had tall allele of the sd1 gene and vice-versa for the dwarf allele indicating towards possibility of either (1) linkage or (2) pleiotropy or (3) both associated with this gene. This analysis indicated that "Looking beyond green revolution is in fact looking behind green revolution". Study also indicated that drought QTL alleles are conserved in drought tolerant landraces/traditional varieties. Genetic information generated in the study would be useful in conventional as well as marker assisted breeding approaches for drought tolerance in rice.

Biography:

Dharmendra Singh is a Senior Scientist ,Indian Agricultural Research Institute, India. Specialisation in Lentil and Mungbean breeding with a Division of Genetics.

Abstract:

Aluminium is considered as the main abiotic stress in lentil grown on soils containing excessive aluminium contents. Developing more aluminium tolerant genotypes of lentil would help to improve productivity on these soils. This study assessed the differential response of lentil genotypes to aluminium toxicity stress under hydroponic and soil conditions to evaluate genotypes for aluminium tolerance. Significant genotypic differences in root length, shoot length, dry weight of root and shoot, root re-growth after staining, accumulation of aluminium in roots and shoots were observed under 0, 74, 148 and 222 and 296 mM Al concentration. Root and shoot aluminium contents were significantly lower in the tolerant than sensitive genotypes, indicating that aluminium exclusion mechanism was involved for aluminium tolerance. These results were compared with similar measurements including yield from soil assay. Root and shoot, aluminium content at 222mM Al concentrations were significantly correlated with biomass production under controlled conditions and ranked the genotypes with their seed yield in the soil assay. The trend in the differential responses of tolerant ('L-7903' and 'L-4602') and sensitive ('L-4147' and 'BM-4') genotypes to aluminium stress was fairly consistent in hydroponic and soil assays.

Speaker
Biography:

Sanjay Singh has completed his PhD in 1999 from Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India and thereafter associated in wheat research and coordination as wheat breeder at the Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal, the nodal centre for wheat & barley research in India. Released 09 wheat varieties and registered 11 wheat genetic stocks for various traits. Published 173 research papers/ abstracts/chapters, etc. pertaining to wheat crop in particular in journals of national /international repute. Recipient of several awards including Lal Bahadur Shastri Young Scientist Award (ICAR) in 2007 & Young Scientist Award of the Council of Science and Technology, UP in 2008.

Abstract:

Globally heterosis breeding has resulted in enhancing productivity in many crops, especially the cross-pollinated crops. Attempts to exploit heterosis in wheat, a self-pollinated crop, began in 1950s with introduction of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) using Aegilops caudate cytoplasm. However, the CMS source derived from Triticum timopheevii led to the initiation of a systematic hybrid development programme in wheat. Besides the three-line breeding approach using CMS system, two-line approach using chemical hybridising agent (CHA) and environmental male sterility was also advocated. As only small gains in yield are obtained from conventionally bred cultivars, the hybrid wheat development programme was initiated in India under coordinated research programme of the ICAR in 1995 through CMS and CHA systems. Experimental hybrids showing sufficient standard heterosis were developed, but their commercial exploitation had many bottlenecks. The limited number of fertility restoration sources, unstable behaviour of the restorer and CMS lines under different environments and cultural conditions are major constraints which are being addressed for achieving success in hybrid wheat development programme in India. Furthermore, the heterosis observed in the experimental hybrids has not been in consonance with the cost of seed production. Although, the private sector company MAHYCO released two wheat hybrids (Pratham 7070 and Pratham 7272) in 2002 for low input conditions of central and peninsular India, they did not become popular as their yield could not surpass the commercial pureline cultivars. The development of hybrid wheat for highly favourable environments in the wheat bowl region of North-West India is being presently focussed as vast scope for yield enhancement is possible in this area. Initial successes have been achieved and experimentation under large plots is underway.

K Kanaka Durga

Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, India

Title: Chemical and biological management of wilt and root rot of Chickpea
Speaker
Biography:

K Kanaka Durga is presently working as Senior Scientist (Pl. Br.), Seed Research and Technology Center, ANGR Agricultural University, Hyderabad. She joined as Scientist (Pl. Br.) in AICRP on Pulses at RARS, Lam during 1998 after completion of doctoral studies in the same University. Her work initially involved in development of pulse varieties (5) at RARS, Lam Suitable for Andhra Pradesh. Presently she is involved in Seed Research of different crops particulary development of DUS testing guidelines in horsegram and developed seed testing strategies in various crops. Also she is actively involved in guiding P.G. students and so far she has guided three students. And she has 22 research publications as on date.

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of bioagents on wilt and root rot in chickpea at Seed Research and Technology Center, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during rabi, 2011-13 using two varieties i.e., JG 11 and Annegiri. Wilt and root rot incidence was noticed in both varieties. Seed treatment with Tebuconazole @ 1 ml/kg seed was found superior in minimising the incidence of wilt on JG 11 (8.78%) and Annegiri (6.03%). Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/ kg seed + foliar spray of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 6-10 g/ l resulted in less wilt incidence recording 10.06 and 11.17 per cent in JG 11 and Annegiri, respectively. Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/ kg seed was found effective in reducing root rot on JG 11 (24.58%) and Annegiri (24.50%). Seed treatment with Tebuconazole @ 1 ml/kg seed recorded maximum seed yield of 10.05 q/ha and 12.66 q/ha in JG 11 and Annegiri, respectively besides producing good quality seed with maximum germination and good seedling vigour.

Speaker
Biography:

Chinyere P. Anyanwu has completed her PhD from the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria. She is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Crop Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. She has more than 20 papers published in reputed journals and is a reviewer for many reputable journals. She has supervised more than 40 students’ research projects both at the graduate and undergraduate levels. She is currently working on the quality improvement of rice varieties grown and consumed in Nigeria.

Abstract:

Fifty – six hybrids seeds generated from an 8 x 8 Diallel reciprocal cross experiment during the 2007 growing season at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria were studied. Estimates of components of variance revealed higher variance due to general combining ability for grain length, grain width and grain length/ grain width ratio while variance due to specific combining ability was more important for inheritance of protein content in rice. Combining ability effects revealed that the parents CT 7127- 49 (0.0932) showed highest positive GCA effect for grain length while Fofifa 16 and IR57689-73 showed the highest and significant positive GCA effects of 0.1338 and 0.1233 for grain width. The cross of IR57689-73 x NERICA 1 (0.377) and IR5789-73 x Max (0.185) were the best specific combiners. Highest significant and positive GCA effects for grain length/ grain width ratio was recorded for WITA 4 (0.2169) making it the best general combiner while IR5789-73 and Fofifa 16 showed the highest significant negative GCA effects becoming poorest combiners. Fofifa 16 x NERICA 1 (0.433) showed highest positive and significant GCA effects followed by IR5789-73 x NERICA 1 (0.411), EMPASC 105 x NERICA 1(0.408), EMPASC 105 x Fofifa 16 (0.301) and WITA 4 x Max (0.274) indicating that these hybrids produced longer and finer grains than their parents. CT7127- 49 was the best general combiner for protein content. High and significant positive reciprocal effects were also observed indicating the role of maternal dosage in the inheritance of protein content in rice. The cross WITA 4 x NERICA 1 had positive SCA effect alongside with IR57689-73 x Fofifa 16, IR57689-73 x NERICA 1 and Fofifa 16 x NERICA 1 though both parents were poor combiners, indicating non-allelic interactions at the heterozygous loci. CT 7127-49 was the best general combiner for grain length and protein content. It could be utilized as a donor to breed for long grain varieties and for increasing protein content.
Keywords: General and specific combining ability, reciprocal effect, additive and dominance variance, maternal effect.

B M K Raju

Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), India

Title: Unreaped yield potential in Cotton in India
Biography:

B M K Raju has completed his PhD at the age of 28 years from Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI). He is currently working as Senior Scientist (Agricultural Statistics) at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Hyderabad, India. He received Young Scientist Award of Indian Society of Agricultural Statistics for the year 2002. He has published 13 papers in peer reviewed journals and co-author in several reports.

Abstract:

Cotton is an important commercial crop in India and has been a major earner of foreign exchange. It is cultivated in about 11 m ha in India, of which about 35% area is under irrigation. The study included 85 major cotton growing districts (each having at least 10000 ha area under cotton) that accounted for about 92% of area under the crop in India. There was huge inter-district yield variation in cotton (biennial average yield) ranging from 112 to 879 kg/ha (lint yield). Factors such as climate, soil properties and access to irrigation are key determinants and explain substantial portion of this variation. The present study attempted to investigate further the variation within a group of districts that are homogeneous in terms of climatic and edaphic factors and per cent area under cotton having irrigation. Targeting this variation is expected to identify appropriate interventions for low yielding districts. Climate was assessed by moisture index computed from rainfall and potential evapo-transpiration. Edaphic factors like soil texture and soil depth were summarized by computing available water holding capacity (AWHC). The 85 districts were divided in to 13 groups using multivariate cluster analysis with Ward's method of hierarchical agglomeration algorithm. Any significant intra-cluster yield variation could then be attributed to the management factors, adoption of technologies, etc. In a cluster with 9 districts having moist semi-arid climate, reasonably good AWHC and relatively rainfed cotton, Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh produced 716 kg/ha where as Dharwad district of Karnataka produced 247 kg/ha. Examination of management factors in the above cluster revealed that use of HYV in Guntur was cent percent and use of nutrients like nitrogen, phosphate and potash were substantially high where as Dharwad has 36% of cotton area under HYV and nutrient use was less than 20% to that of Guntur. The achievable yield gap in case of Dharwad as found to be about 469 kg/ha. In another cluster having 11 districts with arid climate, high AWHC and highly irrigated cotton, Rajkot district produced a record yield of 844 kg/ha where as Ganganagar of Rajasthan could produce 400 kg/ha only. Percent HYV was 100 in both districts but nutrient use (N and P) in Rajkot was more than double to that of Ganganagar. The yield gap in case of Ganaganagar could be 444 kg/ha. The achievable yield gaps identified and interventions suggested may be useful to cotton farmers and other stakeholders associated with crop in bridging the yield gaps.

M. Sudha Rani

Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, India

Title: Induction of cold tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) during seedling stage
Speaker
Biography:

M. Sudharani is presently working as Scientist (Pl. Br.), Seed Research and Technology Center, ANGR Agricultural University, Hyderabad. She joined as Scientist (Pl. Br.) at ARS, Machilipatnam during 1999 and involved in developing rice varieties with salt tolerance. Later, she involved in development of gall midge tolerant varieties (2 Nos) at RARS, Warangal. Presently her work is involved in Seed Research of different crops particularly in the area of safer storage of seed, development of seed testing strategies in various crops and DUS testing of maize, Greengram and blackgram varieties for protecting them under PPV&FR Act. Also actively involved in guiding P.G. students and so far she had guided two students. And she has 15 research publication and 15 popular articles at her credit s as on date.

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is very sensitive to prolonged exposure of lower temperatures particularly during rabi season. Lower temperatures below 120C causes chilling injury and leads to seedling mortality. The objective of the current investigation is to study the effect of single super phosphate (SSP) and ZnSO4 at different dosages for induction of cold tolerance in rice seedlings. Three concentrations each of SSP and ZnSO4 (5,10 and 15 per cent of SSP and 2,4 and 8 percent of ZnSO4) and a combination treatment of 5% SSP and 2% ZnSO4 were utilized in the study. 100 seeds of rice cultivar MTU-1010 for each replication in each treatment was allowed to soak for 24 hours and later washed and incubated for a period of 24 hours. Later, the soaked seed in each treatment was sown in rolled paper towels and transferred to BOD incubator regulated to a temperature of 10oC for 14 hours and 25oC for 10 hours for a period of 2 weeks as described by Cruz and Milach, 2004 with slight modifications. The experiment was conducted in CRD with three replications. The data on various seedling quality parameters showed that soaking in 2% ZnSO4 recorded a germination per cent of 98.6 and found to be significantly superior to untreated control (76.3%). Similarly, the same treatment recorded significantly superior performance for speed of germination (26.0), seedling dry weight (0.170g/10 seedlings), seedling vigour index based on dry weight of seedlings (15.5) and seedling vigour index based on seedling length (1517) also. However, untreated control recorded the speed of germination as 15.34, seedling dry weight (0.121g/10 seedlings), seedling vigour index based on dry weight of seedlings (12.54) and seedling vigour index based on seedling length (936.5). From the current study, it is evident that, soaking of rice seed in 2% ZnSO4 solution for a period of 24 hours was found to induce tolerance to cold temperatures at seedling stage.

Sambhu Nath Chattopadhyay

National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, India

Title: Dyeing of jute with natural dyes with improved colour yield and UV protection properties
Biography:

Sambhu Nath Chattopadhyay is a Principal Scientist in ICAR Discipline inTextile Chemistry .Area of interests are pre-treatment, bleaching, dyeing, finishing of natural textile fibres and development of handmade paper from lignocellulosic fibres.

Abstract:

A novel approach for upgrading the dyeing properties with natural dyes as well as UV protection function of the obtained dyeing was investigated. Jute fabric was premordanted with sequential treatment of biomordant (myrobolan and pomegranate) and ecofriendly chemical mordant (ferrous sulphate and potash alum). Extraction condition of natural dyes from manjistha, annatto, ratanjot and babool was standardised and applied on double premordanted jute fabric. Natural dyeing on myrobolan – ferrous sulphate mordanted fabric produces maximum colour yield as well as uniform and level dyeing. UV protection properties of jute fabric dyed with babool, ratanjot, annatto and manjistha produces very good rating after premordanting with sequential treatment of biomordant & chemical mordant. UV protection properties of natural dyes follows the order babool > annatto > manjistha > ratanjot.

Biography:

P. Ranchana is doing her PhD program in the Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. She has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and working as a Senior Research Fellow in the GOI scheme entitled “Validation of DUS testing guidelines for jasmine”. She has attended and presented papers in both national and international conference.

Abstract:

An investigation on pollen viability in tuberose flowers under both in vitro and in vivo environment was conducted at the Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India during the year 2012- 13. The ten single genotypes viz., Calcutta Single, Hyderabad Single, Kahikuchi Single, Mexican Single, Navsari Local, Phule Rajani, Prajwal, Pune Single, Shringar and Variegated Single were used for this study. Among the ten genotypes, Variegated Single showed its superiotity in pollen viability (96.73%) and germination (98.61%) than other genotypes under in vitro condition. High level of pollen germination was observed when Phule Rajani was crossed with Hyderabad single, Kahikuchi Single, Mexican Single and Variegated Single under in vivo. Likewise, the pollen grain of Calcutta Single, Kahikuchi Single, Navsari Local, Pune Single and Shringar germinated well on the stigma of Variegated Single under in vivo.
Keywords: Tuberose- pollen studies- in vitro & in vivo.

Speaker
Biography:

P. Sanjana Reddy has done her M.Sc. in Plant Breeding and PhD in Genetics. She is a Senior Scientist in the Directorate of Sorghum Research which is affiliated to Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Earlier to this she served International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics for 9 years. She has more than 36 research papers and 10 book chapters to her credit.

Abstract:

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is fifth most important cereal crop in the world with multiples uses for food, feed, fodder, fibre and fuel and is rightly considered as king of millets. One of the reasons for the low productivity levels of post rainy (rabi) season sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in India (700 kg ha-1) is non-availability of hybrids unlike rainy (kharif) season sorghum (1000kg ha-1) where 90% of the area is covered with hybrids. Hybrids have not been successful in postrainy season as they exhibit poor seed set when the plants experience low temperatures (5 to 15oC) during night at anthesis. Systematic studies are lacking for cold stress tolerance during anthesis in rabi sorghum. Hence, a field experiment was conducted during the 2011-12 rabi season at Directorate of Sorghum Research in a three-replicated split-plot design considering dates of sowing (two dates) as main plot and genotypes (21) as subplot with an objective to determine the effect of low temperatures on the quality of pollen and seed set. The low night temperature recorded below 15oC during anthesis in the entire observation period. The 21 sorghum genotypes that included a diverse group of breeding material i.e., 8 varieties, 7 maintainer lines, 5 restorer lines and a hybrid were screened. Data were recorded for pollen viability and germinability apart from other agronomic traits and analysed using Genstat ver. 12.
Date of sowing significantly influenced pollen germinability while it interacted significantly with the genotype in influencing days to 50% flowering, open panicle grain yield and open panicle harvest index. As against pollen germinability, pollen viability is not influenced by sowing date or G×E denoting that this trait has less phenotypic plasticity and highly heritable. The maintainer lines showed comparatively poor germinability and lower grain yields than varieties and restorers. However, the loss in grain yield was about 5.7g/panicle which is comparative to the varieties though the panicle harvest index is reduced by 10%. The hybrid CSH 15R showed lower pollen germinability and viability than the other groups. Though the hybrid showed good open panicle grain yield of 82.7g/panicle, the loss in grain yield was about 22.9g. The result points towards realizing the higher grain yields in the hybrid with improvement in the pollen quality. Among the maintainer lines AKR306 recorded high germinability (94.9%) and high grain yield per selfed panicle (59.1g), B35 recorded low germinability (64.8%) and low grain yield (20.4g) while AKMS 14B showed high germinability (91.9%) and low grain yield (29.8g). These values point towards independent inheritance of these traits.

Neeti Sanan Mishra

International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, India

Title: Viral Suppressors of RNAi: Assay and Functional analysis
Biography:

Neeti Sanan-Mishra completed his education in Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India, PhD, 1997 & MSc, 1992, University of Delhi, India, BSc, 1990 Since 2006, Staff Research Scientist, Plant Molecular Biology, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), New Delhi, India 2000-2005, Research Associate, ICGEB, New Delhi, India1998-1999, Research Scientist, University of Delhi, South Campus, New Delhi, India Completed Teaching Activity in ICGEB PhD Course on "Molecular Biology of Plant Stress"

Abstract:

RNAi is a complex surveillance and regulatory process inherent to all eukaryotic cells, which mediates small RNA dependent repression of the target gene expression in a sequence specific manner. It serves as an important tool in plant defence against virus attack by activating virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) to repress viral proliferation. As a counter defense mechanism, members of different viruses encode proteins known as RNA silencing suppressors (RSS) that suppress RNA silencing at different stages of the pathways. The expression of RSS is essential for virus infection and virulence. The virus-encoded RSS can therefore serve as important biological tools to dissect the detailed RNA silencing pathways. The RSS are also being explored as tools to ameliorate the negative influence of RNA silencing on transgene expression in plant transformation technology with application in biofarming sectors to boost transgene expression. This has generated a need to screen the viral protein for suppressor functions and understand the suppressor interaction with the host plant to screen for molecules that compromise the plant RNAi machinery with least affect on plant phenotype.
The present work was, initiated with an aim to develop a new assay for suppressor identification. The assay is based on the reversal of siRNA mediated silencing of GUS reporter gene expression. The efficiency of this assay was tested by comparing with the established assays of reversal of GFP fluorescence using well characterized RSS, FHVB2. The assay can be used to detect suppressor activity of any viral protein.
In depth functional analysis is also required to understand the mechanism of action of RSS on the host RNAi pathways. Though a lot of information exists on the RSS mediated inhibition of siRNA biogenesis and function, the effect of RSS on the miRNA-mediated pathways is not explored. Thus, FHVB2 over-expressing transgenics were raised to functionally analyze the effect of FHVB2 on host plant miRNAs. The work was initiated in this direction by identifying the host factors interacting with FHVB2 using phage display and subtractive hybridization.
This work was supported by a grant from the Department of Biotechnology, India.

Biography:

Awnindra Kumar Singh has completed his PhD in Genetics and Plant Breeding from Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and got Senior Research Fellowship of ICAR, NATP at the BHU, Varanasi. He is the now Senior Scientist Plant Breeding at Central Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair, a premier agricultural research institute of ICAR known for Islands Agricultural Research in India. He has published more than 20 research papers in reputed journals and he is also serving as an editorial board member of journals of national and international repute. He is General Secretary of the Andaman Science Association, Port Blair.

Abstract:

The cultivated mungbean and urdbean landraces belonging to Vigna species collected from different parts of the Andaman Islands of India were evaluated to (i) identify the diverse source(s) of variation for improved characters like pods per plant, length of pods, test weight and seed yield per plant, (ii) study the response of landraces for adaptation to islands conditions and (iii) understand the genetic diversity of the landraces for their further utilization in genetic improvement of mungbean and urdbean. Landraces were evaluated for various morphological characters like pods per plant, length of pods, seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, seed yield per plant along with other economically important agronomic traits and biotic resistance across different years. The locally collected landraces were found to be very diverse based upon wider genetic variability for pods per plant, length of pods, seed yield per plant as well as resistance to the biotic stresses like, charcoal rot, cercospora leaf spot, YMV and powdery mildew diseases prevailing in the Islands. Some genotypes in both crops also showed resistance to aphids under natural field conditions. The landraces ANM-11-12, ANM-11-05, ANM-11-08, ANM-11-15, ANM-11-19, ANM-11-46, ANM-11-07-2, ANM-12-01 and ANM-12-02 in mungbean whereas, ANU-11-19, ANU-11-10, ANU-11-29, ANU-11-34, ANU-11-11, ANU-11-08, ANU-11-09 and ANU-11-22-1 in urdbean exhibited superiority to standard national checks for seed yield and other secondary traits. Thus these landrace can serve as donors to improve cultivated varieties by transferring in them the economically valuable traits like pods per plant, length of pods, number of seed per pod, 100-seed weight thereby enhancing understanding of sink potential and ultimately grain yield in a sustainable way.

Biography:

Baljinder Kaur Sidana Completed his Phd in Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India). He is a member of Indian journals and society of economics and development.

Abstract:

Direct seeding of rice is a recent resource conservation technology initiative in India. Adoption of direct seeded rice technology optimizes water-use efficiency, improves crop establishment, reduces irrigation time and effort required to manage the crop. This study attempts to examine the impact of DSR technology on input-use pattern and productivity of rice crop and outlines the important constraints in the adoption of this technology. The results revealed that 61 per cent of the sample farmers had agricultural experience of less than 20 years, depicting that technology adopters were mainly young farmers. A majority of the sample farmers had passed matric i.e. X standard (20 per cent), 19 percent had passed secondary education and 16 per cent were graduates. The per hectare cost of sowing Pusa Basmati 1121 was Rs.2506.15 for DSR plot where as it was Rs.8258.59 for non-DSR plot, indicating a saving of 69.65 per cent. A significant saving of 28.01 per cent in irrigation water was found in the case of DSR plot as compared to non-DSR plot. The use of direct seeding of rice technology resulted into decreased expenditure of rice cultivation ranging from Rs.4000 to Rs.6000 per hectare despite of cost enhancement of 41.54 per cent of DSR plot on plant protection chemicals as compared to non-DSR plot of basmati variety. The important constraint in the adoption of this technology was non-availability of seed drill, high amount of weeds and lack of awareness. There is dire need for capacity building of farmers for effective management of weed and pest in DSR.

Biography:

K. L. Girishraj completed his Phd.He is a member of University of Agricultural Sciences, India.

Abstract:

The main emphasis so far in sunflower improvement was on grain yield, oil content and pest/diseases resistance, yet in case of confectionery sunflower, the effort to improve quality traits will definitely enhance the value of this crop in terms of consumer preference and industrial uses. An investigation was taken up at the Main Research Station (MRS), Hebbal, Bengaluru, India, to determine the extent of genetic divergence with respect to ten characters in 49 sunflower genotypes consisting of 47 confectionery sunflower and two check cultivars. Analysis of variance revealed the presence of significant variation among the genotypes. Mahalanobis D2 statistics indicated the presence of substantial genetic diversity. The genotypes were grouped into nine clusters. Based on the intercluster D2 values for various characters, potential lines were identified from clusters VII and IX for crossing programme. Among the investigated characters, Protein content exhibited high contribution towards genetic divergence followed by oil content, head diameter, seed yield per plant and hull content with minimum contribution. The present study indicates that the inclusion of EC734792, EC734800, EC734807, EC734808 and EC734810 as potential donors for future hybridization programme would result in the development of superior confectionery sunflower cultivars.
Keywords: D2, genetic divergence, confectionery sunflower germplasm.

Speaker
Biography:

Sudhir Shukla completed his PhD at the age of 25 in the year 1985 from National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow and degree was awarded from Avadh University, Faizabad, U.P. Presently he is Principal Scientist and looking after Genetics & Plant Breeding Division of CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow. He has about 32 years research experience in genetic improvement of medicinal, underutilized and oilseed crops. During this journey he had published more than 140 research papers in reputed national and international journals beside nine book chapters and one patent. He had also guided six PhD students.

Abstract:

Alkaloids are defensive compounds produced by a number of medicinal plants as a consequence of self-protection from invaders. Though, solely being a defensive compound for its producer is highly valuable for manufacturing of life saving drugs for human beings. Among the different alkaloid bearing medicinal plants, opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the most valuable plant for mankind. For commercial purposes, Opium poppy is cultivated in large number of countries in which India is one of the chief opium producing and exporting country in the world. The opium poppy is majorly grown for opium latex and its derivatives i.e. alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, narcotine, papaverine) but seeds are equally important due to its protein (upto 24%) that is widely used in various preparations in confectionary industries. Among the major alkaloids of opium poppy, morphine is one of the most powerful analgesic but is narcotic in nature while thebaine is a non-narcotic alkaloid, is one among the diverse array of alkaloids produced by opium poppy. Due to extensive utilization of thebaine as starting material for the production of 14-hydroxymorphinans, such as oxycodone, naloxone, naltrexone, naltrexone methonobromide, nalbuphine and nalmefene having the ability to be used as analgesics and narcotic antagonists, the use of this alkaloid in pharmacopeia has been increased about 10 folds. The limited availability of thebaine and its high cost is due to its presence of low amount (0.5-2.0%) in dry opium latex of P. somniferum L., which is the sole producer of natural thebaine. So, it is need of the day to enhance the content of natural thebaine in opium poppy plant and to capture increasing global demand of thebaine, this can be achieved by the development of varieties rich in thebaine for commercial cultivation. Seeing, limited availablity of thebaine in world market and its high cost for the use in pharmaceutical industries, planned experiments were conducted at NBRI, Lucknow for the development of a variety having very high thebaine content. From the available germplasm stock, two species of Papaver i.e. Papaver somniferum L. (2n=22) and Papaver setigerum DC. (2n=44) were hybridized followed by rigorous selection uptill 10th generation in subsequent generations. The selected high thebaine yiedling plants were tested for three consecutive years for stablility performance to select a stable and high thebaine producing plant. For the first time we have been able to develop stabilized high thebaine lines having thebaine upto 10% in comparison to existing varieties having thebaine 1-2% which were validated through HPLC chromatography.
Keywords: Alkaloids, interspecific hybridization, Papaver somniferum, thebaine.

Biography:

K. Salini completed her PhD in 2011 from TNAU and joined as Scientist (Plant Breeding) with ICAR during September 2011 and presently working as Scientist at CRIDA.

Abstract:

Littlemillet (Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roem. and Schultz) is the staple food for millions in many parts of the world especially among tribals. The study was conducted in five experiments during 2008 - 2011. In experiment I, 105 germplasm accessions including check were evaluated and observations were recorded on 17 quantitative and 12 qualitative characters. Among the germplasm accessions, 12 accessions were selected as parents and crossed in diallel design including reciprocals in experiment II. The resultant 132 cross combinations along with parents and check were evaluated for 11 characters with a view of obtaining information on gene action in experiment III. Non additive gene action was predominant for all the characters except in case of plant height for which both additive and non additive gene actions play equal role. In experiment IV, variability and association of seven yield and its components were studied in F2 populations. High coefficients of variation were observed for grain yield per plant and number of basal tillers per plant. Heritability estimates were high for all the characters except flag leaf sheath length. Inheritance of qualitative characters indicated monogenic simple dominance inheritance for most of the traits except for grain colour and in crosses of purple x medium purple parents. Stability analysis was carried out for 12 parents over four environments for eight characters. Many of the stability statistics identified IPmr 1046 and IPmr 889 as stable genotypes for grain yield per plant.

Biography:

Radha Rani did her PhD on horticulture and currently serving as a scientist at Dr. YSR horticultural University. She is working on vegetable breeding and volunteering with the Centre for Sustainable Agriculture in India on seed-related work.

Abstract:

The present investigation was carried out to find out the nature and magnitude of genetic variability and association studies in segregating population of bitter gourd for yield and its attributing traits to select transegressive segregants for further breeding programme. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications during summer 2011. High heritability coupled with genetic advance as percent of mean were observed for number of fruits/vine, average fruit weight, fruit length and yield/vine indicating the role of additive gene effects in expression of these characters and therefore, they are more reliable for effective selection. Fruit length, number of fruits/vine, vine length, number of laterals/vine and average fruit weight were identified as major characters contributing to yield as these traits were significantly and positively associated with yield/vine. A significant negative correlation of yield was observed with Days to 1st male and female flower appeared, node number at which 1st male and female flower appeared and sex ratio. The path analysis study revealed that most of the characters indirectly influenced the yield through number of fruits/vine, average fruit weight and fruit length towards the favourable direction which had positive direct effect on yield/vine, suggesting that emphasis must be given characters having high direct effect, while exercising selection to improve the yield.
Keywords: Bitter gourd, segregating population, genetic variability, character association, path analysis.

Biography:

Woyengo Vincent Were is a Senior Research Officer, KALRO Kakamega Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) ,Kenya.

Abstract:

The presence of genotype x environment interaction (GEI) dictates variety evaluation and selection strategy. In order to initiate an effective cassava breeding, a study was conducted to determine the influence of GEI on farmer preferred traits and identify stable cassava varieties. Tens (six landraces and four improved) cassava varieties were evaluated in six (three on-farm and three on-station) environments using 5 x 2 α-lattice design. Genotype and environment mean squares were significant for all traits evaluated indicating significant genotypic and environmental differences. Genotype and environment interaction mean squares were significant for all traits evaluated except plant height and number of storage roots per plant indicating the presence GEI effects. The significant GEI effect for all farmer preferred traits evaluated except plant height and number of storage roots indicate varieties need to be evaluated in several environments in order to select the stable varieties. All the four stability analysis methods used in the study show that no single variety was stable for all the farmer preferred traits evaluated. However, all landraces except Nambukaya had at least one of the stability parameters significant for all farmer preferred traits evaluated except internode length. Improved varieties had most of the stability parameters insignificant for all traits evaluated except internode length. These imply landraces were generally more stable as compared to improved varieties except for internode length. The improved varieties and on-station environments fell in the same quadrant of the AMMI biplot for storage roots yields implying they are specifically adapted to on-station environments. This means probably during breeding, the improved varieties was evaluated on-station and selection was mainly based on storage roots yields. The presence of GEI among the farmer preferred traits necessitates variety selection based on multi-environment evaluation and stability. The evaluation environment should not only be on-station but also on-farm where variety stability across divergent climatic, soil conditions and cultural practices are captured.
Keywords: Genotype x environment interaction (GEI), Farmer preferred traits, Stability, Variety performance.

Songbiao Chen

Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Title: Molecular breeding of rice resistant to blast disease
Speaker
Biography:

Songbiao Chen received his PhD degree from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2005. He conducted his post-doctoral research at The Ohio State University from 2005 to 2009, and then worked as a senior research associate at The Ohio State University from 2009 to 2010. He is a professor at the Biotechnology Research Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China. His research programs focus on plant disease resistance, plant functional genomics, and crop molecular breeding.

Abstract:

Rice is one of the most important cereal crops in the world, which provides food for more than half of the world’s population. The blast disease is one of the most destructive diseases of rice, and is a leading constraint to rice production worldwide. Development of blast-resistant rice varieties has been proved to be the most effective and environmentally-sound way in controlling the rice blast disease. Over the past years, we initiated a molecular breeding program to develop blast-resistant rice: 1, we have performed a three-year continuous filed evaluation of blast resistance of a large core collection of rice breeding materials in China, and evaluated the genetic background of blast-resistant germplasm resources using molecular markers; 2, we developed a set of functional co-dominant molecular markers for several cloned blast-resistant Pi genes; 3, we generated rice pyramided lines carrying multiple allelic resistance genes via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and investigated the complementation resistance spectrum of different allelic genes in pyramided lines. Through the integrated molecular approaches, a number of rice breeding materials with broad spectrum blast resistance have been identified, and a practical marker-assisted selection procedure has been established, providing a basis for molecular breeding of rice resistant to blast disease. Using marker-assisted backcross breeding approach, an elite thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice line 710S, and an elite restorer rice line MH3301 have been improved for blast resistance.

Biography:

Rajendra Uprety is a PhD candidate at Wageningen University, The Netherlands and study rice intensification process and livelihood dynamics of rice farmers in Nepal for his PhD study. He is the senior agriculture officer of Department of Agriculture, Nepal where he has been working since 1991. He has published more than 15 field based research papers in different national and international journals, proceedings of international conferences, magazines. At present he is working as Irrigation Specialist (International UN Volunteer) in Zambia with UNDP and his main responsibility is to promote innovative Asian agriculture technology is Africa.

Abstract:

Introduction of high yielding new rice varieties since 1966 is one of the main strategies of the Nepal government (agriculture research and extension) to increase rice production. But coverage of recommended varieties and rice yield is still low in Nepal. To explore the reality of rice varieties used situation and its effect in Nepalese rice farming system, this study was conducted among 60 randomly selected farmers in two village development committees of Morang district of eastern Nepal. This study was conducted from June 2008-December 2009. Study found that modern recommended varieties performed better in better irrigated area with better management practices. But those varieties were very vulnerable or low productive in low management and stress conditions. High productive farmers preferred medium to short duration varieties to adjust their intensive cropping calendar but preference of low productive farmers went to medium to long duration varieties. Basmati varieties were popular among the farmers worked under stressed/vulnerable conditions but not among intensive and productive farmers. In most of the time, variation of farmers need and farming situations play important role for variety decision and this study found that Nepalese researchers and extension systems are less successful to capture and address the needs of rice farmers in Nepal.

Speaker
Biography:

Ranjit Chatterjee is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Vegetable and Spice Crops and involved in teaching (UG, M.Sc and PhD students) research and extension activities in the field of vegetable and spice crops for last 11 years. He obtained his Master’s degree in Vegetable Crops from Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India in 1998 and PhD in Vegetable and Spice Crops from UBKV, West Bengal. He is conducting research works since last 10 years on organic vegetable production with special emphasis on vermicompost production from vegetable crop residues and its application on commercial vegetable crops. He has participated in international training on Basic Organic Crop Inspection from MingDao University, Taiwan and has developed expertise on organic farm certification of USDA and NOP standard as per IFOAM guidelines. He has published more than 27 research papers in reputed journals, technical bulletins, popular articles on vegetable crops.

Abstract:

Cultivation of vegetable cowpea after winter season vegetables is emerging as a popular cropping system for the region as legume crops can fix atmospheric nitrogen, incorporate organic matter, harbours beneficial microorganisms in the soil, improves the fertility status of soil and bring sustainability in the production system. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the effect of vermicompost and inorganic fertilizers of broccoli on the succeeding cowpea growth, yield and soil fertility and to identify the most suitable nutrient combination for the rotation. Broccoli crop was grown in factorial RBD with 3 replications by combining four different doses of recommended inorganic fertilizers (120:60:60 kg N, P and K per hectare) and five different levels of vermicompost. Vegetable cow pea cv. Laffa Barbati was raised on the same plots of broccoli field during February to April of 2010 and 2011. The results revealed that integrated use of inorganic fertilizers and vermicompost of broccoli crop significantly influence the succeeding cowpea growth, yield and soil fertility. The nutrient combination composed of vermicompost (10 t/ha) along with 100% recommended dose of fertilizer recorded the maximum number of green pod per plant (19.16), pod weight (15.18 g) and pod yield per plant (290.77 g) and per hectare (7.70 ton).The same combination also recorded the highest residual N, P and K nutrient status of soil (183.19 kg per hectare, 17.44 kg per hectare and 122.94 kg per hectare NPK respectively). The nutrient schedule can be practiced for wider broccoli-cowpea cropping sequence to achieve the much desired increased yield with sustainable soil health for eastern Himalayan region.
Keywords: Broccoli-cowpea rotation, Vermicompost, Inorganic fertilizers and Soil fertility.

  • Track 4: Crop Protection and Management
Speaker

Chair

Amitava Basu

Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, India

Speaker
Biography:

Amitava Basu joined as Lecturer in the Faculty of Agriculture of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India in January, 1990, after completion of PhD in Plant Pathology. He Served as Plant Pathology Scientist in All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Potato (I.C.A.R.) from 1997 to 2006. Since January, 2007 he has been associated in the Department of Plant Pathology as full time Professor to teach at undergraduate, Post graduate and PhD level. He has written three books and authored 60 research papers published in the reputed National and International journals. He has attended 15 symposium in India and 4 International symposium in abroad(Mar del Plata, Argentina for oral lecture at Latin American Potato Congress, 2008), France(for oral lecture at International symposium at INRA, 2012), Katmandu, Nepal(for oral lecture at the International Symposium on Climate Change and Livelihood, 2010), Bangkok, Thailand (for oral lecture at International Go-Organic symposium, 2009). He has guided 4 PhD students and 7 M.Sc students. Professor Basu is a fellow of the ISMPP, Udaipur, India and Society of Plant Protection Sciences, IARI, PUSA, New Delhi. He has served in the Administrative position as Secretary, UG & PG council of Agriculture faculty, BCKV, as acting Head, Department of Plant Pathology, BCKV. Prof. Basu has also acted as external examiner of SAUs and Viswa Bharati University, Santiniketan, West Bengal. He has expertise in the field of mycology, epidemiology, plant pathology, plant disease management, ecology, sustainable agriculture, host parasitic interaction, diagnostics of plant diseases. He has experience as Principal Investigator of 10 adhoc research projects funded by MNCs.

Abstract:

The in vivo and in vitro studies were conducted on potato early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani with special emphasis on morphological, cultural, pathogenecity and biochemical aspects. Sensitivity of A. solani towards different fungicides and botanical oils was also assessed. Out of ten A. solani isolates, AS2 (Kalyani Incheck Farm, Nadia), AS4 (Arambagh, Hooghly), AS8 (Memary, Burdwan) and AS9 (Garbeta, West Midnapore) were selected as representative isolates on basis of their pathogenecity for this study. The pathogen preferred non synthetic media for its growth than synthetic media. Maximum cultural growth was obtained on PDA, CAM, CMA, OMA, PAM and PCAM. Sporulation was noticed in all the isolates on six tested media except V8JA and NA media. Glucose became the best carbon source for all isolates. Threonine was best nitrogen source for AS2 and AS9 isolate whereas, Asparagine for AS4 and AS8 isolate. The protein content was significantly enhanced as well as carbohydrate and phenol content was remarkably depleted in infected plants. PAGE analysis for isozyme assay among A. solani isolates distinguished themselves on the basis of variation at genetic level. Under in vitro condition, Garlic oil (@0.15%) significantly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination and under field condition significant disease suppression (15% PDI) and yield increase (260q/ha) were noticed due to application of garlic oil @ 0.15%. Cabrio (Pyraclostrobiun + Mertiram), Antracol (Propineb), Indofil M 45 (Mancozeb) with Tilt (Propiconazole) exhibited maximum inhibition of mycelial growth of A. solani. Out of ten fungicides, the field evaluation with Indofil M 45 (Mancozeb) and Cabrio (Pyraclostrobin + Metiram) became most effective in reducing the severity of the disease (10.8% PDI and 17.5% PDI respectively) as well as increasing the total tuber yield (307q/ha and 287.2q/ha respectively).

Speaker
Biography:

Parameshwar Shirgure has completed his M. Tech from IIT, Kharagpur (W.B.) and PhD (SWE) from Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University, Jabalpur (M.P.). He is serving as a Sr. Scientist (Soil and Water Cons. Engineering) at National Research Centre for Citrus (ICAR), Nagpur since 1992. He has published 2 books, more than 40 research papers in reputed journals. He is life member of the IASWC, Dehradun, ISAE and HSI, New Delhi. He is serving as a editorial board of www.Sjournals.com, Scientific Journals International and www.wjst.org. He received Mahatma Phule Talent Research Academy National Award-2013 for the agricultural research.

Abstract:

The hybrid station controller based automatic pulse irrigation scheduling field experiment was conducted on 10-12 years old bearing Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) at National Research Center for Citrus, Nagpur during 2009-2012. The objective was to study the automatic daily irrigation scheduling as well as alternate day based on time schedule and potential evapo-transpiration through the drip irrigation. The treatments were consisted of Automatic daily irrigation daily with 60 minute interval three times (I1); Automatic irrigation daily with 90 minute interval two times (I2); Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times (I3); and Automatic irrigation at alternate day with 180 minute two times (I4) with six replications in Randomized Block Design. The automatic hybrid station controller E-6 (Rain Bird, USA) was used for micro-irrigation schedule setting the time for each treatment based on the water need of the plant and average open pan evaporation. The various scheduling treatment timings were programmed in A, B and C programs of the hybrid station controller. The sustainable production of Nagpur mandarin is possible with drip irrigation using automatic scheduling daily or on alternate days. The water use in October varied from 65.0-72.4 liters/day/plant and during May-June it was 133.0 - 147.7 liters/day/plant. Drip irrigation was scheduled to maintain automatically the soil moisture status above 25% (wet basis) during fruit growing period. The leaf nutrient status was high with automatic alternate day drip irrigation schedule. The canopy temperature was positively influenced with automatic drip irrigation schedules. The Nagpur mandarin fruit yield was highest (30.91 tones/ha) with irrigation on alternate day 120 minutes three times, followed by irrigation scheduled with 90 minutes interval two times daily (30.11 tones/ha). Fruit weight (154.7g), TSS (10.22 0Brix) and juice percent (40.77%) was found with automatic irrigation at alternate day with 120 minute three times. The automatic drip irrigation scheduling can be better substitute for manual drip irrigation operation and enhancing the water use efficiency.
Keywords: Automatic pulse irrigation scheduling, Citrus, Drip irrigation, Micro-irrigation, Nagpur mandarin, Hybrid station controller, Fruit yield and quality.

Pankaj Sharma

Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research (ICAR), India

Title: Sclerotinia stem rot: A threat to Brassica cultivation
Speaker
Biography:

Pankaj Sharma, Senior Scientist is working at Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research (ICAR), Bharatpur, Rajasthan. He has excellent contributions in Plant Pathology and presently working on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causing stem rot in oilseed Brassica. With an extension, teaching and research experience of more than 11 years, he published 82 research, proceeding papers, research notes and reported twenty new disease reports published in journals of national and international repute. Dr. Sharma attended 37 national and international seminar/conference and published 81 abstracts. He has visited University of Melbourne, Melbourne and Ballarat in Australia and also delivered key note speech in 1st World Congress of Microbes at Beijing, China. Dr. Sharma also published 537 popular articles, 18 extension folders, 4 technical bulletins, three books edited and delivered 220 TV talks and 35 radio talks. He also credits in his account several awards including Best Agriculture Writing Award (3 times), Sh. P.P. Singhal Memorial Pesticide India award (2004 & 2008), Prof. Gangadhar Bhatt Memorial Best research paper award (2007), Vigyan Vibhuti Alankaran (2010), K.S. Bilgrami Best paper presentation award (2010), prestigious Prof. H.C. Dube Outstanding Young Scientist Award (2011), DST visiting travel award (2011), Hindi team award (2011). He was also awarded Fellows of Plant Protection Association of India, Hyderabad (2010) and Society for Plant Protection Sciences, New Delhi (2011). Dr. Sharma is also member of different scientific societies and reviewer of many reputed international and national journals.

Abstract:

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary causes stem rot in Brassica and 400 other plant species. Sclerotinia rot is menace to cultivation of oilseed Brassica crops worldwide. Infection of pathogen occurs on the leaves, stems and pods at different developmental stages of plant causing seed yield losses of up to 80% as well as significant reductions in oil content and quality. The initial symptom on stem appears as elongated water-soaked lesions that expand rapidly and move down to the petiole into stem. Sometimes, during ascospore liberation, the infection also observed on leaves as shot hole symptoms. Release of ascospores and their survival are potentially important factors for the development of disease and in the life cycle of this pathogen. Isolates of S.sclerotiorum showed a high level of morphological variability and molecular diversity with varied level of aggressiveness. Management of the pathogen is difficult and inconsistent due to the presence of wide host range and long-term survival of the resting structures. Complete resistance against this pathogen has not been reported so far. However, partial resistance was being observed in some Brassica genotypes including B. carinata. The Brassicaceae family comprising wide array of different species, wild crucifers have also been observed to show high level of resistance against Sclerotinia disease. Application of fungicides, bio-agents and crop rotation are currently the major approaches of managing the disease. Different soil amendments, micronutrients, plant extracts, fungicides and bio-agents were evaluated through soil application, seed treatment and foliar spray. Seed treatment and foliar spray of carbendazim proved potential in management of Sclerotinia stem rot.

Speaker
Biography:

Sushil Saxena completed his PhD degrees in Forest Entomology as well as in Agricultural Entomology at the age of 45 and 48 years from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, and Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, respectively. He is the Principal Investigator of ICAR funded IPM and NICRA Projects. He has published more than 50 research papers in various International journal and National journals and is on the advisory panel of "Fruits" (International journal) and Journal of Applied Zoological Researches. He has more than 29 years of research experience in Horticultural Entomology and has won two national awards.

Abstract:

The experimental trial was conducted at Fruit Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Gandevi, Gujarat during 2009-11 to find out the most effective biocide for the management of banana rust thrips, Chaetanophothrips signipenis. The trial was laid out in Randomized block design with nine treatments viz; bunch sleeving at shooting stage (100 gauge thickness and 6% ventilation), bud injections of azadirachtin (0.5%) and imidacloprid (0.03%), foliar sprays of azadirachtin (0.5%), neem seed kernel extract (0.2%), neem oil (0.2%), pongamia oil (0.2%), chlorpyriphos (0.05%) and untreated control each replicated four times on invitro produced banana cv. Grand Naine plants under field condition. All the treatments were found superior over untreated control, however, lowest thrips infestation was recorded in bud injection treatment of imidacloprid (16.88%) followed by chlorpyriphos (24.94%) which was at par with bud injection of azadirachtin (25.74%). Bud injection of imidacloprid also resulted in highest bunch weight (18.72 Kg) and yield (57.78 t/ha.), though it was at par with chlorpyriphos (17.90 Kg and 55.24 t/ha.) and neem oil (17.87 Kg and 55.15 t/ha.), whereas bunch sleeving of fruit bunches recorded highest infestation of fruit bunch (54.63%), lowest bunch weight (15.55 Kg) and yield (47.97 t/ha.). So, it can be concluded that though treatments of imidacloprid and chlorpyriphos recorded lower bunch infestation and higher bunch weight and yield, the biocides based on azadirachtin provided nearly the same results for the management of thrips.

A Padmasri

Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, India

Title: Evaluation of new molecules for management of stem borers on Sugarcane
Speaker
Biography:

A Padmasri is presently working as Scientist (Seed Entomology), Seed Research and Technology Center, ANGR Agricultural University, Hyderabad. She joined as Scientist (Entomology) at RS &RRS, Rudrur during 2006 and involved in testing the efficacy of newer insecticides against early shoot borer in sugarcane and rice stem borer and gall midge. Presently her work is involved in evaluating the novel insecticides and packing materials against stored grain pests in different crops and suitability of the same against the storability of the seed. She was awarded with Junior Research Fellowship by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research during 1997. She was awarded with Hexamer Foundation medal for securing highest OGPA during post graduation in 1999. She was involved in releasing a book on Integrated Pest Management in various crops.

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted at Regional Sugarcane and Rice Research Station, Rudrur during 2011 and 2012, to assess the chemical control of sugarcane stem borers (Chilo infuscatellus and Chilo sachariphagus indicus). Seven insecticides namely, Ferterra 4G, Spinosad 45 SC, Acephate 75 SP, Chloropyriphos 20EC, Chloranthriniliprole 18.5 SC, Indoxicarb 14.5 SC, Flubendamide 480 SC and compared with untreated (Check plot) using randomized block design with three replications. Significant differences were noticed among the treatments. The lowest per cent mean cumulative incidence of early shoot borer (11.61) at 45, 60, 90 and 120 days after planting and lowest per cent intensity (1.48) and incidence (1.21) of inter nodal shoot borer was recorded in Chloranthriniliprole 18.5 SC@0.36 ml/l of water. Further, the same treatment recorded significantly superior cane yield of 85.05 t/ha, while the untreated control recorded 79.01 t/ha. Among the insecticides Chloranthriniliprole 18.5 SC @ 0.36 ml/l of water proved superior in checking the stem borer infestation over rest of the insecticides tested.

Biography:

Mitul Karkar is a plant biologist and has been working on Biopesticide, fungus, larva. He works as a assistant professor at Junagadh Agricultural University, India, His area of research work mainly focused on the biopesticides in agriculture.

Abstract:

Investigations on "bio- efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) infesting pigeonpea" were carried out at the Agronomy farm and Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat during kharif 2011.
The study revealed that the treatments of polytrin-C 0.044 per cent, chlorpyriphos 0.05 per cent and acephate 0.15 per cent were found the most toxic to the H. armigera larvae. The next best treatments were Bb @1.25 kg/ha + polytrin-C 0.022 per cent and Bb @1.25 kg/ha + chlorpyriphos 0.025 per cent. The bio-pesticide B. bassiana alone showed the toxicity from 3rd day of application and increased drastically in subsequent period up to 15th day of application and found more or less compatible with either insecticides.
The B. bassiana @ 3.5 g/litre proved to be the most effective dose among five doses tested against 3rd instar larvae of H. armigera under laboratory condition.
Laboratory investigation on compatibility of B. bassiana fungus with different seven insecticides revealed that the insecticides spinosad, indoxacarb, monocrotophos and acephate were most compatible with entomogenous fungus, B. bassiana. Chlorpyriphos, polytrin- C and azadirachtin were found less compatible with entomogenous fungus, B. bassiana.

Speaker
Biography:

Paramjit Kaur has completed her PhD from Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. She is working as Assistant Acarologist in All India Network Project on Agricultural Acarology, Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. She is involved in all basic and applied research on Acarology under this project. She has published 11 papers in reputed journals and has received two first prizes for poster presentations at national and international conferences. Frank G. Zalom is professor in the UC Davis Department of Entomology and an Integrated Pest Management specialist. He is President of the 6800-member Entomological Society of America. He has been selected as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the Entomological Society of America, and the California Academy of Sciences, and has published over 300 peer reviewed journal articles and book chapters.

Abstract:

The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is a polyphagous mite and can cause a severe reduction in strawberry yield. At present, Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor) is emerging as a problem in southern California strawberry production, and has caused significant damage particularly to organic fields. In order to understand the competitive interaction of both species on strawberry and on castor bean, a traditional host for E. lewisi in the area. Three temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C) and photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) were selected for the study. Ten gravid female adults of both the mites were placed onto a whole clean detached leaf. Mites were removed from the leaves after 72 hours and observations were made after 48 hours. The results showed that E. lewisi was dominant on T. urticae on castor bean leaves at all temperatures in comparison to strawberry. The E. lewisi population was found to be 2.90, 4.36 and 47.45 times greater than T. urticae at 25, 20 and 15°C, respectively, on castor bean. However, the population of T. urticae was 5.14, 6.07 and 1.33 times greater than E. lewisi at 25, 20 and 15°C on strawberry. Two conclusions were made from the observed competitive interactions between these mites: E. lewisi can survive better than T. urticae at low temperatures if a favourable host is available, and T. urticae is dominant compared to E. lewisi on strawberry. E. lewisi was shown to complete its life cycle on strawberry leaves and increase in abundance, so its pest status potential in strawberry cultivation was confirmed.
Keywords: Castor bean, Eotetranychus lewisi, Tetranychus urticae, Strawberry.

Speaker
Biography:

Sunil Ghosh completed his PhD from Bidhan Ch. Krishi Viswavidyalaya in 2000 and joined as asstt. Professor in Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Coochbehar, West Bengal in 2002. He is now engaged in teaching at UG and PG level. He is doing his research work on biopesticides and sustainable pest management in agricultural field. He has published more than 30 research papers in reputed journal.

Abstract:

Ladysfinger or Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) is an annual vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the globe. In the sub-Himalayan region of north east India the crop is cultivated throughout the year from the 9th to 45th Standard Meteorological Weeks (SMW) which excludes the winter months. The crop is susceptible to various pests of which flea causes heavy damage. The pest was active throughout the growing period with a peak population (5.67 flea beetles/plant) during 26th SMW (last week of June) in the pre-kharif crop. Again population reached higher (3.33/plant) on the 37th SMW (2nd week of September) in the post kharif crop. Sudden fall of population was found during July-August because of heavy rains. Flea beetle population showed significant positive correlation (p=0.05) with average temperature, relative humidity, whereas significant negative correlation with rainfall. This study evaluated the efficacy of azadirachtin, extracts from plants such as Polygonum hydropiper L. floral part and Pongamia pinnata L. fruit, tobacco leaf and garlic against flea beetle and compared with the ability of profenophos. Profenophos was found the most effective treatment for controlling flea beetle, followed by the azadirachtin and Polygonum. It was observed that azadirachtin and extracts of Polygonum plant gave moderate to higher flea beetle control, recording more than 50% mortality and produced higher yield. Azadirachtin and Plant extracts are biopesticides having less or no hazardous effects on human health and environment. Thus they can be incorporated in IPM programmes and organic farming in vegetable cultivation.
Keywords: Seasonal fluctuation, bio-pesticides, vegetable IPM, organic farming

Speaker
Biography:

Pradyumna Tripathy has completed his PhD from Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal and postdoctoral studies from Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. He is presently working as Horticulturist in AICRP on Cashew, OUAT, Bhubaneswar. He served as Principal Investigator for four years in 100% sponsored ICAR project in All India Network Research Project on Onion and Garlic. He has published 52 research papers in various National & International journals. He has also published 6 practical manuals for B.Sc (Hort.) students, 2 book chapters on organic farming in vegetable crops. He also attended a number of International and National seminars, symposiums and workshops. He is the life member of several professional bodies and societies and has been examiner in different universities. Dr. P. Tripathy is also the author of book entitled, "Organic Farming in India: Problems & Prospects".

Abstract:

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is an important export oriented vegetable among the cultivated Allium in India. Onion Thrips (Thrips tabaci Linderman) is the key biotic factor for reducing yield loses in both bulb as well as seed cops in onion. Besides direct damage to both foliage and bulbs, thrips can indirectly aggravate purple blotch and vector for viral diseases, Iris yellow spot as well. Though host plant resistance is a crucial component of IPM, in absence of high levels of host plant resistance to Thrips tabaci and development of resistance towards number of pesticide of late. There is an urgent need to look at other IPM options for effective management. Field study was conducted under All India Network Research Project on Onion and Garlic, College of Horticulture (OUAT), Sambalpur, Odisha, India during Rabi 2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13 to find out the effective eco-friendly IPM modules for management of thrips (Thrips tabaci Linderman) in onion. The treatment consists of M1: IPM module, M2: Farmers' Practices and M3: Control, laid out in RBD. The results obtained over three years indicated that both M1 and M2 not only significantly reduced the thrips population (21.68 and 21.02 thrips plant-1) but also increased total marketable yield (25.86 and 25.70 tha-1), respectively over the control, M3 (39.13 thrips plant-1 and 20.58 tha-1) . Higher BC Ratio was recorded in M1 (3.26) than M2 (2.70). It may be concluded that adoption of IPM module approach consisting of planting of border crop of two rows wheat and maize,10-15days prior to planting, seedling dip treatment with Carbosulfan and need based insecticides spray, when thrips population exceed ETL (30 thripsplant-1) not only reduces the thrips infestation but also increases the bulb yield with quality bulbs in onion.

Speaker
Biography:

Fatima B. J. Sawa is researcher from Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Nigeria.Presently she is working in Crop Production Laboratory of Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. She has interest in Diversity of Pollen Morphology in Accessions of Sesamum indicum .

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted at the Crop Production Laboratory of Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effectiveness of leaf powders of six plants (Spider plant, Basil, Hyptis, Sugar apple, Desert date and Negro coffee) and a synthetic Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic Dust) in controlling Tribolium castaneum Herbst on stored millet grain (Variety-Sosat). The Leaf powders of each plant and the Primiphos-methyl were tested at 2.5g, 5.0g and 7.5g of sound millet grain. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and each plant treatment was replicated three times. Although, both the plant products and synthetic treatments were significantly (PL) higher than control, Primiphos-methyl (Actelic dust) at all the tested concentrations caused significantly (P>0.05) higher adult mortality of 3.17 at 22 hours after treatment (HAT) and 1.83 at 72 HAT than all the plant materials with complete suppression of larval development and adult emergence at 15 and 45 days after treatment (DAT), respectively. Among the other treatments, desert date and sugar apple caused adult mortality of 1.00% and 1.29% at 22 and 72 HAT, respectively. This resulted in significant reduction in larval development, adult emergence and grain weight loss at 15, 45 and 63 DAT, respectively. Basil was next to sugar apple and desert date in terms of effectiveness with grain weight loss of 1.98% and grain damage of 22.2%. Although, 5.0g and 7.5g concentrations of plant powders were equally effective in reducing larval development and adult emergence, however, maximum grain protection was obtained with sugar apple in at 7.5g concentration/25g millet grain at 63DAT i.e., adult mortality was highest (1.29%), while loss (2.82%) and grain damage (10.6%) were lowest at this concentration. Therefore, use of sugar apple at the concentration of 7.5g/25 (i.e., 30% w/w) is recommended for maximum protection of millet grain against damage by T. castaneum in storage.
Keywords: Red Flour Beetle (T. castanium), Millet (P. glaucum), Botanical Insecticides, Synthetic Insecticide (Actellic dust).

Shashi Vemuri

Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, India

Title: Dissipation pattern of Profenophos on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)
Speaker
Biography:

Shashi Vemuri has completed his PhD at the age of 27 years from Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University Specialiasing in Pesticide Residues and has 30 years of teaching, Research and Extension experience. He is the Principal Investigator of the Central Sector project "Monitoring of Pesticide Residues at National level" and heading the All India Net work project on Pesticide Residues, Hyderabad centre. He has published more than 65 papers in reputed journals and 32 papers in international conferences in many countries. He is serving as an editorial board member of repute. He is the member of International Sugarcane Technologists Association and received number of State and National awards for his contribution to Farming Society.

Abstract:

A experiment conducted during kharif, 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of seven insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG at 11 g a.i.ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG at 22 g a.i.ha-1, profenophos 50 EC at 500 g a.i.ha-1, profenophos 50 EC at 1000 g a.i.ha-1, spinosad 45 SC at 100 g a.i.ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC at 100 g a.i.ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis at 5 WP at 25 g a.i.ha-1 against Plutella xylostella on cabbage of which profenophos 50 EC (1000 g a.i.ha-1), applied twice as foliar sprays was found to be most effective in controlling the Plutella xylostella, hence the dissipation studies were conducted for the same. The dissipation pattern of profenophos 50 EC (1000 g a.i.ha-1) was studied collecting samples at regular intervals i.e., 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 days after last spray and analyzed at AINP on Pesticide Residues, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to know the dynamics of degradation. The initial deposits of 0.99 mg kg-1 profenophos recorded at 2 hours after last spray dissipated to 0.85, 0.82, 0.16 and 0.07 mg kg-1 by 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after last spray, respectively and below determination level (BDL) by 10th day.
Keywords: cabbage, insecticides, Plutella xylostella, initial deposit, efficacy, dissipation and half-life.

Speaker
Biography:

Sampathkumar Muthusamy is working as a scientist in Directorate of Rice Research for the past three years having experience in rice entomology of five years. He is specialized in insect chemical ecology and did his PhD work on insect pheromones entitled "Studies on rice stem borer management using indigenous pheromone technology". In collaboration with IICT, Hyderabad, he developed indigenous yellow stem borer lure, for this he has been awarded with Brig Anil Adlakha award and gold medal of TNAU for best PhD thesis in rice and also recipient of Innovation award of 2011 from TNAU. He is also attempting in the development of multispecies trapping blends for rice stem borers. Currently, he is working on identification on pink stem borer pheromones as PI and CO-PI in the inter institutional project with DOR entitled “Development of semiochemical based monitoring and management methods against major insect-pests of castor. Under externally funded project he is associated in ICAR network project on National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA).

Abstract:

Changing climatic scenario with modern cultivation practices in rice crop made pink stem borer (PSB), Sesamia inferens (Walker) to achieve pest status in many rice growing regions of India. Though an array of management options are available, use of a synthetic sex pheromone has potential scope in future. Adult emergence pattern, reproductive biology and courtship behaviour of PSB, S. inferens were studied in order to identify the time at which females secrete sex pheromone. Such information is pre-requisite in isolation and identification of biologically active components. Peak male moth emergence (ca. 50%) was noticed at 20.00 hrs while females emerged, around 22.00 hrs. After two to four hrs of emergence, female moths assumed calling postures and also exhibited a range of behavioural patterns such us antennal rotation, wing vibration/fluttering chiefly in the scotophases between 22.00-23.00 hrs and 0.0 to 0.30 hrs. Mating took place between 0.45 hrs and lasted for 1.35 ± 0.20 hours. After mating, males and females moved apart and the decoupling mechanism ended the courtship behaviour. Single female laid 122±16.82 eggs. A series of experiments revealed that mating success rate was the highest with one day old females (90%) and it decreased in five day old females (40%). Unmated five day old females laid unfertilized eggs. The study helps in understating reproductive potential and isolation of sex pheromone molecules of PSB.

Biography:

Sushil Maheshwari has completed his PhD at the age of 28 years from C. S. Azad Univ. of Agricultural & Technology, Kanpur (U.P.), India. He is Senior Scientist of Plant Pathology at Central Institute for Arid Horticulture (ICAR), Bikaner (Rajasthan), India, a premier Arid Horticulture institute/organization. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Alternaria leaf blight disease is a serious bottleneck in the production of watermelon in India. A field trial was carried out during summer season of 2012 to screen 19 watermelon genotypes (RW-177-3, RW-187-2, Charleston Gray, Mahbooby, IC-315313, IC- 325808, GP- 42, GP- 35, GP- 20, Thar Manak, AHW- 19, AHW- 65, Asahi Yamato, Sugar Baby, Arka Manik, Bikaner Local, Barmer Local, Churu Local, and Jaisalmer Local) for resistance against Alternaria leaf blight disease under field conditions with normal cultivation practices at Central Institute for Arid Horticulture, Bikaner. Disease severity in watermelon genotypes was recorded at maturity stage on the basis of per cent leaf area affected and field reaction due to Alternaria leaf blight was categorized by using 0- 5 rating scale. Disease incidence was also calculated. Disease incidence and disease severity in 19 watermelon genotypes ranged from 5.0- 50.00% and 5.75 to 21.50%, respectively. Out of them, none was found immune as well as resistant against Alternaria leaf blight. Only two varieties 'Asahi Yamato' and 'Arka Manik' were found moderately resistant against this disease with minimum disease severity of 5.75 and 7.80%, respectively. Fourteen genotypes were categorized as moderately susceptible and remaining 03 genotypes (GP- 20, RW-177-3 and GP-35) proved susceptible against this disease. During the study period, genotypes have not high disease severity due to unfavourable environmental conditions for the disease development. However, it is concluded that only two varieties 'Asahi Yamato' and 'Arka Manik' were found moderately resistant against Alternaria leaf blight disease of watermelon.

Speaker
Biography:

Seema completed her PhD in Biological Science in the year 2014.Her area Of research is in microbial technology, agrotechnology, plant pathology.She has worked on isolation, purification and characterization of bioactive metabolites from Pseudomonas and Streptomyces species and their application in disease management. she is expertise in Plant-microbe interaction. She has established strategies to manage the root-rot wilt disease of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium) disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum etc. using pathological and computational approaches. Planning for ecofriendly management technologies to manage fungal diseases on medicinal and aromatic plants and phytoremediation assisted technologies. She was a member of the core committee for successfully organizing a two day symposium “JIGYASA-2014” (13th-14th December), organized by CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow

Abstract:

New and novel solutions are sought for improving productivity and sustainability in agriculture. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) present an alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in enhancing crop productivity. A novel strain of Pseudomonas putida, PsF84 was isolated from tannery waste soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as P. putida. An antifungal volatile compound (VOC) was active against hyphal growth of Fusarium oxysporum (strain CIMAP IMI 357464) in vitro was isolated from strain PsF84 by using chromatographic techniques. The molecular formula of the antifungal VOC was deduced to be C14H22O by EI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis. The antifungal VOC (2, 4-di-tert-butylphenol) was found to be effective against agriculturally important fungi, viz., F. oxysporum in inhibiting spore germination and hyphal growth. Molecular docking analysis of 2,4-tert-butylphenol with β-tubulin further validated the potential of β-tubulin binding in F.oxysporum. The sequence-based prediction of 3D structure of β-tubulin protein of F. oxysporum was also done to analyze the properties and function. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antifungal VOC (2, 4-di-tert-butylphenol) produced by P. putida PsF84 which can be a potent inhibitor of β-tubulin of F. oxysporum.
Keywords: Pseudomonas putida, 2, 4-di-tert-butylphenol, Fusarium oxysporum, Molecular modeling, Docking, β-tubulin.

Biography:

G Narendra Kumar presently pursuing his PhD in the discipline of Entomology from CCSHAU, Hisar, Haryana and is working on hygienic behavior in honey bees and resistance in Varroa to acaricides. He completed his M.Sc. programme from the same University in 2011. During M.Sc he conducted studies on the toxicity of various insecticides to Trichogramma chilonis. He has done his graduation in B.Sc. (Agriculture) from College of Agriculture, Bapatla under Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh in 2009. He actively participated in various literary competitions during B.Sc. and represented his university in the national debating completion held at Madurai, Tamil Nadu in 2009.

Abstract:

Investigations were carried out to assess the toxicity of insecticides on various biological parameters of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii. Spinosad was found to be the most toxic in all the laboratory studies followed by triazophos. Spinosad resulted in only 17.80 per cent parasitization and 3.97 per cent adult emergence from the eggs treated before parasitization. Novaluron was found to be the safest resulting in 58.93 per cent parasitization and 89.72 per cent adult emergence from the eggs treated before parasitization. The parasitization in other insecticides ranged from 20.00 to 40.47 per cent. Spinosad was also found highly toxic to all the immature stages resulting in only 0.46, 0.66 and 0.65 per cent adult emergence from the egg, larval and pupal stages, respectively, while novaluron was found to be safe to all the immature stages resulting in 86.75, 87.84 and 87.46 per cent adult emergence from the egg, larval and pupal stages, respectively. The adult emergence in other insecticides ranged from 57.95 to 88.63 per cent from egg stage, 53.97 to 87.12 per cent from larval stage and 61.46 to 87.15 per cent from pupal stage. In residual toxicity studies under laboratory conditions only novaluron was found to be safe while all the other insecticides remained toxic even up to 15 days of preparation of film while residual toxicity studies under field conditions resulted in the recommendation of minimum waiting period of 10 days for endosulfan, imidacloprid and azadirachtin and 15 days for thiodicarb while it was more than 15 days for spinosad and triazophos.

S. Divya

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India

Title: Exclusion of ants in management of Papaya mealy bug
Speaker
Biography:

S. Divya has completed her PhD at the age of 27 years from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. She is currently working as Subject Matter Specialist in Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Hans Roever Campus, Perambalur. She published one of the works of her PhD research in National Journal. She has got one best paper presentation award in National Seminar. She is also the Project Incharge in project National Information System for Pest Management (NISPM) in Bt cotton sponsored by DOCD and Ministry of Agriculture. She was Course teacher for Final year B.Sc (Agri) students AEN. 503- Commercial Bee keeping during the year 2012-13.

Abstract:

Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) the invasive pest from Central American countries has caused havoc in agricultural and horticultural crops in India. Papaya mealybug is a polyphagous pest that damages many tropical crops. In India it was introduced in 2008 and it attains the status of major pest in 2009 when it causes severe damage to economically important crops. Recently exotic parasitoids Acerophagous papayae Noyes & Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes & Schauff (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) was introduced to India in 2010 and its efficacy was assessed. The parasitoid A. papayae is well established and efficient in controlling P. marginatus. The Efficiency of A. papayae was reduced due to the association of Phoretic ants. Mealybug control often involves the control of care taking ants that was important for the proper development of mealybugs. In the absence of ants, mealybug population was small and slowed to invade new areas and the field would be free of a serious melaybug infestation. Ants helped in spreading the mealybugs and provided protection from predatory ladybird beetles, parasite and other natural enemies. Therefore, management of mealybugs often includes the control of ant species. The present study was to emphasize that management of phoretic ants which is associated with papaya mealybug to bring down the papaya mealybug population by increasing the parasitization rate of the predominant exoitic parasitoid Acerophagus papayae. The phoretic ants exclusion technique itself reduced the mealybug population to the extent of 54.31 per cent in 60 days after exclusion in cotton.

Mohammad Fahim Ansari

Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, India

Title: Effect of mixing of salt in scraped lac during rainy season
Speaker
Biography:

Mohammad Fahim Ansari is currently Senior Scientist in Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums Ranchi-834 010. He completed his PhD on 'Development of surface coating compositions based on shellac-synthetic resin/polymer blends' from BIT Mesra Ranchi on July 29, 2013. He has developed some lac based formulations for surface finish. He has also developed lac based dental base plate and the technology has been commercialized. He was awarded the Distinguished Worker Award – 2013 by IINRG (ICAR), Ranchi. He received the best paper award (B. C. Haldar Memorial Award) for one of his research paper in 1997, at Rubber Research Institute, Kottayam, Kerala. He qualified Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) in June, 1999, conducted by CSIR-UGC.

Abstract:

Mixing of salt in fresh scraped lac of rainy season crop is commonly practiced in Gujarat to avoid lump formation during storage and transportation. The fresh kusmi lac, mixed with common salt (5%) and a control sample were stored in jute sacks separately for three years. It was observed that control scraped lac coalesced together and lump formation took place, while salt mixed lac remained normal (separated), during the period of storage. Jute sack having control lac sample degraded and decomposed on the point of contact with surface and a big hole was created while sack having salt mixed lac did not have any effect. After one year of storage, salt mixed lac showed fungal attack in rainy season may be due to salt absorbed water.
Properties of the lacs were studied for three years at regular interval of six months. The scraped lacs were washed with 0.1% washing soda and converted in to seedlacs. During washings, it was observed that more color came out in salted lac in comparison to control scraped lac sample. Yield of the seedlac obtained from salted lac was less (approximately 8%) in comparison to that obtained from control lac sample. Except life under heat, other physico-chemical properties such as flow, hot alcohol insoluble %, color index and rate of filtration were better in salted lac than those of control lac sample. Coating properties such as gloss, scratch hardness, impact resistance and flexibility was inferior in seedlac obtained from salted lac to that of seedlac obtained from control lac sample.

Speaker
Biography:

Ashok S. Sajjan has obtained PhD from University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad -580 005, Karnataka, India. He is working as Associate Professor of Seed Science and Technology and HOD. He has served twenty years in teaching, Research and Extension activities. The eleven students have completed post graduate under his chairmanship and they have employed in national and various state sector. The four technologies have been developed and approved by Research council and also adopted by farmers. He has published around 55 papers, 32 abstracts, several popular articles and few books at his credit. He has organized several training programmes, participated and delivered lectures during winter school, farmers and officer training programmes. He was awarded with Basav jyothi, Basav Bhusan, Dr. Abdul Kalam life time Achievement Award and Basav Shanti. He has visited and participated in Intensive vegetable production under protected condition at Israel, Plant breeding and seed production phase I at Sweden, Plant breeding and seed production phase II at Zambia, International Programme on Alumni workshop on Plant Breeding and Seed Production at Cambodia.

Abstract:

Sorghum bicolor [(L.)Moench] commonly known as 'jowar' is the fifth most important cereal in the world next to wheat, rice, maize and barley. The rabi sorghum accounts for 56.3 percent of the total area under cultivation and 46.4 percent of the total production. The incidence of grain smut is quite common and most destructive in almost all sorghum growing areas of the world. During threshing the sori break and release the spores which adhere to the surface of healthy seeds and remain dormant till the next season. The grain smut of sorghum is caused by Sporisorium [Sporisorium sorghi (Link.)Willd]. The disease is also known as covered kernel smut or short smut. Besides India, the disease has been reported from United States, Italy, and South Africa etc. The grain smut pathogen on sorghum is externally seed borne. The smut sori break during threshing releasing the spores; that adhere to the surface of healthy seeds and remain dormant till the next season. The infection takes place before the seedlings emerge out. The conditions suited for delayed germination of seeds favour the smut infection. An attempt has been made to review the suitable fungicides for the management of grain smut of sorghum such as carbendazim, sulphur, thiram, Carboxin. Among the several fungitoxicants reviewed belonging to different groups; the seeds treated with carboxin+thiram (Vitavax Power) followed by sulphur @3.0 g/kg just before sowing recorded significantly higher seed yield and lesser smut incidence and better seed quality parameters.

Biography:

Goke Bodunde worked in the department of Horticulture as a Professor. His current position is Dean COPLANT. His Research interests are Horticulture and Crop Physiology He has attended so many Institutions and he is the Membership of Professional Bodies, Awards Received, Courses Taught, Research Publications, and attendee of conferences.

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruit is highly perishable under tropical conditions. This study was conducted at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, to observe the effects of field crop spacing and two storage media on sensory and proximate qualities of fruits from three varieties of tomato; UC 82-B, Ibadan Local and Beske. While UC 82-B is a standard processing tomato, Ibadan Local and Beske are local varieties common with consumers in South-western Nigeria. Fruits harvested from tomato grown at 60 x 50 cm and 30 x 50 cm were stored in two media types; Pot-in-pot Evaporative Coolant System (ECS), Block-in-block ECS and compared with the Open Shelf storage. Sensory parameters data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance procedure. Average storage media temperature of 27oC, 27.5oC and 28oC was observed in Block-in-block, Pot-in-pot and Open Shelf respectively. Wide crop spacing resulted in large fruit size which were poor storers. Moisture content of stored fruits increased and crude protein decreased with the most pronounced decrease observed in fruits stored in Open shelf. Vitamins A and C contents decreased in all storage media, the magnitude of reduction was lowest in the Pot-in-pot. Fruit firmness was sustained in the Block-in-block and Pot-in-pot media for 21 days compared to 14 days in the Open Shelf. A positive and significant correlation (r=0.328) was observed between fruit circumference and wholesomeness. The Pot-in-pot and Block-in-block ECS preserved fruit quality compared to the Open shelf, thus recommended as tomato storagemedia for consumers where electronic facilities are limiting.

K. Sireesha

Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University, India

Title: Management of pests cabbage through trap cropping with Chinese Cabbage
Biography:

K.Sireesha is a Scientist in Horticultural Research Station, LAM (lymphangioleiomyomatosis) Guntur, AP.

Abstract:

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata) is one of the important cole crops grown in Andhra Pradesh. Pest incidence is the major constraint in attaining higher yields. The major insect pests which cause maximum yield loss in cabbage are Diamond back moth, (Plutella xylostella), leaf webber, (Crocidolomia binotalis) and cabbage aphid, (Brevicoryne brassicae). To control the pests attacking cabbage, farmers relied on pesticides as the major crop protection strategy. This, in turn has contributed to insecticide resistance, insecticide residues in harvested produce and impact on human health. To reduce the use of pesticides, environment friendly methods like trap cropping is being developed. Present studies were conducted to evaluate the potentiality of Chinese cabbage as trap crop for the pests of cabbage.
The effect of trap crop namely chineese cabbage on the control of pests of cabbage and the seasonal incidence of pests were studied during 2009-2012 and 2011-12 respectively. Treatment with Chinese cabbage as trap crop recorded significantly lowest per cent head damage (9.32 %) with higher yields (336 q/ha). Activity of Diaretiella rapae was observed with highest percent parasitisation of 67.53 on cabbage where as parasitisation percent was very poor (1.4 %) on Chinese cabbage. Seasonal incidence studies revealed that the Hellula undalis, Spodoptera litura, Brevicorne brassicae and Crocidolomia binotalis were the dominant pests on cabbage. The major pest, Plutella xylostella did not appear on the cabbage transplanted during the month of November where as its population appeared on the crop transplanted during the month of January and its population started increasing during February and March. In case of Chinese cabbage, metallic beetles (Phyllotreata cruciferae), whitefly, aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) and mustard sawfly (Athalia lugens proxima) appeared during early stage of the crop, where as leaf webber population (C. binotalis) reached peak towards the maturity. In the present study mustard and chineese cabbage were compared for their potentiality to attract pests on cabbage. Keywords: Cabbage, Chinese Cabbage, Trap Cropping, Seasonal Incidence.

Biography:

G. Anitha is a Scientist (Entomology) and AICRP on Biological Control in Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, India Hyderabad.

Abstract:

Effective integrated pest management strategies of Achaea janata. Linneaus on castor include conservation of its key natural enemies, two Hymenopteran larval parasitoids, Snellenius maculipennis (Szepligeti) and Euplectrus Westwood. Information about weather and host related factors affecting these parasitoids in Mahboobnagar region, Andhra Pradesh, India is scant and hence, a survey was taken up in farmers' fields in kharif seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 to determine the degree of parasitisation of larvae of A.janata by S.maculipennis and Euplectrus and study their population dynamics as affected by weather parameters and host density. Two year observations revealed that S.maculipennis recorded a maximum of 78.9% parasitisation in the last week of August, while for Euplectrus, peak parasitisation of 35.5% was attained in the last week of September. Regression studies of larval parasitisation with weather and host density revealed that evening relative humidity, rainfall and host density had an extremely significant positive influence on parasitisation by S. maculipennis, while maximum temperature had significantly negative influence. Host density was the only factor which affected larval parasitisation by Euplectrus significantly and positively. Multiple regression equations were fitted for both the parasitoids and discussed.
Keywords: A. janata; larval parasitoid; S.maculipennis; Euplectrus; parasitisation; biotic factors; abiotic factors.

Biography:

M. M. S. Bakry belongs to Plant Protection Department as Faculty of Agriculture research center in Sohag Univ., Sohag, Egypt.

Abstract:

Studies were conducted to evaluate the negative impacts of scale insects and mealybugs on the morphological and chemical characters of mango leaves. Scale insects significantly reduced the area of infested leaves. Scale insects prefer younger leaves, causing significant loss in leaf areas and leaf pigment contents. The comparisons between different scale insects indicated that Insulaspis pallidula caused the greatest damage. The loss in the measured parameters was a summation of many factors including level of infestation, time of infestation and age of infested leaves.

Biography:

D.Krishnaveni is working as Principal Scientist of Department of Plant Pathology at Directorate of Rice Research Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. She has 18 years of research experience on Host plant Resistance; Rice tungro virus disease Strainal variation of RTV, Molecular mapping of resistance genes. Her major acchivements are   Mapping & tagging of RTV resistance gene, Strainal variability of RTV, Genitic diversity of BLB, Associated in host plant resistance of RTV and other major diseases of rice.

Abstract:

Tungro virus disease is one of the most devastating and widespread diseases of rice. The disease occurs sporadically and causes significant grain yield losses. Tungro disease is reported to be caused by a combination of a spherical picorna virus (RTSV) and a bacilliform DNA pararetro virus (RTBV) and transmitted by green leafhopper (GLH) species Nephotettix virescens. As chemicals are not very effective for the control of tungro, host plant resistance has become the most important alternative for the management of this disease. Several donors are known for resistance to virus and vector. However, due to large scale cultivation of rice and shift in the vector population, several of these varieties have become susceptible to tungro as well as vector. For durable resistance to rice tungro disease, the resistance genes for virus and vector are required and many of the donors in cultivated species do not possess the same. Identification of novel genes introgressed from wild rice would help in developing durable and multiple pest resistant varieties to stabilize the rice production in the country. Wild species are an important reservoir of useful genes for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The wild species of rice such as O. rufipogon, O. alta, O. grandiglumis, O. latifolia, O. glaberrima and O. officinalis expressed high level of resistance to rice tungro disease but very limited efforts have been made to introgress the gene(s) into cultivated variety. In the present study, 120 introgression lines of BPT 5204 x O. rufipogon along with T(N)1 (Susceptible check) and Vikramarya (resistant check) were screened for the reaction to RTV in a glasshouse (28±2°C, >95% RH). Initially leafhoppers were provided with an acquisition feeding on RTV infected plants for 12h. Fifteen-day old seedlings were individually capped with a Mylar cage into which 2-3 viruliferous green leafhoppers were released for 24 h and the reaction was scored 15 days later. Tungro disease was recorded by adopting the standard evaluation method (IRRI 1996). Of these 120 lines screened, 6 lines scored as 3 (Resistant BILs # 4B, 5B, 6B, 24B, 25B and 84B), 30 lines scored as 5 (moderately resistant) and the rest of the lines were susceptible. The resistant lines scoring 3 in 1-9 scale were on par with the Vikramarya which scored 3. The allelic variability of the putative candidate gene identified through fine mapping of qRTV-7 was screened in the resistant and susceptible lines. The association of the identified candidate genes in the identified resistant lines will be discussed.

Pravin Kumar Modi

Navsari Agricultural University, India

Title: Ratoon and intercropping techniques in Brinjal and Okra
Speaker
Biography:

Pravin Kumar Modi completed his B.Sc Agriculture from Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner and M.Sc. Horticulture from S.D. Agricultural University, S.K. Nagar (Gujarat) on effect of Born and Zinc on growth, flowering behaviour, yield and quality of papaya cv. Honey Dew. He is presently working as Subject matter Specialist, Horticulture at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Navsari Agricultural University, Vyara, Tapi (Gujarat). He published 3 books, 1research paper and number of articles in magazine’s.

Abstract:

Generally okra and brinjal crops remain under reproductive stage 4-5 month but enhance their reproductive life more than 9 months, earliar and higher yield as well as save seeds, fertilizers, labours and other inputs by ratton cropping . Ratton crop of okra and brinjal also support to creeper vegetables as an intercrop i.e. cucumber, bitter gourd etc. due to that increase yield and quality of fruits of cucumber and bitter gourd as compare to sole crop on flat land. In brinjal main crop plating in the month of March and production start from the second week of May to August month till 15 ton/ha production. Then after cut the brinjal plants upto 1 and ½ feet from the base and planting of cucumber and bitter gourd as an intercrop in ratton brinjal. From intercrop production 6 ton/ha each cucumber and brinjal with good quality because ratton brinjal branches/shoots support to creepers due that creeper fruits not directly contact with the soil. In ratton crop branches more than 3-4 and additional yield within 3 and ½ month 4 ton/ha. In okra main crop plating in the month of March and production start from the second week of May to first week of August month till 8 ton/ha production. Then after cut okra plants upto 2 feet from the base and cucumber grown as intercrop in ratton okra and production of intercrop 10 ton/ha with good quality because ratton okra branches/shoots support to creepers due to that fruits on gourds not directly contact with the soil as well as branches of main crop used as mulching and plants not contaminate by fungal attack from soil. In ratton crop branches more than 4-5 and additional yield within 3 and ½ month 2.5 ton/ha.
Keywords: Rattoning, intercropping, creeper vegetables, brinjal and okra.

Speaker
Biography:

Sava Vrbnicanin has completed her PhD at the age of 32 years from University of Belgrade- Faculty of Agriculture. She is the Full Professor of Weed Science. She has published more than 20 papers in reputed international journals and many papers in national journals.

Abstract:

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. population R survived the application of nicosulfuron in the corn field. This population has been treated with ALS (acetolactate synthase) inhibiting herbicides 5 consecutive years. The seeds of susceptible population (S) collected from area which had not been treated previously with any herbicide. The response of populations R and S to nicosulfuron was investigated in a whole-plant bioassay in controlled environment. Plants about 20 cm high were treated with following rates of nicosulfuron: 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g a.i.ha-1. Visual injury estimation and vegetative parameters (fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area) were recorded 7 days after herbicide application. ALS enzyme activity in different herbicide concentrations was determined in vitro. The statistical analyses were carried out using the statistical environment R with the extension package drc.
GR50 values for vegetative parameters were greater for the R (fresh weight: 218.58 g ha-1; dry weight: 298.86 g ha-1; leaf area: 52.62 g ha-1) than for the S population (fresh weight: 55.72 g ha-1; dry weight: 85.09 g ha-1; leaf area: 27.39 g ha-1), while I50 values for ALS activity were similar for both populations (R: 0.0227 µM; S: 0.0231 µM). Based on vegetative parameters R population was 1.92-3.92-fold less susceptible than S population, but on the enzyme level there was no differences. Therefore, resistance was not confirmed for R population, although this population showed somewhat decreased susceptibility to nicosulfuron, which can be regarded as an early stage of resistance development.

  • Track 2: Spices, Herbs and Medicinal Plants
Speaker

Chair

Irfan Ali Khan

Nawab Shah Alam Khan Centre for Post Graduate Studies and Research, India

Speaker

Co-Chair

Aniefiok Ndubuisi

University of Calabar, Nigeria

Speaker
Biography:

Aniefiok Ndubuisi Osuagwu obtained her PhD in 2002 from the University of Calabar, in Genetics and Plant Breeding. She teaches in the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology of the same University. She recently (2012) updated her knowledge on practicals in plant molecular genetics in the Department of Crop Science, Washington State University, Pullman, United States. She also attended training on 'Plant genetic resources and seeds; building community resilence in the face of climate change', held in India but organized by Centre for Development Initiative, Wangeningen. She has twelve articles in reputable journals to her credit.

Abstract:

Basic information on a plant species is important in the improvement of the species. This study was carried out to investigate and understand the biology, utilization and phytochemical composition of Gongronema latifolium Benth., which is a spice plant growing in the humid forest vegetation of South-Eastern Nigeria. Results obtained showed that the species had culinary and medicinal properties. G. latifolium was found to have simple and opposite leaves, dehiscent seed pod (follicle), that opens along a single seam. The seeds are flat with white hairy pappus, The flowers are bisexual, regular with pale yellow coloured petals and superior ovary. Phytochemical analysis of the tender fruits and mature leaves of Gongronema latifolium revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, phytic acid and hydrocyanic acid. The phytochemicals were found to be higher in the fruits than the leaves (P< 0.001) except the flavonoids which was higher in the leaves than in the fruits (P<0.001). The presence of these phytochemicals account for the nutri- ceutical /medicinal properties of Gongronema latifolium.
Keywords: Gongronema latifolium, spice plant, phytochemical, utilization, bisexual flowers.

Speaker
Biography:

Uday Chand Basak has completed his PhD from Utkal University, Odisha, India and continuing research work in the field of plant physiology and biochemistry as Scientist in Regional Plant Resource Centre, a premier R&D Institute of Forest and Environment Department, Govt. of Odisha. He has published more than 45 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Fruits and vegetables have now been documented as nutraceuticals or functional foods useful for health and medical benefits including prevention and treatment of diseases. With the background of ethno medicinal evidences and the view to utilize the wild fruit resources of Odisha, India as functional food enriched with antioxidants, 4 wild edible fruits were studied for in vitro radical scavenging activity and antioxidant enzymes such as Peroxidase, Catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) following standard methods. It was found that the fruit with highest DPPH scavenging activity is Antidesma ghaesembilla (1020.6 AEAC mg/100g dwt) and the lowest recorded in Morinda tinctoria (235 AEAC mg/100g dwt). The highest FRAP value was recorded in Antidesma ghaesembilla (2114 µM AEAC/g dwt) and the fruit with lowest FRAP value was Careya arborea (538 µM AEAC/g dwt) Antidesma ghaesembilla showed the highest Peroxidase value of 1.12 OD/min/g tissue wt while the lowest was found in Morinda tinctoria (0.054 OD/min/g tissue wt). Catalase was found in high amounts in Antidesma ghaesembilla (5.4 × 104 IEU/ g fresh tissue), the lowest value was observed in Dillenia pentagyna (1.2 × 104 IEU/ g fresh tissue). Similarly for superoxide dismutase (SOD), the highest value was recorded in Morinda tinctoria (4.43 Δ OD/min/mg protein) and lowest in Careya arborea (1.12 Δ OD/min/mg protein). Current research reveals that these wild edible fruits, especially Antidesma ghaesembilla are rich source of antioxidants and can further be subjected to identification of individual compounds responsible for such high antioxidant activity.

Speaker
Biography:

C. Krishnamoorthy He has completed Ph.D. (Horticulture) in the year 2012 and M.Sc. (Horticulture) Specialization in Spices and Plantation Crops during the year 2007-2008 in Faculty of Horticulture, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. He did his B.Sc. (Horticulture) in Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam during the year 2002-2006. He has also completed a certificate courses viz., MS Office, Visual Basic 6.0, Programming in “C” in NIIT, Theni in the year 2004.He has 2 years and 3 months of working experience in the field of Research, Extension and Teaching. Previously he has worked as Project Associate in ‘International Food Policy Research Institute and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Project’ from March - October 2012 and Research Associate in e-Extension Centre, Directorate of Extension Education, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore from November 2012 - April 2014.

Abstract:

Turmeric being an economically important spice crop with lots of export potential and domestic demands has intensive cultivation requirements especially in terms of nutrients. A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation of N and K fertilizers on quality of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cv. BSR 2 was carried out during June 2007 to February 2008, at the Agricultural Research Station, Bhavanisagar, Erode district. The experiment consisted of seven treatments replicated four times in a Randomized Block Design. Among the several treatments, the treatment with 100 % level of N and K application by fertigation through water soluble fertilizers (T5) were recorded higher quality contents viz., curcumin (4.4%), oleoresin (9.6%) and essential oil (3.8%).
Keywords: Fertigation, fertilizers, quality.

Speaker
Biography:

Jitesh Kumar Hore is working as a Professor at Bdhan chandra krishi Viswa Vidyalaya,India.His major area of research is Spices & Plantation Crops.He has many research paper published in national and international journals publication site.

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out at Horticulture Research Station, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal during the years 2011-12 and 2012-2013. The cloves were planted during middle of the October in 2.0 x1.5 m plot at 20 x15 cm spacing during both the years. The experiment was laid out in Radomised Block Design with three replications. Two nitrogen fixing biofertilizers(Azospirillum lipoferum and Azotobacter chrococcum) and two phosphaticbiofertilizer [vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhiza (Glomus fasciculatum) and phosphate solubilising bacteria (Bacillus polymixa)] and one potassic mobilizer (Fraturia aurantea) were included. Biofertilizers were applied @6g per plot with 250 g well rotten Farm yard manure. Three levels of recommended dose of NPK i.e., 100%, 75% and 50% were included. Two way combination of both nitrogenous and phosphatic biofertilizers were followed with each level of inorganic fertilizers which results in 12 treatment combination having potassium mobilize common to all treatment. Full dose of recommended fertilizer applied alone in one alone in one treatment i.e., altogether 13 treatment combinations.
The plants raised under NPK (100%) + Azotobacter +VAM +KM recorded maximum polar diameter (3.19 cm) but maximum number of cloves per bulb (32.86) was noticed in NPK (100%) + Azospirillium +VAM +KM. The maximum plant height (75.42 cm) and longest root (7.92 cm) were observed in NPK (100%) + Azotobacter +PSB +KM. The maximum leaf number (11.45), number of roots (98.46), bulb weight (29.16 g), equatorial diameter (4.12 cm), plot yield (2.85 kh/3m2) and projected yield (7.12 t/ha) were noticed in NPK (100%) + Azospirillium+PSB +KM. The next best treatment in respect of projected yield was NPK (100%) + Azotobacter +PSB +KM (6.64t/ha) followed by NPK (75%) + Azospirillium+PSB+KM (6.28t/ha). The results also indicate the chance of reduction of 25% of inorganic fertilizer through inoculations of biofertilizers.

Speaker
Biography:

M. Jayanthi is working as Senior Research Fellow in Department of Sustainable Organic Agriculture,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,India.She has completed her PhD in seed science and technology.She has a membership in Life membership in Indian Society of Seed Technology ,Uzhavarin Valarum Velanmai,The Madras Agricultural Journal (MASU)and International society for seed science.

Abstract:

Davana (Artemisia pallens) is an important high valued annual medicinal and aromatic herb of India belonging to the family Asteraceae. India has a monopoly in production and export trade of davana oil and India stands 3rd in essential oil production in the world. Davana is propagated through seeds but the seeds are poorer in germination. Hence, this study was conducted at Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to standardization of suitable invigouration treatment for seed quality enhancement in davana under laboratory condition. The seeds of davana subjected to different seed invigouration treatments. The treatments are seed invigouration with GA3 25 ppm, GA3 50 ppm, GA3 100 ppm, Thiourea 100 ppm, Thiourea 150 ppm, Thiourea 200 ppm, KNO3 0.05%, KNO3 0.1%, KNO3 0.2% with three different soaking durations viz., 10, 20 and 30 mins. and dry seeds served as control. The observation made on germination %, seedling length (cm), dry matter production and vigour index. The results revealed that seed invigouration with GA350 ppm for 20 min. improved the germination (62%), seedling length (2.4cm) and vigour index (147.6).
Keywords: Davana, seed invigouration, germination %, seedling length, drymatter production, vigour index.

Dipak K Murmu

Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, India

Title: Genetic variability for yield components of Chilli
Speaker
Biography:

Dipak K Murmu is working as faculty in Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, India.His major area of research interest is of genetic variability, fruit yield/plant, number of fruits/plant, fruit girth.During his research he published papers on genetic variability, fruit yield/plant, number of fruits/plant, fruit girth and seeds/fruit emerged as most reliable characters for selection because of their probable conditioning by the additive gene action.

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted at Central Research Farm, Gayeshpur, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal lying at 220 57'N latitude and 88020'E longitude with an average altitude of 9.75m above MSL. It comes under Gangetic new alluvial plains of sandy loam soil with neutral to slight acidity. Field experiment was carried out over the period of two years (2007-2008 to 2008-2009) during autumn and winter season. The design was RBD with three replications. Each plot consisted of 20 plants spaced by 50x50 cm.24 genotypes collected from different places were included & genetic variability was studied employing the 13 different characters.
In the present investigation, moderate GCV coupled with high broad sense heritability and moderately high genetic advance was registered in three characters namely fruit yield/plant, number of fruits /plants, fruit girth and seeds/fruit. So simple selection should also be rewarding in term of improving these characters. Very low heritability accompanied with very low to moderately low genetic advance was recorded for fruit length, fruit weight, pericarp thickness and pedicel:fruit ratio indicating less responsiveness of these characters to selection. Improvement of these characters needs selection over several successive years, preferably across locations and over different plantings because such association of genetic parameters may be attributed to non-additive gene action. From the results of genetic variability, fruit yield/plant, number of fruits/plant, fruit girth and seeds/fruit emerged as most reliable characters for selection because of their probable conditioning by the additive gene action.

Biography:

Manoj Tripathi is a Senior Scientist in Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, India.

Abstract:

Soybean proteins offer special benefits not found in many other protein foods and thus are being used to replace some dairy foods, or in diet. Tofu whey, a by-product of tofu manufacturing, is currently discarded by most soybean processing industries can be used as a good source of carbohydrates, some free amino acids, isoflavones and protein. Tofu whey contains valuable compounds like non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) and recognized as prebiotics. In the manufacture of tofu, soymilk is coagulated by heating, in combination with salts, acid or enzymes. This generates a liquid byproduct called tofu whey (TW). The tofu whey is highly perishable and needs effective utilization. There are very little reports on the use of tofu whey as a medium base for the production of lactic starters. In the present investigation the tofu whey has been utilized for production of probiotic strain (Lactobaccilus.casei- NCDC 012) and test antioxidative activity of supernatant from fermented tofu whey to find out their nutraceutical potential. TW used in this study contained several sugars as supplements, but probiotic strains showed satisfactory result in few sugar supplements. The lactobacilli population obtained in MRS culture medium was found to higher than that in TW alone, and supplementation of TW was thus examined. Several combinations with yeast extract and tryptone was also used for nitrogen source and tryptone was found best source for growth. Addition of yeast extract, buffer and glucose to TW was found to show higher populations up to 1.7X109 cfu/ml. Tofu whey was fermented for 24 and 48hrs. Antioxidative property was assessed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity. All fermented tofu whey extracts exhibited a potentially antioxidant activities, but with 48hrs incubation gave significant highest antioxidant activity.

Biography:

M. Masroor A. Khan is Associate Professor, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He did Post-Doctorate from the Ohio State University, USA. He published 6 books. He also published 100 research papers and has guided 6 Ph.D. students, 2 M.Phil. students and 21 M.Sc. projects to date.

Abstract:

The convention of herbs to treat a variety of different ailments is universal, and exists since the dawn of human civilization. Therefore, increasing the productivity of medicinal and aromatic plants is the need of hour. We have employed a novel approach to boost the productivity of these plants through the indirect use of radiation technique. Some natural polysaccharides like alginates, chitosan, carrageenan and their derivatives have been observed to show interesting properties when applied on plants after exposure to gamma radiations. When these irradiated natural polysaccharides were applied on foliage of certain plants, they showed increased growth of the plants. The increases in yields were much higher than can be expected from the high yielding varieties. Polysaccharides are broken down to lower molecular weight oligomers when exposed to high energy radiation. It is much easier to control the molecular weight of such oligomers by the use of high energy radiation than by chemical methods. In this technique, we did not expose the plants directly to gamma radiations; rather we used the gamma radiations to deploymerise the natural polysaccharides like alginate, carrageenan and chitosan. Interestingly, the oligomers, thus obtained, when applied through foliar application, improved the productivity and quality of several medicinal and aromatic plants. The technique proved successful in escalating the overall performance of various medicinal and aromatic plants including, artemisia, beetroot, eucalyptus, fennel, Japanese mint, lemongrass, opium poppy, peppermint and periwinkle in an economical and ergonomical way. In addition to being safe, the technique is highly convenient and eco-friendly.

Speaker
Biography:

T. Susila has obtained her PhD from Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India. She has 15 years of research experience and published more than 25 papers in reputed journals. She is working on medicinal plants since 2007.

Abstract:

With the increasing interest in natural products across the world the demand for medicinal plants and its trade is expected to grow up to US $ 5 trillion by 2050. Aloe is one among the few medicinal plants by virtue of its extensive medicinal, neutraceutical, cosmetic uses enjoy a major chunk of the market, across the world. It is an important drug of the Indian systems of medicine particularly in Ayurveda and Unani. The pulp contains glucoside, barbaloin, isobarbaloin and β-barbaloin. The leaves also contain glucose, galactose, galactuuronic acid, mannose, aloesin. The gel is an effective appetizer, digestant, liver stimulant, it is very useful as a blood purifier, hence valuable in skin diseases. The exudate of aloe vera is used for numerous medical and cosmetic applications since ancient times. Aloin is known as the main laxative component of aloe preparations and it has generally been used as key component for the quality control of pharmaceuticals containing aloe. The cultivation of aloe has acquired great commercial importance for medicinal products and cosmetics processing but information is scarce about agronomic management of this crop.
The present investigation was conducted at Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India during 2010-11 to study the influence of different plant densities on leaf and gel yield in two species of aloe. The study was conducted with orange and yellow flowering variants of Aloe barbadensis with six spacing levels (45 cm x 45 cm; 60 cm x 45 cm; 60 cm x 60 cm; 75 cm x 30 cm; 75 cm x 60 cm; 75 cm x 75 cm). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with factorial concept and replicated thrice. The results revealed that there was significant increase in average leaf length, leaf width, number of leaves harvested per plant, leaf weight and gel weight per plant during third harvesting. Among the two varieties studied yellow flowering type produced higher cumulative leaf yield (96.81 t/ha) in three harvests .Among the different spacing studied, Aloe planted at 45 cm x 45 cm recorded significantly higher leaf yield (111.05 t/ha) in three harvests. The interaction between varieties and spacing revealed that planting of yellow flowering type at 45 cm x 45 cm produced higher leaf yield (137.47 t/ha).

Speaker
Biography:

G. Satyanarayana Reddy graduated from Allahabad Agricultural Institute India in 1980. PhD in Plant Tissue culture from ANGR Agricultural University Hyderabad, India in 2002. Presently Principal Scientist and Head Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Station, Dr YSR Horticultural University India.

Abstract:

Plantago ovata commonly known as Isabgol, Psyllium or Indian plantago seed husk has the property of absorbing and retaining water which accounts of its utility in checking diarrhea. Isabgol is diuretic, it alleviates kidney and bladder complaints, gonorrhea and haemorrhoids. The seed husk is also effective in reducing serum cholesterol level.India dominates the world market in the production and export of psyllium. India provides approximately 80 percent of the psyllium available in the world market. India is the largest producer of isabgol and exports seed and huskworthRs 25 million annually.Psyllium husk is exported in U.S.A., U.K., France, Germany, Japan, Indonesia, Canada, Mexico, Sweden, Spain, Norway, Italy, Australia Denmark, Korea, Pakistan and Gulf countries.60% of world demand is consumed by USA. Others countries share is 25% and share of domestic market of India is 15% of world demand.About 90% of the gross production of Isabgol in India is exported, with nearly 93% of the export being of husk. In India Gujarat and Rajasthan states are the major producers of psyllium.
The field experiment was conducted at Herbal Garden, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during the year 2007-2008 to study the Effect of date of sowing and and nitrogen on growth and yield of Isabgol (Plantago ovata). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with factorial concept. Among the different sowing dates, sowing on 5th October proved to be superior over other sowing dates in respect of plant height (42.34 cm), number of tillers per plant (12.26), dry weight of plant (5.05 g) and seed yield per hectare (5.49 q/ha). Among the different levels of nitrogen applied to Isabgol, application of 100 kg/ha recorded higher plant height (34.58 cm), greater number of tillers per plant (10.34), higher dry weight of plants (4.78 g), spike length (4.44 cm) and seed yield per hectare (41.10 q/ha).The interaction between sowing dates and nitrogen levels revealed that the plant height (44.27 cm), number of tillers per plant (13.06), dry weight of plant (7.23 g), spike length (6.20 cm) and seed yield per hectare (5.64 q/ha) were maximum with 5th October sowing in combination with application of 100 kg N/ha over other treatment combinations. The percentage of husk did not differ significantly because of different sowing dates. The present study revealed that5th October sowing in combination with 100 kg N/ha recorded higher yield over all other treatments.

Biography:

C. Gururaj is currently working as Senior Research Scientist in R&D centre, The Himalaya Drug Company, Bangalore. He completed his post graduation in Botany (specialisation in Medicinal plants) in 1996 and obtained his M.Phil and PhD from Gulbarga University, Karnataka in 2002. Dr. Gururaj also completed his post doctoral studies at Academia Sinica, Taiwan, where he has worked on T-Cell activation & differentiation to access Bio-active compound pathway from herbal compounds. Dr. Gururaj is a botanist by profession and works in the area of medicinal plants cultivation, tissue culture and biotechnology. In Himalaya, he heads the Plant tissue culture and biotechnology section, where the main focus is on propagation of medicinal plants, its conservation, authentication and value addition through biotechnology tools. Dr. Gururaj has more than 10 research publications in peer reviewed international and national journals in his credit.

Abstract:

The primary healthcare in most of civilised societies is based on herb based medicines. Yet still fuzziness exists in its authenticated herbs, safety, efficacy & stability in the society as a whole.
Over 75% of the world population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health care (Brijmohan;2012). The herbal Industries are mainly depending on the plant materials that are collected from the nature. This imposes a constraint on available natural resources and no control over the quality of the material that is being used. Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. This assessment is of paramount importance in order to justify their acceptability in modern system of medicine.
When specific plants, including those used in traditional medicine, suddenly become of interest to the world at large, the local wild sources soon become exhausted. Due to sudden surge in requirement leads to adulteration or substitution. Adulteration is a practice of substituting the original crude drug partially or fully with other substances which is either free from or inferior in therapeutic & chemical properties. By addition of low grade or entirely different drug similar to that of original drug substituted with an intention of economic gains.
In general, adulteration is considered as an intentional practice to increase the weight or to reduce its cost. However unintentional also exists in herbal raw materials trade due to various reasons. Advancement in identification of raw materials, in the field of herbal drugs indicates the beginning of herbal renaissance. To overcome these complications, DNA fingerprint techniques are very useful in correct identification of taxa, and thus preparation of authenticated and effective drugs. To assess in depth we resorted to modern technique such as RAPD, IISR, AFLP etc. These approaches may lead to herbal industries during drug delivery and also major leap towards globalization of this sector.
The RAPD technique has been widely used to detect polymorphism, cultivars, discriminate between wild and cultivated species and detect agronomic traits. The present aim of the study is to investigate the DNA based marker profiles through RAPD finger prints for possible adulterations and substitute kinds. We have taken two illustrations for adulteration & substitutes from suppliers, Tribulus terrestris Vs Pedalium murex is plunge on earlier category and Momordica charantia Vs Momordica charantia var. muricata is an substitute form. These plants were employed to develop to reproducible markers for authentication of these species. The random decamer oligonucleotide primers (24) were screened for these samples using the DNA isolated from the dried fruits of all samples. Out of 24 primers, some gave species-specific reproducible unique band and the remaining did not amplify the DNA. Chemical investigations through HPTLC also demark the plants by its fingerprints with the quantification of marker principles for further confirmation. This kind of activities may be due to intentional or unintentional malpractice in trade. Major reasons are confusion in name; non availability & lack of knowledge about authentic plants. Based on RAPD could thus, serve as a complementary tool for quality control and we can substantiate adulterated herbs during the initial process.

Biography:

A Madhavi Lata completed her PhD (Agronomy) in 2011 from Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University and is working as Associate Professor in Department of Farm Forestry at College of Agriculture, Prof. Jayashanker Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. She is guiding both under graduate and post graduate students through teaching and research. She has attended a number of International and National conferences and presented papers on medicinal plants.

Abstract:

A study was conducted on performance and economic feasibility of medicinal plants namely Andrographis and Aswagandha intercropping in the existing plantations of Amla and Terminalia during kharif seasons of 2008 and 2009 under rainfed conditions in red sandy loam soils. The treatments consisted of three cropping situations (Sole cropping, intercropping in Amla and Terminalia) and six nutrient management treatments. Two separate experiments were conducted, one with andrographis and the other with aswagandha. The experiments were conducted in split plot design with three replications. The results indicated that intercropping of Andrographis + Terminalia proved more economical over intercropping with amla and sole cropping of andrographis. Similarly aswagandha also gave highest returns with Terminalia intercropping over sole cropping of aswagandha and Aswagandha + amla intercropping. As regards to the response of these medicinal plants to nutrient treatments, the INM treatment M5 (20 kg N ha-1 through urea + Vermicompost @ 2 t ha-1) resulted in maximum net profit irrespective of cropping situations and proved beneficial over inorganic fertilizers alone or organic manuring alone.
Keywords: Andrographis, Aswagandha, intercropping, cropping situations and integrated nutrient management.

Speaker
Biography:

V.C. Gupta has completed his PhD at the age of 27 years from University of Kashmir, and served more than 30 years in research at Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Hyderabad under Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi, Dept. of AYUSH, Govt. of India. He has published more than 40 papers in reputed peer reviewed national & international journals and presented papers in various conferences and seminars. He has been working and contributing his research experiences in the area of Taxonomy, herbal drugs and pharmacognosy.

Abstract:

Atmakur forest division is a rich source of medicinal plants diversity which is considerably declining in recent decades due to expansion of agriculture, rapid industrialization and urban development, over grazing, soil erosions, frequent incidence of forest fires and also due to export of medicinal plants. There is a heavy estraction of medicinal plants. Hence most of the medicinal plants have become scarce and rare e.g.,Gloriosa superba Linn., Helicteres isora Linn., Bauhinia vahli Wt.&Arn., Smilax china Linn., Celastrus paniculatus Willd. and Holarrhena antidysenterica (Buch-Ham) Wall ex G.Don. In the prevailing situation some measures are suggested for conserving biodiversity of medicinal plants. The paper also presents some 16 contemporary folk recipes comprising 25 taxas of folk medicinal plants used by various tribal communities e.g. Chenchus, Erukas, Koyas and Telaga agriculturists etc., for the treatment of various common ailments. Mode of administration is given for each recipe as detialed discussed in full paper. The study is likely to contribute material for discovery of new drugs of natural origin for many diseases and conditions in far incurable in modern medicine.
Keywords: Ethnopharmacological surveys, tribal medicine, Atmakur forest division, Conservation & Biodiversity.

Irfan Ali Khan

Nawab Shah Alam Khan Centre for Post Graduate Studies and Research, India

Title: Biostatistical methods and their application in analysis and interpretation of experimental data
Speaker
Biography:

Irfan Ali Khan obtained his M.Sc. from Aligarh Muslim University and Ph.D. in Botany from Osmania University, Hyderabad, specializing in 'Genetics and Plant Breeding'. Dr. Khan is the Former Director of Nawab Shah Alam Khan Centre for Post Graduate Studies and Research (Affiliated to Osmania University), Anwarul Uloom College Campus, Mallepally, Hyderabad. Presently he is the Managing Director of Ukaaz Publications, Hyderabad. He has published 163 research papers in the reputed National and International Journals and is now on the panel of 'Experts on Mungbean' for all countries of the South-East Asia and the Middle East. Dr. Khan has been the editor of "Frontiers in Plant Science", has edited Seventy Four reference books and has co-authored three text books with his wife, Dr. Atiya Khanum. He is a Fellow of the Indian Society of Genetics (F.I.S.G.). Besides this, he is the Editor-in-Chief of "Annals of Phytomedicine" - An International Journal.

Abstract:

"It may be too expensive or too time consuming to attempt either a complete or a nearly complete coverage in a biostatistical study. Furthermore, to arrive at valid conclusions, it may not be necessary to enumerate all or nearly all of a population. We may study a sample drawn from the larger population and if that sample is adequately representative of the population, we should be able to arrive at valid conclusions". - P.E. Croxton and D.J. Cowden The development of biological theories is closely associated with biostatistical methods. Therefore, a good understanding of biostatistics is essential for the students of biological sciences, as the methods of biostatistics are indispensable tools for the design and analysis of data and in the interpretation of experimental results for dependable conclusions. A preliminary acquaintance will help not only in applying biostatistical methods but also in a better appreciation of their potential value. This invited talk is primarily designed to outline the logical basis of the biostatistical approach to experimental problems and also to give the main features of those biostatistical methods commonly used in agricultural, biological and medical experimentations. The knowledge of biostatistics is becoming an important ally to the understanding and interpretation of the facts and findings of the agricultural, biological and medical research. In this invited talk, the approach is widened to highlight the principles of biostatistical methods to students and researchers. The governing principle behind this approach is to ensure that they appreciate the utility and usefulness of the subject. Most of the advancement in knowledge has taken place because of experiments conducted with the help of biostatistical methods. For example, in diagnosing the correct disease, the doctor has to rely heavily on actual data like temperature of the body, pulse rate, and blood pressure. Similarly, in judging the efficacy of a particular drug for curing a certain disease, experiments have to be conducted and the success or failure would depend upon the number of people who are cured after using the drug. I would like to highlight the basics of biostatistical methods and their application in various aspects of analysis and interpretation of scientific data. This lecture is designed for students and staff who need to learn/review the basics of biostastistics. Our discussion will depend on the following fundamental principles:
1. To understand the measures of central tendency and dispersion.
2. To understand a clinical trial in an experiment that seeks to determine the effectiveness of a new drug or treatment which involves a comparison of two or more comparable group of patients (control and treatment).
3. To understand an average and then measures of spread about an average, besides consistency of two or more samples.
4. To understand the appropriate application of basic biostatistical tests and their computation.
5. To understand the basic principle of level of significance.

Speaker
Biography:

Ali Ghasemzadeh has completed his PhD at the age of 32 years from University Putra Malaysia in field of Environmental Plant Physiology (medicinal plants). He is currently Post Doctoral researcher in University Putra Malaysia. He has published 20 ISI papers in reputed journals since 2010 and serving as an editorial board member of OMICS group Journal Agrotechnology and other two Journals.

Abstract:

Ginger is one of the traditional folk medicines and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. It is extensively used overall especially in Asia and contains several interesting bioactive constituents which possess health promoting properties. The present work is aimed to find out antioxidant and anticancer activities of two Malaysian young ginger varieties namely: Halia Bentong and Halia Bara grown under ambient (400 μmol/mol) and elevated (800 μmol/mol) CO2 concentrations against two human cancer cell lines (MCF–7 and MDA–MB–231). Antioxidant activities in both varieties determined using thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays increased significantly with increasing CO2 concentration from 400 to 800 μmol/mol. High antioxidant activity was observed in the rhizomes of Halia Bara grown under elevated CO2 concentration. The results showed that CO2 enriched Halia Bara exhibited the highest anticancer activity on MCF–7 cancer cells with IC50 values of 25.3 and 27.31 μg/ml respectively for rhizomes and leaves extract. IC50 values for MDA–MB–231 exhibition were 30 and 32.81 μg/ml, respectively for rhizomes extract of Halia Bara and Halia Bentong. Results showed that Halia Bentong and Halia Bara possessed anticancer and antiradical properties especially when grown under elevated CO2 concentration. Antioxidant activities of ginger leaves and rhizomes could be increased or improved by using CO2 enrichment in a controlled environment condition. Results also implied that these ginger varieties could be employed in ethno-medicine for the management of cancerous diseases.
Keywords: CO2 enrichment; Breast cancer; Thiobarbituric acid assays, Halia Bentong, Halia Bara, MCF–7, MDA–MB–231.